Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 163 in total

  1. Tang Z, Zhang X
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2023 Sep;30(44):99992-100005.
    PMID: 37624492 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-023-29114-3
    Sustainable crowdfunding has emerged as a significant factor in the quest for alternative funding streams in recent times. The process has entailed the removal of financial obstacles and intermediaries, facilitating proximity between entrepreneurs' initiatives and fund providers, thereby initiating modifications in conventional investment and profitability criteria. The correlation between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainable business returns is a significant metric that may enhance funding costs. CSR initiatives and crowdfunding possess the potential for mutually beneficial outcomes in terms of fundraising. However, fundraisers encounter obstacles and competition in their efforts to attain their donation objectives. As an illustration, CSR endeavors may provide a chance to raise capital via crowdfunding. Conversely, crowdfunding has the potential to serve as a means of micro-funding various social initiatives that align with a corporation's corporate social responsibility objectives. The present research investigates the correlation between efficacious donation fundraising campaigns in the context of crowdfunding endeavors that hold the possibility of transforming into corporate social responsibility initiatives. The present study investigates the correlation between the initial amount of funds raised on the first day of a fundraising campaign and the target amount of funds sought by the fundraiser, as well as the type of activities involved. The present study utilizes data derived from crowdfunding endeavors in Southeast Asian nations to scrutinize the funds amassed through donations by juxtaposing trends, cultures, and characteristics of fundraisers employing donation-based crowdfunding. The present investigation employs data collected between the period spanning from the beginning of September 2021 to the end of September 2021 in the economies of Southeast Asia, including Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines. The present investigation utilizes the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach for the estimation of the variables. The findings of the hypothesis indicate that there exists a positive correlation between crowdfunding, environmental nonprofit organizations, organizational profitability, and CSR.
  2. Zhang X, Uchiyama Y, Nakayama A
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2019 Jul;144:265-274.
    PMID: 31179996 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.04.050
    An Eulerian passive tracer model coupled with a quadruple-nested 3D circulation model was used to assess the coastal dispersal of treated wastewater effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the associated impacts on an adjacent seaweed farm using three different operational scenarios. When the discharged volume and source effluent fluxes were decreased by ~16.7%, the accumulated effluent in the farm was reduced by ~25.4%. A tracer flux budget analysis revealed the apparent predominance of the transient component that accounts for the nonlinear interactions primarily from tidal currents and eddies. The transient flux promoted the effluent influx to impede effluent accumulation in the farm, whereas the mean flux contributed to the outgoing flux. A source flux reduction caused a remarkable decrease in the transient flux and thus an even greater effluent accumulation reduction. In turn, a modified source density scenario without total effluent volume change did not work as expected.
  3. Zhang M, Yang Q, Zhang X, Wu H
    Nat Prod Res, 2021 Oct;35(20):3426-3431.
    PMID: 31821060 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2019.1700509
    A new cycloartane triterpene bisdesmoside, soulieoside T (1), and one known compound, oleanolic acid (2), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the rhizomes of Actaea vaginata. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and by comparison with data reported in the literature. Compound 1 was evaluated for cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cell lines.
  4. Chen Y, Mustafa H, Zhang X, Liu J
    PeerJ Comput Sci, 2023;9:e1231.
    PMID: 37346728 DOI: 10.7717/peerj-cs.1231
    Traditional financial accounting will become limited by new technologies which are unable to meet the market development. In order to make financial big data generate business value and improve the information application level of financial management, aiming at the high error rate of current financial data classification system, this article adopts the fuzzy clustering algorithm to classify financial data automatically, and adopts the local outlier factor algorithm with neighborhood relation (NLOF) to detect abnormal data. In addition, a financial data management platform based on distributed Hadoop architecture is designed, which combines MapReduce framework with the fuzzy clustering algorithm and the local outlier factor (LOF) algorithm, and uses MapReduce to operate in parallel with the two algorithms, thus improving the performance of the algorithm and the accuracy of the algorithm, and helping to improve the operational efficiency of enterprise financial data processing. The comparative experimental results show that the proposed platform can achieve the best the running efficiency and the accuracy of financial data classification compared with other methods, which illustrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed platform.
