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  1. Saha R, Saha I, Sarkar AP, Das DK, Misra R, Bhattacharya K, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2014 Feb;55(2):92-8.
    PMID: 24570318
    INTRODUCTION: The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has led to the reduction of mortality and the improvement of the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The present study was conducted to determine the pattern of adherence to HAART among PLWHA, and to assess the factor(s) affecting nonadherence, if any.

    METHODS: This study was a hospital-based analytical, cross-sectional epidemiological study conducted between July and October 2011. A total of 370 adult HIV-positive patients registered in the Antiretroviral Therapy Centre of Burdwan Medical College and Hospital, West Bengal, India, were included. Nonadherence was defined as missing at least a single dose of medicine within the last four days. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 19.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA).

    RESULTS: A total of 87.6% of patients were found to be adherent to HAART. Principal causes of nonadherence were forgetting to take medicine (70.2%), being away from home (65.2%), and busyness with other things (64.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that nonadherence was significantly associated with a positive family history of HIV/AIDS (odds ratio [OR] 16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2-114.3; p = 0.01), occurrence of side effects with HAART (OR 9.81; 95% CI 1.9-51.7; p = 0.01) and employment (OR 5.93; 95% CI 1.5-23.2; p = 0.01).

    CONCLUSION: Although overall adherence was high, the factors that affect nonadherence can be addressed with proper counselling and motivation of patients and their family members. Adherence to HAART could delay the progression of this lethal disease and minimise the risk of developing drug resistance.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods*
  2. Rabasseda X
    Drugs Today, 2013 Aug;49(8):509-17.
    PMID: 23977668 DOI: 10.1358/dot.2013.49.8.2033100
    Effective antiretroviral drugs have been developed that, if continuously administered (although with simplification strategies once a patient's viral titer is suppressed) allow for a functional cure resulting in an almost normal life despite the presence of viral reservoirs. In that sense, observations that combination antiretroviral therapy has an untoward suppressive effect on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against T cells permitting the establishment of such viral reservoirs were discussed for its implications in the use of vaccines and/or modulators of the immune function to clear latent infections and the risk for reactivation (Madhavi, V. et al., Abst MOLBPE05). In addition to latent viral reservoirs, individual patient characteristics may also influence response to antiretroviral therapy, as exemplified by the increased likelihood of highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients carrying certain polymorphic variants (rs2229109, rs6961419) of the P-glycoprotein 1 gene (Dias, J. et al., Abst MOPE034). These, and many other important news derived from research into novel approaches to fight HIV infection were discussed during the International AIDS Society (IAS) meeting in Kuala Lumpur, as summarized in the following report.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods*
  3. Jamal Mohamed T, Teeraananchai S, Kerr S, Phongsamart W, Nik Yusoff NK, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 2017 03;33(3):230-233.
    PMID: 27758114 DOI: 10.1089/AID.2016.0039
    We sought to assess the impact of routine HIV viral load (VL) monitoring on the incidence of switching from a first- to a second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen, and to describe factors associated with switch. Data from a regional cohort of 16 clinical programs in six Asian countries were analyzed. Second-line switch was defined as a change from a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) to a protease inhibitor (PI) or vice versa, and ≥1 of the following: (1) reported treatment failure by local criteria, (2) switch of ≥1 additional drug, or (3) a preceding HIV VL ≥1,000 copies/ml. Routine VL was having ≥1 test after ≥24 weeks of ART and ≥1 time/year thereafter. Factors associated with time to switch were evaluated with death and loss to follow-up as competing risks. A total of 2,398 children were included in this analysis. At ART initiation, the median (interquartile range) age was 6.0 (3.3-8.9) years, more than half had WHO stage 3 or 4, the median CD4 was 189 (47-456) cells/mm3, 93% were on NNRTI-based first-line ART, and 34% had routine VL monitoring. Treatment switch occurred in 17.6% of patients, at a median of 35 (22-49) months. After adjusting for country, sex, first ART regimen, and CD4% at ART initiation, children with routine VL monitoring were 1.46 (95% confidence interval 1.11-1.93) times more likely to be switched (p = .007). Scale-up of VL testing will lead to earlier identification of treatment failure, and it can help guide earlier switches to prevent resistance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods*
  4. Abdulrahman SA, Rampal L, Ibrahim F, Radhakrishnan AP, Kadir Shahar H, Othman N
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(5):e0177698.
    PMID: 28520768 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177698
    BACKGROUND: Adherence to treatment remains the cornerstone of long term viral suppression and successful treatment outcomes among patients receiving Antiretroviral Therapy (ART).

