Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 705 in total

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  1. Ahmad SM, Ling LY, Anwar RM, Faudzi MA, Shakil A
    J Forensic Sci, 2013 May;58(3):724-31.
    PMID: 23527753 DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.12075
    This article presents an analysis of handwritten signature dynamics belonging to two authentication groups, namely genuine and forged signature samples. Genuine signatures are initially classified based on their relative size, graphical complexity, and legibility as perceived by human examiners. A pool of dynamic features is then extracted for each signature sample in the two groups. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is carried out to investigate the effects and the relationship between the perceived classifications and the authentication groups. Homogeneity of variance was ensured through Bartlett's test prior to ANOVA testing. The results demonstrated that among all the investigated dynamic features, pen pressure is the most distinctive which is significantly different for the two authentication groups as well as for the different perceived classifications. In addition, all the relationships investigated, namely authenticity group versus size, graphical complexity, and legibility, were found to be positive for pen pressure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance
  2. Akmaliza Ali, Ellin Fariza Selamat
    MyJurnal
    Kajian terdahulu mendapati Respons Auditori Keadaan Mantap (ASSR) mempunyai variasi yang besar dalam meramal ambang pendengaran, manakala kebolehulangan ASSR masih kurang dilaporkan. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kebolehulangan ASSR dalam menilai ambang pendengaran golongan dewasa lanjut umur yang bermasalah pendengaran sensorineural. Seramai 15 orang subjek berumur antara 55 hingga 75 tahun terlibat dalam kajian ini. Ambang pendengaran ditentukan menggunakan audiometri nada tulen (PTA) dan ASSR pada frekuensi 0.5, 1, 2 dan 4 kHz, di mana ASSR diulang pada 0.5 dan 1 kHz. Secara keseluruhannya, nilai ambang ASSR adalah lebih tinggi daripada PTA. ANOVA satu hala menunjukkan perbezaan antara ambang PTA dan ASSR adalah tidak signifikan pada semua frekuensi. Terdapat korelasi yang signifikan antara ambang PTA dan ambang ASSR pada 0.5 kHz (r = 0.77, p < 0.05), 1 kHz (r = 0.45, p < 0.05), 2 kHz (r = 0.58, p < 0.05) dan 4 kHz (r = 0.73, p < 0.05). Ujian t berpasangan menunjukkan tiada perbezaan signifikan antara ujian ASSR pertama dan ASSR ulangan pada frekuensi 0.5 kHz (t = 2.09, p > 0.05) dan 1 kHz (t = 0.436, p > 0.05). Korelasi Pearson menunjukkan korelasi yang sederhana di antara dua pengukuran ASSR pada 0.5 kHz (r = 0.68, p < 0.001) dan 1 kHz (r = 0.60, p < 0.001). Hasil kajian ini mendapati bahawa ambang pendengaran ASSR tidak berubah secara signifikan jika diulang uji dan ujian ASSR boleh disarankan sebagai alternatif kepada PTA dalam menentukan ambang pendengaran golongan dewasa lanjut usia bermasalah pendengaran sensorineural.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance
  3. Lee J
    Med J Malaysia, 1975 Dec;30(2):103-9.
    PMID: 1228374
    Matched MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance
  4. Samson RS, Varghese E, Uma E, Chandrappa PR
    Contemp Clin Dent, 2018 3 31;9(1):10-14.
    PMID: 29599576 DOI: 10.4103/ccd.ccd_632_17
    Background: Fixed orthodontic retainers must be well retained on the tooth surfaces, allow physiologic movement of teeth and exert minimal forces on the teeth to be retained. Previous studies analyzed the bond strength and amount of deflection caused due to the debonding force but not the magnitude of force needed for unit deformation.

    Aims: This study aims to evaluate and compare the bond strength and load deflection rate (LDR) of three different fixed retainer wires.

    Materials and Methods: The wires were divided into three Groups: A - three-stranded twisted ligature wire, B - Bond-A-Braid (Reliance Orthodontics), and C - three-stranded twisted lingual retainer wire (3M Unitek). Twenty models were prepared for each group with a passive 15 mm long lingual retainer wire bonded to two lower incisors. An occlusogingival force was applied to the wire until it debonded. For LDR, three-point bending test was done at 0.5 mm deflection. These forces were measured using a Universal Instron Testing Machine.