  5. Liu H, Zhang X, Liu H, Chong ST
    Int J Public Health, 2023;68:1605322.
    PMID: 36798738 DOI: 10.3389/ijph.2023.1605322
    Objective: To explore the predictive value of machine learning in cognitive impairment, and identify important factors for cognitive impairment. Methods: A total of 2,326 middle-aged and elderly people completed questionnaire, and physical examination evaluation at baseline, Year 2, and Year 4 follow-ups. A random forest machine learning (ML) model was used to predict the cognitive impairment at Year 2 and Year 4 longitudinally. Based on Year 4 cross-sectional data, the same method was applied to establish a prediction model and verify its longitudinal prediction accuracy for cognitive impairment. Meanwhile, the ability of random forest and traditional logistic regression model to longitudinally predict 2-year and 4-year cognitive impairment was compared. Results: Random forest models showed high accuracy for all outcomes at Year 2, Year 4, and cross-sectional Year 4 [AUC = 0.81, 0.79, 0.80] compared with logistic regression [AUC = 0.61, 0.62, 0.70]. Baseline physical examination (e.g., BMI, Blood pressure), biomarkers (e.g., cholesterol), functioning (e.g., functional limitations), demography (e.g., age), and emotional status (e.g., depression) characteristics were identified as the top ten important predictors of cognitive impairment. Conclusion: ML algorithms could enhance the prediction of cognitive impairment among the middle-aged and older Chinese for 4 years and identify essential risk markers.
  6. Liu H, Zhang X, Liu H, Chong ST
    Int J Public Health, 2023;68:1606127.
    PMID: 37273772 DOI: 10.3389/ijph.2023.1606127
    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/ijph.2023.1605322.].
  7. Zhang X, Zhu H, Sang B, Guo L
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2023 Aug;30(36):85611-85625.
    PMID: 37389755 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-023-28316-z
    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the development of low-carbon economy and industrial restructuring cannot occur in a coordinated manner. However, academic literature does not provide further explanations for this phenomenon. In this paper, we introduce a novel decomposition method to reassess the relationship between industrial restructuring and low-carbon economy, which yields similar findings. Next, we construct a straightforward theoretical model to investigate two fundamental reasons that interrelate with this issue: excessively high proportion of secondary sector and excessive carbon intensity of tertiary sector. Finally, we implement a rigorous causal identification using three-dimensional panel data at the provincial, industrial, and yearly levels by undergoing multiple robustness tests and mitigating endogeneity issues. Our heterogeneity tests suggest that the impact of industrial restructuring is greater in high-polluting industries, the Eastern region, and non-digital pilot regions. Overall, our theoretical and empirical analysis serves as a vital reference for other developing and developed countries to attain harmonious development between low-carbon economy and industrial restructuring.
  8. Wei R, Wang Z, Zhang X, Wang X, Xu Y, Li Q
    Public Health, 2023 Sep;222:75-84.
    PMID: 37531713 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2023.06.034
    OBJECTIVES: Understanding iodine deficiency (ID) burdens and trends in Asia can help guide effective intervention strategies. This study aims to report the incidence, prevalence, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of ID in 48 Asian countries during the period 1990-2019.

    STUDY DESIGN: Data on ID were retrieved from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 and estimated by age, sex, geographical region, and sociodemographic index (SDI).

    METHODS: The estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) was calculated to evaluate the changing trend of age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), age-standardized prevalence rate (ASPR), and age-standardized DALYs rate (ASDR) related to ID during the period 1990-2019.

    RESULTS: In Asia, there were 126,983,965.8 cases with 5,466,213.1 new incidence and 1,765,995.5 DALYs of ID in 2019. Between 1999 and 2019, the EAPC in ASIR, ASPR and ASDR were -0.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.8 to -0.4), -0.9 (95% CI, -1.2 to -0.7), and -1.6 (95% CI, -1.8 to -1.5), respectively. Malaysia charted the largest decrease in ASIR, ASPR, and ASDR (82.4%, 85.3%, and 80.9% separately), whereas the Philippines and Pakistan were the only two countries that witnessed an increase in ASIR and ASPR. ID burdens were more pronounced in women, countries located to the south of the Himalayas, and low-middle SDI regions.

