Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 64 in total

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  1. Lim WY, Goh BT, Khor SM
    PMID: 28683395 DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2017.06.040
    Clinicians, working in the health-care diagnostic systems of developing countries, currently face the challenges of rising costs, increased number of patient visits, and limited resources. A significant trend is using low-cost substrates to develop microfluidic devices for diagnostic purposes. Various fabrication techniques, materials, and detection methods have been explored to develop these devices. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) have gained attention for sensing multiplex analytes, confirming diagnostic test results, rapid sample analysis, and reducing the volume of samples and analytical reagents. μPADs, which can provide accurate and reliable direct measurement without sample pretreatment, can reduce patient medical burden and yield rapid test results, aiding physicians in choosing appropriate treatment. The objectives of this review are to provide an overview of the strategies used for developing paper-based sensors with enhanced analytical performances and to discuss the current challenges, limitations, advantages, disadvantages, and future prospects of paper-based microfluidic platforms in clinical diagnostics. μPADs, with validated and justified analytical performances, can potentially improve the quality of life by providing inexpensive, rapid, portable, biodegradable, and reliable diagnostics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis*
  2. Ng WL, Mohd Mohidin TB, Shukla K
    RNA Biol, 2018;15(8):995-1005.
    PMID: 29954251 DOI: 10.1080/15476286.2018.1486659
    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a large class of endogenously expressed non-coding RNAs formed by covalently closed loops through back-splicing. High throughput sequencing technologies have identified thousands of circRNAs with high sequence conservation and cell type specific expression in eukaryotes. CircRNAs play multiple important roles in cellular physiology functioning as miRNA sponges, transcriptional regulators, RBP binding molecules, templates for protein translation, and immune regulators. In a clinical context, circRNAs expression is correlated with patient's clinicopathological features in cancers including breast, liver, gastric, colorectal, and lung cancer. Additionally, distinct properties of circRNAs, such as high stability, exonuclease resistance, and existence in body fluids, show promising role for circRNAs as molecular biomarkers for tumor diagnosis, non-invasive monitoring, prognosis, and therapeutic intervention. Therefore, it is critical to further understand the molecular mechanism underlying circRNAs interaction in tumors and the recent progress of this RNA species in cancer development. In this review, we provide a detailed description of biological functions, molecular role of circRNAs in different cancers, and its potential role as biomarkers in a clinical context.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis*
  3. Alsalahi MA, Latif MT, Ali MM, Dominick D, Khan MF, Mustaffa NI, et al.
    Mar. Pollut. Bull., 2015 Apr 15;93(1-2):278-83.
    PMID: 25682566 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.01.011
    This study aims to determine the concentration of sterols used as biomarkers in the surface microlayer (SML) in estuarine areas of the Selangor River, Malaysia. Samples were collected during different seasons through the use of a rotation drum. The analysis of sterols was performed using gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID). The results showed that the concentrations of total sterols in the SML ranged from 107.06 to 505.55 ng L(-1). The total sterol concentration was found to be higher in the wet season. Cholesterol was found to be the most abundant sterols component in the SML. The diagnostic ratios of sterols show the influence of natural sources and waste on the contribution of sterols in the SML. Further analysis, using principal component analysis (PCA), showed distinct inputs of sterols derived from human activity (40.58%), terrigenous and plant inputs (22.59%) as well as phytoplankton and marine inputs (17.35%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  4. Leong YH, Latiff AA, Ahmad NI, Rosma A
    Mycotoxin Res, 2012 May;28(2):79-87.
    PMID: 23606045 DOI: 10.1007/s12550-012-0129-8
    Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary fungal metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Human exposure to aflatoxins may result directly from ingestion of contaminated foods, or indirectly from consumption of foods from animals previously exposed to aflatoxins in feeds. This paper focuses on exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in various human body fluids. Research on different metabolites present in blood, urine, breast milk, and other human fluids or tissues including their detection techniques is reviewed. The association between dietary intake of aflatoxins and biomarker measurement is also highlighted. Finally, aspects related to the differences between aflatoxin determination in food versus the biomarker approach are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis*
  5. Tsutsumi S, Yamaguchi Y, Nishida I, Akiyama K, Zakaria MP, Takada H
    Mar. Pollut. Bull., 2002;45(1-12):325-31.
    PMID: 12398403
    Alkylbenzenes, molecular markers of sewage, were measured in 34 green mussels collected from India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and the Philippines together with blue mussels collected from Tokyo Bay, Japan. Linear alkylbenzene (LAB) concentrations in South and South East Asian countries ranged from 10 to 1,640 ng-sigmaLAB/g-dry tissue. In some populous cities, LAB concentrations were similar or higher than those found in northern Tokyo Bay which is heavily impacted by sewage effluents. I/E ratios (a ratio of internal to external isomers of LABs) in the South and South East Asian countries (1-3) were much lower than those in Tokyo Bay (3-8), indicating sewage discharged in the coastal zone is poorly treated (e.g., raw sewage and/or primary effluents). Alkylbenzenes with branched alkyl chains, tetrapropylene-based alkylbenzenes, were also detected in mussels from Indonesia and Philippines. This "tell-tale" sign indicates that poorly degradable detergents are still in use in this area, although they have long been phased-out in many industrialized countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis*
  6. Fathil MF, Md Arshad MK, Ruslinda AR, Nuzaihan M N M, Gopinath SC, Adzhri R, et al.
    Anal. Chim. Acta, 2016 Sep 07;935:30-43.