    Statistical Analysis: Mean bond strength/LDR and pairwise comparisons were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's honest significant differencepost hoctest, respectively.

    Results: Group C exhibited the highest mean bond strength and LDR of 101.17N and 1.84N, respectively. The intergroup comparisons were all statistically significant.

    Conclusion: Compared to the other two wire types, Group C might be better retained on the teeth due to its higher bond strength. With its relatively higher LDR value, it may resist deformation from occlusal forces, thereby reducing inadvertent tooth movement and yet remain flexible enough to allow physiologic tooth movements.

    Matched MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance
  5. Mohamed Fajil Abdul Batau, Ahmad Shah Pakeer Mohamed
    MyJurnal
    This study examines the factors that influence organizational commitment among public employees in
    residential colleges in the University of Malaya. A total of 100 employees representing 12 colleges
    responded to the questionnaires that were designed to measure their motivation and level of
    commitment. The data obtained were analyzed using correlation, analysis of variance and regression
    analysis were used in order to achieve the objectives of the study. The findings of this study indicated
    that there are significant and positive relationships between all factors (employment compensation,
    training and development, career development and management support) with organization
    commitment. Furthermore, the findings also showed a directional relationship between independent
    and dependent variables by which the public employees at the colleges have positive commitment to
    the organization when the management provides attractive training and development, career
    development and good management support. In addition, the findings indicated that career
    development was the most dominant factor influencing organizational commitment followed by
    training development and job compensation. However, management support factor does not affect the
    organizational commitment among public employees compared to the other factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance
  6. Low WZ, Khoo BE, Abdullah AFLB
    J Forensic Sci, 2018 Jul;63(4):1092-1098.
    PMID: 29178492 DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.13702
    A new contactless technique for latent fingerprint visualization on nonporous curved surfaces of circular cross section was introduced by Low et al. (1). The technique utilizes a plane mirror to convey the light rays toward the inspected surfaces for latent fingerprint visualization. This research activity came up as an extension of the previous study which utilized an aluminum plate as the plane mirror to illuminate the inspected surfaces. Dulling spray was used to increase the diffuse component of the reflective aluminum plate. However, the amount of dulling spray will affect the uniformity of the illumination on the inspected curved surfaces. In this study, a study on the new materials for the plane mirror was carried out. Coated aluminum, opal, and ground glass diffusers were selected as the new materials. The performance of the new materials was compared to the aluminum based on the quality of the captured images on various nonporous cylindrical surfaces. A statistical approach known as randomized complete block design was used to design the experiment. The quality of the captured images was obtained using Spectral Image Validation and Verification. Two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least significant difference test were used to analyze the quality of the images. From the results of the statistical analysis, coated aluminum has the best performance compared to aluminum, opal, and ground glass diffusers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance
  7. Marlia M. Hanafiah, Nan Hamiza Syazira Megat Mohamad, Nur Izzah Hamna Abd. Aziz
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1625-1634.