    CONCLUSIONS: The incidence, prevalence, and DALYs of ID in Asia substantially decreased from 1990 to 2019. Women and low-middle SDI countries have relatively high ID burdens. Governments need to pay constant attention to the implementation and monitoring of universal salt iodization.

  9. Asmawi A, Dong H, Zhang X, Sun L
    Heliyon, 2024 Jan 30;10(2):e24276.
    PMID: 38293544 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2024.e24276
    This paper thoroughly examines the time distribution, author collaboration, research institutions, research hotspots, theme clustering, and research changes and trends based on 345 CNKI literatures in the field of blended learning for Business English majors in China from 2012 to 2022. It reveals that: Research on blended learning for Business English majors in China from 2012 to 2022 can be divided into Steady Start Stage (2012-2017), Rapid Growth Stage (2018-2020) and Stable Development Stage (2021-2022). High-frequency keywords such as blended teaching mode, MOOC, flipped classroom, SPOC, etc. are hotspots of current scholars' attention. The themes of research on blended learning of business English majors in China mainly include Teaching Reform of Business English Majors, Exploration of Blended Teaching Mode and Design, and Application of Internet Teaching Platform. "Teaching Reform", "Online and Offline", "Application of Smart Platform" are the current research frontier issues in the development of blended learning for Business English majors in China. In general, China's research on blended learning for business English majors has achieved fruitful results under China's policies. Future research should concentrate on the construction of a technology environment for blended learning between learners, a variety of intelligent learning tools and mobile devices, and should be steadily bolstered in the field of blended learning for business English majors, particularly in practical application, effectiveness analysis, distance education, training and continuing education, innovation education, etc.
  10. Jiang H, Xiang X, Hao W, Room R, Zhang X, Wang X
    PMID: 29761160 DOI: 10.1186/s41256-018-0070-2
    Background: The paper reviews alcohol consumption patterns and alcohol-related social and health issues among 15-29-year old young people in Asian countries, and discusses strategies for preventing and controlling alcohol use and related harms.

    Methods: We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science for reports, reviews and journal articles published in English between 1st Jan 1990 and 31st August 2016.

    Results: Forty-one reports, reviews and journal papers were identified and included in the final review. The current drinking levels and prevalence among young people are markedly different between eight included Asian countries, ranging from 4.2% in Malaysia to 49.3% in China. In a majority of the selected Asian countries, over 15% of total deaths among young men and 6% among young women aged 15-29 years are attributable to alcohol use. Alcohol use among young people is associated with a number of harms, including stress, family violence, injuries, suicide, and sexual and other risky behaviours. Alcohol policies, such as controlling sales, social supply and marketing, setting up/raising a legal drinking age, adding health warning labels on alcohol containers, and developing a surveillance system to monitor drinking pattern and risky drinking behaviour, could be potential means to reduce harmful use of alcohol and related harm among young people in Asia.

    Conclusions: The review reveals that drinking patterns and behaviours vary across eight selected Asian countries due to culture, policies and regional variations. The research evidence holds substantial policy implications for harm reduction on alcohol drinking among young people in Asian countries -- especially for China, which has almost no alcohol control policies at present.

  11. Tan SS, Aminah A, Zhang XG, Abdul SB
    Meat Sci, 2006 Mar;72(3):387-97.
    PMID: 22061722 DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.07.012
    This study was designed to explore the potential of refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oil (PO) and palm stearin (POs) utilization in chicken frankfurters. A 10 points augmented simplex-centroid design was used to study the effect of chicken fat (CF), PO and POs as well as the interaction of these fats on the emulsion, textural and sensory properties of chicken frankfurters. All frankfurters were formulated to contain approx 25% fat, 52% moisture and 10% protein. No significant difference was found in end chopping temperatures of all meat batters even though the temperature of PO and POs upon incorporation into meat batters was 50°C higher than CF. Strong emulsions were formed as no fluid losses were observed in all the meat batters tested after heating. Texture profiles of the frankfurters containing PO and/or CF were quite similar, but increment of POs raised hardness, chewiness, and shear hardness of the frankfurters. Acceptability of the frankfurters was evaluated using hedonic test. Panelists found no difference in hardness preference between frankfurters made from totally CF and PO, while frankfurters made from POs were rated as hard and brittle. CF was important in determining acceptability of the frankfurters, as reduction of CF in formulation resulted in lower scores in chicken flavor, juiciness, oiliness and overall acceptance of the frankfurters. Frankfurters with sensory acceptability comparable to a commercial one were found to comprise of more than 17% CF, and less than 67% PO and 17% POs of the fat blend.