    OBJECTIVE(S): Evaluate the effectiveness of mobile phone reminders and peer counseling in improving adherence and treatment outcomes among HIV positive patients on ART in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A single-blind, parallel group RCT conducted in Hospital Sungai Buloh, Malaysia in which 242 adult Malaysian patients were randomized to intervention or control groups. Intervention consisted of a reminder module delivered through SMS and telephone call reminders by trained research assistants for 24 consecutive weeks (starting from date of ART initiation), in addition to adherence counseling at every clinic visit. The length of intended follow up for each patient was 6 months. Data on adherence behavior of patients was collected using specialized, pre-validated Adult AIDS Clinical Trial Group (AACTG) adherence questionnaires. Data on weight, clinical symptoms, CD4 count and viral load tests were also collected. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22 and R software. Repeated measures ANOVA, Friedman's ANOVA and Multivariate regression models were used to evaluate efficacy of the intervention.

    RESULTS: The response rate after 6 months follow up was 93%. There were no significant differences at baseline in gender, employment status, income distribution and residential location of respondents between the intervention and control group. After 6 months follow up, the mean adherence was significantly higher in the intervention group (95.7; 95% CI: 94.39-96.97) as compared to the control group (87.5; 95% CI: 86.14-88.81). The proportion of respondents who had Good (>95%) adherence was significantly higher in the intervention group (92.2%) compared to the control group (54.6%). A significantly lower frequency in missed appointments (14.0% vs 35.5%) (p = 0.001), lower viral load (p = 0.001), higher rise in CD4 count (p = 0.017), lower incidence of tuberculosis (p = 0.001) and OIs (p = 0.001) at 6 months follow up, was observed among patients in the intervention group.

    CONCLUSION: Mobile phone reminders (SMS and telephone call reminders) and peer counseling are effective in improving adherence and treatment outcomes among HIV positive patients on ART in Malaysia. These findings may be of potential benefit for collaborative adherence planning between patients and health care providers at ART commencement.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods*
  5. Loeliger KB, Altice FL, Desai MM, Ciarleglio MM, Gallagher C, Meyer JP
    Lancet HIV, 2018 02;5(2):e96-e106.
    PMID: 29191440 DOI: 10.1016/S2352-3018(17)30209-6
    BACKGROUND: Incarceration provides an opportunity for engagement in HIV care but is associated with poor HIV treatment outcomes after release. We aimed to assess post-release linkage to HIV care (LTC) and the effect of transitional case management services.

    METHODS: To create a retrospective cohort of all adults with HIV released from jails and prisons in Connecticut, USA (2007-14), we linked administrative custody and pharmacy databases with mandatory HIV/AIDS surveillance monitoring and case management data. We examined time to LTC (defined as first viral load measurement after release) and viral suppression at LTC. We used generalised estimating equations to show predictors of LTC within 14 days and 30 days of release.

    FINDINGS: Among 3302 incarceration periods for 1350 individuals between 2007 and 2014, 672 (21%) of 3181 periods had LTC within 14 days of release, 1042 (34%) of 3064 had LTC within 30 days of release, and 301 (29%) of 1042 had detectable viral loads at LTC. Factors positively associated with LTC within 14 days of release are intermediate (31-364 days) incarceration duration (adjusted odds ratio 1·52; 95% CI 1·19-1·95), and transitional case management (1·65; 1·36-1·99), receipt of antiretroviral therapy during incarceration (1·39; 1·11-1·74), and two or more medical comorbidities (1·86; 1·48-2·36). Reincarceration (0·70; 0·56-0·88) and conditional release (0·62; 0·50-0·78) were negatively associated with LTC within 14 days. Hispanic ethnicity, bonded release, and psychiatric comorbidity were also associated with LTC within 30 days but reincarceration was not.

    INTERPRETATION: LTC after release is suboptimal but improves when inmates' medical, psychiatric, and case management needs are identified and addressed before release. People who are rapidly cycling through jail facilities are particularly vulnerable to missed linkage opportunities. The use of integrated programmes to align justice and health-care goals has great potential to improve long-term HIV treatment outcomes.

    FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods
  6. HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration, Cain LE, Phillips A, Olson A, Sabin C, Jose S, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2015 Apr 15;60(8):1262-8.
    PMID: 25567330 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciu1167
    BACKGROUND: Current clinical guidelines consider regimens consisting of either ritonavir-boosted atazanavir or ritonavir-boosted lopinavir and a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone among their recommended and alternative first-line antiretroviral regimens. However, these guidelines are based on limited evidence from randomized clinical trials and clinical experience.