    Akumulasi logam berat dan bahan pencemar ke dalam ekosistem akuatik memberi impak negatif kepada alam sekitar dan organisma akuatik. Salvinia molesta dan Pistia stratiotes merupakan spesies yang mempunyai kadar pertumbuhan yang cepat dan berkemampuan dalam mengakumulasi logam berat dan menyerap nutrien menjadikan ia sesuai digunakan untuk merawat air sisa melalui kaedah bioteknologi iaitu fitoremediasi. Kajian ini dijalankan untuk menentukan kualiti air sisa kumbahan sebelum dan selepas rawatan menggunakan kaedah fitoremediasi. Selain itu, objektif kajian ini juga adalah untuk menilai keberkesanan Salvinia molesta dan Pistia stratiotes sebagai agen fitoremediasi bagi rawatan air sisa. Sampel tumbuhan akuatik berbeza berat iaitu 10, 20 dan 30 g diuji untuk rawatan tersebut. Ujian ANOVA satu hala menunjukkan perbezaan kadar pengurangan jumlah pepejal terampai dan ammoniakal nitrogen yang bererti (p<0.05) bagi 10, 20 dan 30 g Pistia stratiotes dan Salvinia molesta sepanjang kajian dijalankan iaitu daripada hari 0 sehingga hari ke-7. Keputusan kajian juga menunjukkan 30 dan 20 g Pistia stratiotes dan Salvinia molesta dapat menyingkirkan jumlah pepejal terampai dan ammoniakal nitrogen dengan lebih cepat berbanding berat tumbuhan 10 g. Ujian ANOVA satu hala juga tidak menunjukkan perbezaan yang bererti bagi kadar pengurangan jumlah pepejal terampai dan ammoniakal nitrogen antara Pistia stratiotes dan Salvinia molesta.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance
  8. Ajmal Iqbal, Shahen Shah, Mohammad Nisar, Abdul Ghafoor
    Sains Malaysiana, 2017;46:1727-1734.
    Twenty lines of Pisum sativum particularly developed for high yield and resistant to powdery mildew were evaluated along with two parents (Falloner and 11760-3ER) and two checks (Climex and a local cultivar) with the objectives to determine morphological characterization, yield potential and resistance to powdery mildew. On the basis of one way cluster, the 24 lines were mainly grouped into four clusters, especially on the vegetative and yield contributing traits. It was observed that the tall and high yielding lines were grouped in cluster-III while the dwarf and high yielding lines were grouped in cluster-IV. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant difference (p<0.05) in the yield of 24 pea lines. The average grain yield of the 24 pea lines ranged from 22.87 to 102.54 g. The highest grain yield was produced by PL-4 (102.54 g plant-1) followed by PL-5 (82.14 g plant-1). Of the 24 pea lines, two lines (PL-4 and PL-5) were highly resistant to powdery mildew disease. Therefore, the newly developed PL-4 and PL-5 lines were high yielding and highly resistant. Among the 19 morphological traits, six (Eigenvalue >1.0) contributed more than 80% variability among the materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance
  9. Ahmad Nazlim Yusoff, Khairiah Abdul Hamid, Farah Nabila Ab Rahman, Mazlyfarina Mohamad, Khairiah Abdul Hamid, Siti Zamratol-Mai Sarah Mukari
    MyJurnal
    In this study, the asymmetry of the main effects of action, background and tonal frequency during a pitch memory processing
    were investigated by means of brain activation. Eighteen participants (mean age 27.6 years) were presented with low and
    high frequency tones in quiet and in noise. They listen, discriminate and recognize the target tone against the final tone
    in a series of four distracting tones. The main effects were studied using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with action (to
    wring (rubber bulb) vs. not to wring), background (in quiet vs. in noise) and frequency (low vs. high) as the factors (and
    levels respectively). The main effect of action is in the right pre-central gyrus (PCG), in conformation with its contralateral
    behavior. The main effect of background indicated the bilateral primary auditory cortices (PAC) and is right lateralized,
    attributable to white noise. The main effect of frequency is also observed in PAC but bilaterally equal and attributable to
    low frequency tones. Despite the argument that the temporo-spectral lateralization dichotomy is not especially rigid as
    revealed by the main effect of frequency, right lateralization of PAC for the respective main effect of background clearly
    demonstrates its functional asymmetry suggesting different perceptual functionality of the right and left PAC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance
  10. M. Kaviza
    MyJurnal