  12. Muhamad HM, Xu X, Zhang X, Jaaman SA, Muda AM
    J Acoust Soc Am, 2018 05;143(5):2708.
    PMID: 29857727 DOI: 10.1121/1.5036926
    Studies of Irrawaddy dolphins' acoustics assist in understanding the behaviour of the species and thereby conservation of this species. Whistle signals emitted by Irrawaddy dolphin within the Bay of Brunei in Malaysian waters were characterized. A total of 199 whistles were analysed from seven sightings between January and April 2016. Six types of whistles contours named constant, upsweep, downsweep, concave, convex, and sine were detected when the dolphins engaged in traveling, foraging, and socializing activities. The whistle durations ranged between 0.06 and 3.86 s. The minimum frequency recorded was 443 Hz [Mean = 6000 Hz, standard deviation (SD) = 2320 Hz] and the maximum frequency recorded was 16 071 Hz (Mean = 7139 Hz, SD = 2522 Hz). The mean frequency range (F.R.) for the whistles was 1148 Hz (Minimum F.R. = 0 Hz, Maximum F.R. = 4446 Hz; SD = 876 Hz). Whistles in the Bay of Brunei were compared with population recorded from the waters of Matang and Kalimantan. The comparisons showed differences in whistle duration, minimum frequency, start frequency, and number of inflection point. Variation in whistle occurrence and frequency may be associated with surface behaviour, ambient noise, and recording limitation. This will be an important element when planning a monitoring program.
  13. Zhang X, Seman NA, Falhammar H, Brismar K, Gu HF
    J Diabetes Res, 2020;2020:8305460.
    PMID: 32626783 DOI: 10.1155/2020/8305460
    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a complex disease, in which local inflammatory stress results from both metabolic and hemodynamic derangements. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is an acute-phase protein marker of inflammation. In the recent years, clinical observations have reported that increased serum/plasma ICAM-1 levels are positively correlated with albuminuria in the patients with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Genetic association studies have demonstrated that genetic polymorphisms, including SNP rs5498 (E469K, G/A), in the ICAM1 gene is associated with DKD. rs5498 is a nonsynonymous SNP and caused by substitution between E (Glu) and K (Lys) for ICAM-1 protein. In this review, we first summarized the genetic effects of ICAM1 E469K polymorphism in DKD and then demonstrated the possible changes of ICAM-1 protein crystal structures according to the genotypes of this polymorphism. Finally, we discussed the genetic effects of the ICAM1 E469K polymorphism and the biological role of increased circulating ICAM-1 protein and its formation changes in DKD.
  14. Zhang X, Chan NW, Pan B, Ge X, Yang H
    Sci Total Environ, 2021 Nov 10;794:148388.
    PMID: 34217078 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148388
    The SAR has the ability of all-weather and all-time data acquisition, it can penetrate the cloud and is not affected by extreme weather conditions, and the acquired images have better contrast and rich texture information. This paper aims to investigate the use of an object-oriented classification approach for flood information monitoring in floodplains using backscattering coefficients and interferometric coherence of Sentinel-1 data under time series. Firstly, the backscattering characteristics and interference coherence variation characteristics of SAR time series are used to analyze whether the flood disaster information can be accurately reflected and provide the basis for selecting input classification characteristics of subsequent SAR images. Subsequently, the contribution rate index of the RF model is used to calculate the importance of each index in time series to convert the selected large number of classification features into low dimensional feature space to improve the classification accuracy and reduce the data redundancy. Finally, the SAR image features in each period after multi-scale segmentation and feature selection are jointly used as the input features of RF classification to extract and segment the water in the study area to monitor floods' spatial distribution and dynamic characteristics. The results showed that the various attributes of backscatter coefficients and interferometric coherence under time series could accurately correspond with the actual flood risk, and the combined use of backscattering coefficient and interferometric coherence for flood extraction can significantly improve the accuracy of flood information extraction. Overall, the object-based random forest method using the backscattering coefficient and interference coherence of Sentinel-1 time series for flood extraction advances our understanding of flooding's temporal and spatial dynamics, essential for the timely adoption of adaptation and mitigation strategies for loss reduction.
