METHODS: PubMed and Science Direct were searched for papers published between the years 1974 and 2018. The search was restricted to articles written in English related to modification of glass ionomer cements. Only articles published in peer-reviewed journals were included. The search included literature reviews, in vitro, and in vivo studies. Articles written in other languages, without available abstracts and those related to other field were excluded. About 198 peer-review articles in the English language were reviewed.
CONCLUSION: Based on the finding, most of the modification has improved physical-mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements. Recently, researchers have attempted to improve their antimicrobial properties. However, the attempts were reported to compromise the physical-mechanical properties of modified glass ionomer cements.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: As the modification of glass ionomer cement with different material improved the physical-mechanical and antimicrobial properties, it could be used as restorative material for wider application in dentistry.
METHODS: Dissolution kinetics of CHX-HMP were firstly explored using spectroscopy and a colorimetric phosphate assay. Elastomeric ligatures were categorized into 3 groups-acetone-conditioned, ethanol-conditioned, and as received-and were then immersed in 5 mM CHX-HMP suspension or 5 mM chlorhexidine digluconate solution and rinsed. CHX release was measured over 8 weeks, and the effects of conditioning and immersion on elastomeric force and extension at rupture and surface topography were investigated.
RESULTS: CHX-HMP exhibited a gradual equilibration that had not reached equilibrium within 8 weeks, releasing soluble CHX and a mixture of polyphosphate and orthophosphate. CHX digluconate-treated ligatures showed no CHX release, whereas CHX-HMP-treated ligatures showed varying degrees of release. As received, CHX-HMP-treated ligatures showed a modest release of CHX up to 7 days. Acetone conditioning did not enhance CHX-HMP uptake or subsequent CHX release and caused a deterioration in mechanical properties. Ethanol conditioning enhanced CHX-HMP uptake (6×) and led to a sustained CHX release over 8 weeks without affecting mechanical properties.
CONCLUSIONS: Within the inherent limitations of this in-vitro study, CHX-HMP led to a sustained release of CHX from orthodontic elastomeric ligatures after ethanol conditioning. Conditioned and coated elastomeric ligatures may ultimately find application in the prevention of white spot lesions in orthodontic patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The valuation composed of 30 subjects with aggressive periodontal disease and 30 healthy controls. Clinical assessment included following periodontal parameters: plaque index (PI), papillary bleeding index (PBI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL). Levels of bone loss were assessed by taking full-mouth periapical radiographs. Initial periodontal therapy comprises of full-mouth disinfection which includes subgingival scaling and root planing within 24 hours combined with adjunctive chlorhexidine chemotherapy for aggressive periodontitis subject's at sites indicated. The parameters (clinical) were evaluated at the baseline and 8 weeks after initial periodontal therapy at six sites of teeth indicated. Plasma samples were taken and evaluated by standard procedures as defined in the literature. All the values were weighed and related.
RESULTS: Strong positive associations were detected among periodontal parameters and TBARS, enzymatic/nonenzymatic AO levels (p < 0.05), and pre- and postperiodontal management. The plasma levels of patients with aggressive periodontitis had high levels of TBARS and displayed a substantial escalation in the activities of GSH and GPX levels in the plasma matched to the healthy individuals (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: This paper evaluated ROS activity and AO defense before and after treatment to stimulate added periodontal investigation in this part which will give an insight into the therapeutic options with foreseeable results.