    Kajian eksperimental ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti kesan teknik Peer Instruction dengan analisis sumber-sumber sejarah terhadap kekekalan kemahiran berfikir kritikal. Seramai 25 orang murid Tingkatan Empat melalui teknik persampelan bertujuan terlibat dalam kajian ini. Instrumen ujian pemikiran kritikal yang diadaptasi yang telah disahkan pakar penilai dan mempunyai nilai kebolehpercayaan yang baik merupakan instrumen kajian ini. Data kajian ini dianalisis secara inferensi iaitu ujian ANOVA Satu Hala dengan pengukuran berulang melalui perisian IBM SPSS. Dapatan kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa teknik Peer Instruction dengan analisis sumber-sumber sejarah adalah berkesan terhadap kekekalan kemahiran berfikir kritikal dalam kalangan murid. Implikasi kajian ini telah mencadangkan kepada guru-guru Sejarah pada semua peringkat persekolahan untuk melaksanakan teknik Peer Instruction dengan analisis sumber-sumber sejarah untuk memupuk kemahiran berfikir kritikal yang beterusan dalam kalangan murid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance
  11. Abdul Wahab MS, Abd Rahman S, Abu Samah R
    Heliyon, 2020 Nov;6(11):e05610.
    PMID: 33305039 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05610
    A two-level full factorial design was used to analyze several factors involved in PSF-GO-Pebax thin film nanocomposite membranes development. Permeate flux was chosen as a single response for four possible factors: Pebax selective layer concentration, amount of GO load to Pebax selective layer, Pebax-GO selective layer thickness, and amount of GO load to PSF substrate. The study is aimed at factors interaction and contribution towards the highest permeation flux via FFD and RSM approach. R2 obtained from the ANOVA is 0.9937 with Pebax concentration as the highest contributing factor. Pebax concentration-amount of GO load to PSF substrate is the only interaction contributing to the highest flux. A regression analysis concluded the study with model development and an optimized condition for the membrane design.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance
  12. Nor Hasliza, Mat Desa, Siti Zamira Aida, Mat Jusoh
    MyJurnal
    Agents are the most important marketing tools for company to become a successful in business. Agents not only operate as a channel to customers, but they also play an important role in providing customers with a variety of services before and after the sales. The main purpose of this study is to identify the factor influencing agent’s sales at an Apparel Manufacturing company. There are three categories of agents at the company namely, Trial agent, Basic agent and Premium agent. Based on the sales records in May 2018, the sales of product obtained by Trial Agent is lower than Basic and Premium Agents in this company. Therefore, this study aims to determine difference mean on record sales by agent among three categories of agents. This study also investigates the relationship between sales records by agents and years of experienced in business. Data was collected using questionnaire from 46 active agents at the company. Data was analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Pearson correlation coefficient and Multiple Linear Regression. Result showed that there is a statistically significant difference in the mean sales records among the three of agent’s categories. Furthermore, there is a strong positive correlation between sales records by agent and years of experienced in business. Meanwhile, factors of knowledge and skills in business are most contributed to the agent’s sales. This study can help the company to create a strategic business plan and conducting several workshop trainings for agents to increase their knowledge and skills in business.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance
  13. Ahmed A, Adam M, Ghafar NA, Muhammad M, Ebrahim NA
    Iran J Public Health, 2016 Sep;45(9):1118-1125.
    PMID: 27957456
    BACKGROUND: Citation metrics and total publications in a field has become the gold standard for rating researchers and viability of a field. Hence, stimulating demand for citation has led to a search for useful strategies to improve performance metric index. Meanwhile, title, abstract and morphologic qualities of the articles attract researchers to scientific publications. Yet, there is relatively little understanding of the citation trend in disability related fields. We aimed to provide an insight into the factors associated with citation increase in this field. Additionally, we tried to know at what page number an article might appear attractive to disability researchers needs. Thus, our focus is placed on the article page count and the number of authors contributing to the fields per article.