    METHODS: We compared these regimens with respect to clinical, immunologic, and virologic outcomes using data from prospective studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in Europe and the United States in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration, 2004-2013. Antiretroviral therapy-naive and AIDS-free individuals were followed from the time they started a lopinavir or an atazanavir regimen. We estimated the 'intention-to-treat' effect for atazanavir vs lopinavir regimens on each of the outcomes.

    RESULTS: A total of 6668 individuals started a lopinavir regimen (213 deaths, 457 AIDS-defining illnesses or deaths), and 4301 individuals started an atazanavir regimen (83 deaths, 157 AIDS-defining illnesses or deaths). The adjusted intention-to-treat hazard ratios for atazanavir vs lopinavir regimens were 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], .53-.91) for death, 0.67 (95% CI, .55-.82) for AIDS-defining illness or death, and 0.91 (95% CI, .84-.99) for virologic failure at 12 months. The mean 12-month increase in CD4 count was 8.15 (95% CI, -.13 to 16.43) cells/µL higher in the atazanavir group. Estimates differed by NRTI backbone.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates are consistent with a lower mortality, a lower incidence of AIDS-defining illness, a greater 12-month increase in CD4 cell count, and a smaller risk of virologic failure at 12 months for atazanavir compared with lopinavir regimens.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods*
  7. Crane M, Avihingsanon A, Rajasuriar R, Velayudham P, Iser D, Solomon A, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2014 Sep 1;210(5):745-51.
    PMID: 24585898 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiu119
    We investigated the relationship between microbial translocation, immune activation, and liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), soluble CD14, CXCL10, and CCL-2 levels were elevated in patients with HIV/HBV coinfection. Levels of LPS, soluble CD14, and CCL-2 declined following receipt of HBV-active combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but the CXCL10 level remained elevated. No markers were associated with liver disease severity on liver biopsy (n = 96), but CXCL10, interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon γ (IFN-γ) were all associated with elevated liver enzyme levels during receipt of HBV-active cART. Stimulation of hepatocyte cell lines in vitro with IFN-γ and LPS induced a profound synergistic increase in the production of CXCL10. LPS may contribute to liver disease via stimulating persistent production of CXCL10.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods
  8. Prasitsuebsai W, Kariminia A, Puthanakit T, Lumbiganon P, Hansudewechakul R, Siew Moy F, et al.
    Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 2014 Jul;33(7):747-52.
    PMID: 24378942 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000226
    There are limited data on opportunistic infections (OIs) and factors associated with their occurrence after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Asian children. The use of HAART in Asia started much later than in developed countries and therefore reported findings may not be fully applicable to the pediatric HIV epidemic in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods*
  9. TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database (TApHOD), International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Southern Africa Paediatric Group
    J Int AIDS Soc, 2011 Feb 09;14:7.
    PMID: 21306608 DOI: 10.1186/1758-2652-14-7
    BACKGROUND: To better understand the need for paediatric second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART), an ART management survey and a cross-sectional analysis of second-line ART use were conducted in the TREAT Asia Paediatric HIV Observational Database and the IeDEA Southern Africa (International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS) regional cohorts.

    METHODS: Surveys were conducted in April 2009. Analysis data from the Asia cohort were collected in March 2009 from 12 centres in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. Data from the IeDEA Southern Africa cohort were finalized in February 2008 from 10 centres in Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe.

    RESULTS: Survey responses reflected inter-regional variations in drug access and national guidelines. A total of 1301 children in the TREAT Asia and 4561 children in the IeDEA Southern Africa cohorts met inclusion criteria for the cross-sectional analysis. Ten percent of Asian and 3.3% of African children were on second-line ART at the time of data transfer. Median age (interquartile range) in months at second-line initiation was 120 (78-145) months in the Asian cohort and 66 (29-112) months in the southern African cohort. Regimens varied, and the then current World Health Organization-recommended nucleoside reverse transcriptase combination of abacavir and didanosine was used in less than 5% of children in each region.

    CONCLUSIONS: In order to provide life-long ART for children, better use of current first-line regimens and broader access to heat-stable, paediatric second-line and salvage formulations are needed. There will be limited benefit to earlier diagnosis of treatment failure unless providers and patients have access to appropriate drugs for children to switch to.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods*
  10. Bulgiba A, Mohammed UY, Chik Z, Lee C, Peramalah D
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S34-6.
    PMID: 23313585 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.01.002
    The aim of the study was to determine how well self-reported adherence fares compared to therapeutic drug monitoring in monitoring HAART adherence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods*
  11. Boettiger DC, Aurpibul L, Hudaya DM, Fong SM, Lumbiganon P, Saphonn V, et al.
    Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 2016 May;35(5):e144-51.
    PMID: 26835972 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001074
    BACKGROUND: Information on antiretroviral therapy (ART) use in HIV-infected children with severe malnutrition (SM) is lacking. We investigated long-term ART outcomes in this population.