  15. Uchiyama Y, Zhang X, Suzue Y, Kosako T, Miyazawa Y, Nakayama A
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2018 May;130:40-54.
    PMID: 29866568 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.03.007
    A high-resolution 3-D model was developed to assess the impact of a diversion outfall at the Tarumi Sewage Treatment Plant (TSTP) on an adjacent seaweed farm in Osaka Bay, Japan. The model was extensively validated to ensure a reasonable agreement with in situ observations. The western part of the farm is largely influenced by tidal currents, whereas the eastern area is mainly affected by subtidal residual currents that are primarily due to surface wind stress. The released effluent is transported by counterclockwise residual circulation formed off the TSTP. The model reveals that the diversion adequately suppresses the influence on the farm. While the instantaneous effluent concentration is diminished by about 50%, the effluent accumulated on the farm decreased from 2.83 × 104 m3 to 2.01 × 104 m3 due to the diversion, demonstrating an approximately 28% reduction of the effluent from the TSTP by the diversion outfall.
  16. Zhang X, Tan Z, Jia K, Zhang W, Dang M
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol, 2019 Dec;47(1):2171-2178.
    PMID: 31159596 DOI: 10.1080/21691401.2019.1620249
    Nanomedicine is a rapidly emerging field and is reported to be a promising tool for treating various diseases. Green synthesized nanoparticles are documented to possess a potent anticancer effect. Rabdosia rubescens is a Chinese plant which is also one of the components of PC-SPES and used to treat prostate cancer. In the present study, we synthesized the gold nanoparticles from R. rubescens (RR-AuNP) and analyzed its anticancer activity against the lung carcinoma A549 cell lines. Since lung cancer is reported to be with increased morbidity and decreased survival rate. The biosynthesized RR-AuNP were confirmed using UV-Visible spectrophotometer, size and shape of RR-AuNP were assessed by DLS, TEM and EDX. The biomolecules present in RR-AuNP and its topographical structure were detected using FTIR, SAED and AFM analysis. MTT assay was performed to detect the IC50 dose of RR-AuNP and its apoptotic effect was assessed by detecting the caspases activation, ROS generation. The anticancer effect of RR-AuNP was confirmed by DAPI staining, TUNEL assay and its molecular mechanism were confirmed by assessing the apoptotic signalling molecules protein expression. Our results illustrate that RR-AuNP showed a strong absorption peak at 550 nm and the RRAuNP were polydispersed nanospheres with size of 130 nm. RR-AuNP IC50 dose against A549 lung carcinoma cell line was detected to be at 25 µg/ml. The results of DAPI staining, TUNEL and immunoblotting analysis confirms both the 25 µg/ml and 50 µg/ml of RR-AuNP possess potent anticancer and apoptotic effect, suggesting that RR-AuNP that it may be a persuasive molecule to treat lung cancer.
  17. Zhang X, Dang M, Zhang W, Lei Y, Zhou W
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2020 Feb;46(2):264-271.
    PMID: 32000536 DOI: 10.1080/03639045.2020.1716377
    Topical drug delivery for local anesthetics has been an interesting area of research for formulators considering the resistance and barrier properties of skin and high clearance rate of drugs like prilocaine and lidocaine (duration of action < 2.5 h). In this study, efforts have been made to sustain the release of prilocaine and lidocaine by using depot microemulsion system. Drug loaded microemulsions were formulated using Capmul MCM, Pluronic F127, polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200) and water from pseudo-ternary diagrams. The Smix at 1:4 ratio showed larger microemulsion area in comparison to 1:2 ratio. The ex-vivo studies indicate sustained release of prilocaine and lidocaine from the microemulsion up to 8 h, in comparison to 4 h with ointments. Skin irritation study on rabbits confirmed the safety of drug loaded microemulsions for local drug delivery. The improved ex vivo data is reflected in the in vivo studies, were radiant heat tail-flick test and sciatic nerve model showed prolong duration of action for both prilocaine and lidocaine microemulsions in comparison to ointment. The in vitro and in vivo efficacy of prilocaine and lidocaine was non-significant. The improved efficacy was due to high penetration of microemulsion and depot effect due to local precipitation (destabilization of microemulsion) of drug in the skin layer. The sustained local anesthetic effect is highly desirable for the treatment of skin irritation due to skin burns and pre- and post-operative pain.