    METHODS: To this end, we evaluated the quantitative characteristics of top cited articles in the fields with a total citation (≥50) in the Web of Science (WoS) database. Using one-way independent ANOVA, data extracted spanning a period of 1980-2015 were analyzed, while the non-parametric data analysis uses Kruskal-Walis test.

    RESULTS: Articles with 11 to 20 pages attract more citations followed by those within the range of zero to 10. Articles with upward 21 pages are the least cited. Surprisingly, articles with more than two authors are significantly (P<0.05) less cited and the citation decreases as the number of authors increased.

    CONCLUSION: Collaborative studies enjoy wider utilization and more citation, yet discounted merit of additional pages and limited collaborative research in disability field is revealed in this study.

    Matched MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance
  14. Tan H, Mukherjee TK, Subramaniam S
    Theor Appl Genet, 1975 Jan;46(4):181-90.
    PMID: 24419927 DOI: 10.1007/BF00281668
    Heritability estimates of five quantitative characters, namely, yield, girth, girth increment, virgin bark and renewed bark thickness, of the breeding Phase III Hevea families have been obtained by variance component analyses. In general, the combined heritability estimates for various characters were low to moderate. The heritabilities of these characters based on female variance components, however, were high, suggesting that considerable improvement of each of the characters could be achieved in properly designed experiments.Estimates of heritability for average yields (Range: 0.11-0.34) over different years showed that the first three years' yield was adequate for predicting estimates of genetic variance for the average of five years' yield.Correlation studies on yield with other characters indicated considerable influence of environment, with genetic correlations accounting for about 0.07 to 0.36 in the characters studied.Expected direct response to selection in yield and correlated response in yield to selection for girth at opening and virgin bark thickness have been calculated using three arbitrary values of selection intensity. The efficiency of the correlated response was found to be approximately half that of the direct response. However, the indirect selection for yield using virgin bark thickness appeared to be more favourable than that using the girth at opening favoured by earlier workers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance
  15. Jami MS, Rosli NS, Amosa MK
    Water Environ Res, 2016 Jun;88(6):566-76.
    PMID: 26556067 DOI: 10.2175/106143015X14362865227157
    Availability of quality-certified water is pertinent to the production of food and pharmaceutical products. Adverse effects of manganese content of water on the corrosion of vessels and reactors necessitate that process water is scrutinized for allowable concentration levels before being applied in the production processes. In this research, optimization of the adsorption process conditions germane to the removal of manganese from biotreated palm oil mill effluent (BPOME) using zeolite 3A subsequent to a comparative adsorption with clinoptilolite was studied. A face-centered central composite design (FCCCD) of the response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted for the study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for response surface quadratic model revealed that the model was significant with dosage and agitation speed connoting the main significant process factors for the optimization. R(2) of 0.9478 yielded by the model was in agreement with predicted R(2). Langmuir and pseudo-second-order suggest the adsorption mechanism involved monolayer adsorption and cation exchanging.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance
  16. Hazwani Ahmad Yusof, Rabinderjeet Singh, Zainuddin Zafarina, Kieron Rooney, Ahmad Munir Che Muhamed
    MyJurnal
    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the ACE I/D gene polymorphism on athletic status and physical performance of well-trained Malaysian athletes. The distribution of ACE I/D gene polymorphism among 180 well trained athletes was compared with 180 sedentary controls. 20 meter Yo-Yo intermittent recovery and leg strength tests were used to measure maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and leg strength value of athletes with different ACE I/D genotype, respectively. Chi-Square and one way ANOVA tests were used for data analysis. The II and DD genotype were more prevalent among the endurance athletes and the strength/ power athletes compared to the other groups, respectively (p=0.00). The VO2max was not significantly associated with ACE genotype in athlete (p=0.828). However, athletes with the DD genotype had recorded a greater result for leg strength (113.8 ± 36.2) than those with the II (96.2 ± 28.0) and the ID (112.2 ± 33.5) genotype (p=0.047). This study supports the notion that ACE I/D gene polymorphism might be a genetic factor associated with athletic status and strength performance among the Malaysian population. Future studies with more representation of endurance athletes might able to detect the association between I allele and endurance performance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance
  17. Rahmati, S., Abdullah, A., Momeny, E., Kang, O.L.
    MyJurnal