    METHODS: Children enrolled in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database who had SM (weight-for-height or body mass index-for-age Z score less than -3) at ART initiation were analyzed. Generalized estimating equations were used to investigate poor weight recovery (weight-for-age Z score less than -3) and poor CD4% recovery (CD4% <25), and competing risk regression was used to analyze mortality and toxicity-associated treatment modification.

    RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-five (11.9%) of 2993 children starting ART had SM. Their median weight-for-age Z score increased from -5.6 at ART initiation to -2.3 after 36 months. Not using trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis at baseline was associated with poor weight recovery [odds ratio: 2.49 vs. using; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66-3.74; P < 0.001]. Median CD4% increased from 3.0 at ART initiation to 27.2 after 36 months, and 56 (15.3%) children died during follow-up. More profound SM was associated with poor CD4% recovery (odds ratio: 1.78 for Z score less than -4.5 vs. -3.5 to less than -3.0; 95% CI: 1.08-2.92; P = 0.023) and mortality (hazard ratio: 2.57 for Z score less than -4.5 vs. -3.5 to less than -3.0; 95% CI: 1.24-5.33; P = 0.011). Twenty-two toxicity-associated ART modifications occurred at a rate of 2.4 per 100 patient-years, and rates did not differ by malnutrition severity.

    CONCLUSION: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis is important for the recovery of weight-for-age in severely malnourished children starting ART. The extent of SM does not impede weight-for-age recovery or antiretroviral tolerability, but CD4% response is compromised in children with a very low weight-for-height/body mass index-for-age Z score, which may contribute to their high rate of mortality.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods*
  12. Boettiger DC, Sudjaritruk T, Nallusamy R, Lumbiganon P, Rungmaitree S, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    J Adolesc Health, 2016 Apr;58(4):451-459.
    PMID: 26803201 DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.11.006
    PURPOSE: About a third of untreated, perinatally HIV-infected children reach adolescence. We evaluated the durability and effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in this population.

    METHODS: Data from perinatally HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve patients initiated on NNRTI-based ART aged 10-19 years who had ≥6 months of follow-up were analyzed. Competing risk regression was used to assess predictors of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure (World Health Organization Stage 3/4 event or death). Viral suppression was defined as a viral load <400 copies/mL.

    RESULTS: Data from 534 adolescents met our inclusion criteria (56.2% female; median age at treatment initiation 11.8 years). After 5 years of treatment, median height-for-age z score increased from -2.3 to -1.6, and median CD4+ cell count increased from 131 to 580 cells/mm(3). The proportion of patients with viral suppression after 6 months was 87.6% and remained >80% up to 5 years of follow-up. NNRTI substitution and clinical failure occurred at rates of 4.9 and 1.4 events per 100 patient-years, respectively. Not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation was associated with NNRTI substitution (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5 vs. using; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-2.2; p = .05). Baseline CD4+ count ≤200 cells/mm(3) (HR, 3.3 vs. >200; 95% CI = 1.2-8.9; p = .02) and not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation (HR, 2.1 vs. using; 95% CI = 1.0-4.6; p = .05) were both associated with clinical failure.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite late ART initiation, adolescents achieved good rates of catch-up growth, CD4+ count recovery, and virological suppression. Earlier ART initiation and routine cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in this population may help to reduce current rates of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods
  13. Lam EP, Moore CL, Gotuzzo E, Nwizu C, Kamarulzaman A, Chetchotisakd P, et al.
    AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 2016 09;32(9):841-50.
    PMID: 27346600 DOI: 10.1089/AID.2015.0331
    We investigate mutations and correlates according to HIV-1 subtype after virological failure (VF) of standard first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) (non-nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [NNRTI] +2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [N(t)RTI]). SECOND-LINE study participants were assessed at baseline for HIV-1 subtype, demographics, HIV-1 history, ART exposure, viral load (VL), CD4(+) count, and genotypic ART resistance. We used backward stepwise multivariate regression (MVR) to assess associations between baseline variables and presence of ≥3 N(t)RTI mutations, ≥1 NNRTI mutation, ≥3 thymidine analog-N(t)RTI [ta-N(t)RTI] mutations (TAMs), the K65/K70 mutation, and predicted etravirine (ETV)/rilpivirine (RPV) activity. The inclusion p-value for MVR was p  .05. Of 541 participants, 491 (91%) had successfully characterized baseline viral isolates. Subtype distribution: B (n = 123, 25%), C (n = 202, 41%), CRF01_AE (n = 109, 22%), G (n = 25, 5%), and CRF02_AG (n = 27, 5%). Baseline CD4(+) 200-394 cells/mm(3) were associated with <3 N(t)RTI mutations (OR = 0.47; 95% CI 0.29-0.77; p = .003), absence of the K65/K70 mutation (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.26-0.73; p = .002), and higher ETV sensitivity (OR = 0.52; 95% CI 0.35-0.78; p = .002). Recent tenofovir (TDF) use was associated with K65/K70 mutations (OR = 8.91; 95% CI 5.00-15.85; p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods
  14. Kiertiburanakul S, Boettiger D, Ng OT, Van Kinh N, Merati TP, Avihingsanon A, et al.
    AIDS Res Ther, 2017;14:27.
    PMID: 28484509 DOI: 10.1186/s12981-017-0151-1
    BACKGROUND: Abacavir and rilpivirine are alternative antiretroviral drugs for treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients. However, both drugs are only recommended for the patients who have pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL. In resource-limited settings, pre-treatment HIV RNA is not routinely performed and not widely available. The aims of this study are to determine factors associated with pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL and to construct a model to predict this outcome.