  18. Zhou R, Luo Z, Zhong S, Zhang X, Liu Y
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2022 Dec 17;19(24).
    PMID: 36554845 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph192416965
    With the rapid development and widespread popularity of the Internet, employee social media use at work has become an increasingly common phenomenon in organizations. This paper analyzes 105 related papers from the Social Science Citation Index in Web of Science through Scoping Review to clarify the definition and characteristics of employee social media use and the types of social media and summarizes the current research methods. Then, the reasons for employees' willingness and refusal to use social media and the positive and negative effects of employee social media use on employees' work attitudes, behaviors, and performance are discussed. Then, the mediating variables, moderating variables, and theoretical frameworks used in the relevant studies are described, and a comprehensive model of employee social media use is constructed. Finally, this paper indicates future research directions based on the latest research results in 2020-2022, i.e., improving research methods, increasing antecedent studies, expanding consequence research, and expanding mediating variables, moderating variables, and theoretical perspectives.
  19. Zhang X, Quah CH, Nazri Bin Mohd Nor M
    Sci Rep, 2023 Jun 26;13(1):10301.
    PMID: 37365193 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-36920-9
    The motivation for analyzing the impact of deep neural networks on enterprise performance is mainly due to the continuous deepening of enterprise information construction, shifting from traditional paper-based data acquisition methods to electronic data management. The data generated by the sales, production, logistics and other links of enterprises is also becoming increasingly large. How to scientifically and effectively process these massive amounts of data and extract valuable information has become an important issue that enterprises need to solve. The continuous and stable growth of China's economy has promoted the development and growth of enterprises, however, it has also made enterprises face a more complex competitive environment. The question of how to improve the performance of enterprises to enhance their competitiveness in the market has become a major issue to be addressed in the face of fierce competition and to ensure the long-term development of enterprises. In this paper, based on the research of firm performance evaluation, deep neural network is introduced to analyse the influence of ambidextrous innovation and social network on firm performance, and the theories of social network, ambidextrous innovation and deep neural network are sorted out and analysed, and a deep neural network-based firm performance evaluation model is established, and finally the sample data is obtained using crawler technology, and then the response values are analysed. Innovation and the improvement of the mean value of social networks are helpful to firm performance.
  20. Zhang X, Lim CZF, Chhablani J, Wong YM
    Eye Vis (Lond), 2023 Jul 11;10(1):33.
    PMID: 37430344 DOI: 10.1186/s40662-023-00349-y
    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR), first described by Albrecht von Graefe in 1866, is characterized by focal serous detachment of the neural retina and/or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the posterior pole. CSCR is the first ever described pachychoroid disease. Most recently, hypothetical venous overload choroidopathy is also proposed due to its distinguished morphological and pathological characteristics, including choroidal thickening, choriocapillaris hyperpermeability, remodelling, and intervortex venous anastomoses. Identification of genetic variants is necessary to comprehend the pathophysiology of CSCR. The novel multimodality imaging platforms, including the ultra-widefield imaging system, flavoprotein fluorescence, fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy, and multispectral imaging system, have been used for diagnosing and managing CSCR. Half-dose photodynamic therapy (PDT) remains the mainstay of clinical practice, with about 95% of patients with chronic CSCR improving to visual acuity (VA) of 20/30 or better. The use of oral eplerenone for routine clinical care remains controversial, and long-term randomized clinical trials are warranted to investigate its efficacy in acute and chronic CSCR. While CSCR has generally been recognized as a self-limiting disease with good prognosis, the underlying pathogenesis is still not fully understood, and treatments are often not fully effective. With new evidence emerging about pachydrusen being a disease precursor in both CSCR and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), it would be interesting to investigate whether CSCR can be a precursor to PCV. In this review, we highlighted the currently available evidence on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, multimodality imaging features, and management strategies, including recent findings related to CSCR.
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