    Optimization of microwave assisted extraction of dragon fruit peel pectin was conducted using respond surface methodology. Effect of extraction conditions, i.e. pH value (X1), extraction time (X2) and solid-liquid ratio (X3) on the extraction yield was investigated using a central composite experimental design. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction was performed and three-dimensional (3D) response surface plots were derived from the mathematical models. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted and indicated a significant interaction between extraction conditions (pH value and extraction time) and extraction yield. The optimum conditions of microwave assisted extraction were as follows: X1 = 2.07; X2 = 65 s and X3 = 66.57. The verification test on pectin extraction was performed and revealed a perfect agreement between experimental and predicted values. The maximum predicted yield of pectin extraction was 18.53%. Overall, application of microwave assisted extraction can give rise to high quality dragon fruit peel pectin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance
  18. Darliana Mohamad, Dian Darina Indah Daruis, Baba Md Deros, Ahmad Rasdan Ismail
    MyJurnal
    Drivers’ posture is one of the factors that can contribute to driving discomfort. Subjective evaluation is needed in determining the driving discomfort problem. The purpose of this study is to examine the reliability of different driving postures that may lead to drivers’ discomfort. A total of thirty-four healthy Malaysian drivers were involved in this study. Respondents were required to sit on the driver’s seat with the required adjustments of three different postures and fill-in the given subjective evaluation form. The same procedure was repeated for each respondent after three days for purpose of conducting test retest evaluation. The reliability statistical analysis result shows the study was reliable and valid with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient equal to 0.827. The comparison means that ANOVA analysis also shows significance difference between these three groups of postures for all measured parameters. In conclusion, the result from this study shows the subjective evaluation conducted is reliable and can be used for drivers’ posture discomfort study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance
  19. Syed Ahmad SM, Loo LY, Wan Adnan WA, Md Anwar R
    J Forensic Sci, 2017 Mar;62(2):374-381.
    PMID: 28000207 DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.13303
    This study presents a wavelet analysis of resultant velocity features belonging to genuine and forged groups of signature sample. Signatures of individuals were initially classified based on visual human perceptions of their relative sizes, complexities, and legibilities of the genuine counterparts. Then, the resultant velocity was extracted and modeled through wavelet analysis from each sample. The wavelet signal was decomposed into several layers based on maximum overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT). Next, the zero crossing rate features were calculated from all the high wavelet sub-bands. A total of seven hypotheses were then tested using a two-way ANOVA testing methodology. Of these, four hypotheses were conducted to test for significance differences between distributions. In addition, three hypotheses were run to provide test for interaction between two factors of signature authentication versus perceived classification. The results demonstrated that both feature distributions belonging to genuine and forged groups of samples cannot be distinguished by themselves. Instead, they were significantly different under the influence of two other inherent factors, namely perceived size and legibility. Such new findings are useful information particularly in providing bases for forensic justifications in establishing the authenticity of handwritten signature specimens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance
  20. Noor Alaudin Abdul Wahab, Norashikin Chahed
    MyJurnal
    Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan data normatif timpanometri di kalangan kanak-kanak Melayu prasekolah dan membandingkannya menurut jantina. Ini kerana faktor bukan patologi seperti umur, jantina dan bangsa mempengaruhi data normatif timpanometri. Sehubungan itu, garis panduan saringan telinga tengah oleh American Speech and Hearing Association (ASHA) yang menggunakan data normatif timpanometri kanak-kanak Kaukasian mungkin tidak sesuai untuk populasi kanak-kanak Melayu. Parameter timpanometri yang diukur ialah puncak statik admitan akustik dikompensasi (puncak Ytm), isipadu salur telinga luar (Vea) dan kelebaran timpanogram (TW). Seramai 161 orang kanak-kanak Melayu (80 orang kanak-kanak lelaki dan 81 orang kanak-kanak perempuan) berumur antara 4 hingga 6 tahun terlibat di dalam kajian ini. Bagaimanapun, hanya seramai 45 orang kanak-kanak lelaki dan 46 orang kanak-kanak perempuan (163 dari keseluruhan 182 telinga) memenuhi kriteria inklusi iaitu lulus pemeriksaan otoskopi dan saringan pendengaran serta menunjukkan refleks akustik ipsilateral pada 1000 Hz. Ujian ANOVA Campuran dua-hala untuk membandingkan min parameter timpanometri kanak-kanak lelaki dan perempuan menunjukkan tiada perbezaan yang signifikan; min puncak Ytm (p > 0.05), min Vea (p > 0.05), dan min TW (p > 0.05). Oleh itu, data kedua-dua kumpulan ini digabungkan. Secara keseluruhan, nilai min puncak Ytm ialah 0.55 ± 0.28mmhos, min Vea ialah 0.90 ± 0.39 cm3, dan min TW ialah 104.68 ± 32.08 daPa. Julat normal persentil ke-90 bagi puncak Ytm ialah antara 0.27 hingga 1.18 mmhos, Vea antara 0.45 hingga 1.65 cm3 dan TW antara 59.60 hingga 149.80 daPa. Hasil kajian mencadangkan data normatif timpanometri ini sesuai digunakan ke atas kanak-kanak Melayu prasekolah namun ianya tidak perlu dibezakan mengikut jantina. Sekiranya setiap satu nilai TW > 200 daPa dan Vea > 1.0 cm3 oleh ASHA diaplikasi ke atas kanak-kanak Melayu prasekolah, maka masing-masing akan menyebabkan kadar rujukan yang rendah dan kadar rujukan yang berlebihan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance
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