    METHODS: HIV-infected adults enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database were eligible if they had an HIV RNA measurement documented at the time of ART initiation. The dataset was randomly split into a derivation data set (75% of patients) and a validation data set (25%). Factors associated with pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL were evaluated by logistic regression adjusted for study site. A prediction model and prediction scores were created.

    RESULTS: A total of 2592 patients were enrolled for the analysis. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] age was 35.8 (29.9-42.5) years; CD4 count was 147 (50-248) cells/mm3; and pre-treatment HIV RNA was 100,000 (34,045-301,075) copies/mL. Factors associated with pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL were age <30 years [OR 1.40 vs. 41-50 years; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.80, p = 0.01], body mass index >30 kg/m2(OR 2.4 vs. <18.5 kg/m2; 95% CI 1.1-5.1, p = 0.02), anemia (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.40-2.10, p 350 cells/mm3(OR 3.9 vs. <100 cells/mm3; 95% CI 2.0-4.1, p 2000 cells/mm3(OR 1.7 vs. <1000 cells/mm3; 95% CI 1.3-2.3, p 25 yielded the sensitivity of 46.7%, specificity of 79.1%, positive predictive value of 67.7%, and negative predictive value of 61.2% for prediction of pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL among derivation patients.

    CONCLUSION: A model prediction for pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL produced an area under the ROC curve of 0.70. A larger sample size for prediction model development as well as for model validation is warranted.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods*
  15. Boettiger DC, Kerr S, Ditangco R, Merati TP, Pham TT, Chaiwarith R, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(9):e106525.
    PMID: 25184314 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106525
    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has evolved rapidly since its beginnings. This analysis describes trends in first-line ART use in Asia and their impact on treatment outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods*
  16. Moy FS, Fahey P, Nik Yusoff NK, Razali KA, Nallusamy R, TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database (TApHOD)
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2015 Feb;51(2):204-8.
    PMID: 25142757 DOI: 10.1111/jpc.12712
    To describe outcome and examine factors associated with mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in Malaysia after anti-retroviral therapy (ART).
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods
  17. Mohammad Z, Naing NN
    PMID: 15272757
    To characterize the demographic profiles, clinical features, radiological patterns and outcomes of treatment of HIV-infected TB patients, a descriptive study was carried out on 149 HIV-infected TB cases diagnosed from 1998 through 2001 at Kota Bharu Hospital, Kelantan, Malaysia. The majority of the patients were males (94.6%), single (45.0%), ethnic Malay (94.0%) with a mean age of 34 years (standard deviation 7.8, range 18-76). The most common HIV transmission category was through injecting drug use (73.8%) and being the inmates or former inhabitants of drug rehabilitation centers and prisons were the commonest high-risk groups. One hundred and seventeen patients were diagnosed as having pulmonary TB, while about 20% were extra-pulmonary in type with 9 cases of milliary TB. The majority (45%) presented with cough symptoms while only 51% had a positive sputum smear. Fifty-five percent were found to have pulmonary lesions on chest x-ray, such as localized, milliary or diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, or opacities. Eight (5.4%) had pleural lesions while another 8 cases had hilar or mediastinal lymph node lesions. Overall, fifty-eight (38.9%) patients had died by the completion of data collection. The median weeks or survival from the time of starting TB treatment was 13.5 (range 1-56) and the majority of them (74%) died without completing the 6-month regime of treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods
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