    PMID: 27543013 DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2016.06.012
    A real-time ability to interpret the interaction between targeted biomolecules and the surface of semiconductors (metal transducers) into readable electrical signals, without biomolecular modification involving fluorescence dyes, redox enzymes, and radioactive labels, created by label-free biosensors has been extensively researched. Field-effect transistor (FET)- and capacitor-based biosensors are among the diverse electrical charge biosensing architectures that have drawn much attention for having charge transduction; thus, enabling the early and rapid diagnosis of the appropriate cardiac biomarkers at lower concentrations. These semiconducting material-based transducers are very suitable to be integrated with portable electronic devices for future online collection, transmission, reception, analysis, and reporting. This overview elucidates and clarifies two major electrical label-free systems (FET- and capacitor-based biosensors) with cardiac troponin (cTn) biomarker-mediated charge transduction for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) diagnosis. Advances in these systems are highlighted by their progression in bridging the laboratory and industry; the foremost technologies have made the transition from benchtop to bedside and beyond.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  7. Breadmore MC, Grochocki W, Kalsoom U, Alves MN, Phung SC, Rokh MT, et al.
    Electrophoresis, 2019 01;40(1):17-39.
    PMID: 30362581 DOI: 10.1002/elps.201800384
    One of the most cited limitations of capillary and microchip electrophoresis is the poor sensitivity. This review continues to update this series of biannual reviews, first published in Electrophoresis in 2007, on developments in the field of online/in-line concentration methods in capillaries and microchips, covering the period July 2016-June 2018. It includes developments in the field of stacking, covering all methods from field-amplified sample stacking and large-volume sample stacking, through to isotachophoresis, dynamic pH junction, and sweeping. Attention is also given to online or in-line extraction methods that have been used for electrophoresis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  8. Arshad MKM, Adzhri R, Fathil MFM, Gopinath SCB, N M NM
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2018 Aug 01;18(8):5283-5291.
    PMID: 29458578 DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2018.15419
    The development of electrical biosensor towards device miniaturization in order to achieve better sensitivity with enhanced electrical signal has certain limitations especially complexity in fabrication process and costs. In this paper, an alternative technique with minor modification in the device structure is presented for signal amplification by implementing ambipolar conduction in the biosensor itself. We demonstrated the field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensor coupled back-gate for attaining a higher sensitivity with the detection of lower target abundance. To utilize the coupled back-gate as a pre-amplifier, silicon-on-insulator wafer with thicknesses of top-silicon and buried oxide (BOX) layers of 70 nm and 145 nm, respectively were desired. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanomaterial was deposited using sol-gel method on the channel which acts as a transducer. Surface functionalization on TiO2 thin film allowed an effective immobilization of anti-cardiac troponin I antibody to interact cardiac troponin I (cTnI). Binding events at each step was validated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Further, electrical characterization (Id-Vd) confirms the potentiality of FET-based biosensor to detect cTnI (represents acute myocardial infarction disease) with the concentration ranges from 10 μg/ml down to 1 fg/ml. The sensitivity of 459.2 nA (g/ml)-1 and lower detection limit of 1 fg/ml were achieved at Vbg = -5 V and Vd = 5 V. The designed device demonstrates its ability to detect lower level of cTnI with pre-amplified electrical signal by back-gate biasing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  9. Enche Ady CNA, Lim SM, Teh LK, Salleh MZ, Chin AV, Tan MP, et al.
    J. Neurosci. Res., 2017 Oct;95(10):2005-2024.
    PMID: 28301062 DOI: 10.1002/jnr.24048
    The rapid increase in the older population has made age-related diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) a global concern. Given that there is still no cure for this neurodegenerative disease, the drastic growth in the number of susceptible individuals represents a major emerging threat to public health. The poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying AD is deemed the greatest stumbling block against progress in definitive diagnosis and management of this disease. There is a dire need for biomarkers that can facilitate early diagnosis, classification, prognosis, and treatment response. Efforts have been directed toward discovery of reliable and distinctive AD biomarkers but with very little success. With the recent emergence of high-throughput technology that is able to collect and catalogue vast datasets of small metabolites, metabolomics offers hope for a better understanding of AD and subsequent identification of biomarkers. This review article highlights the potential of using multiple metabolomics platforms as useful means in uncovering AD biomarkers from body fluids. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis*
  10. Ellias MF, Zainal Ariffin SH, Karsani SA, Abdul Rahman M, Senafi S, Megat Abdul Wahab R
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:647240.
    PMID: 22919344 DOI: 10.1100/2012/647240
    Orthodontic treatment has been shown to induce inflammation, followed by bone remodelling in the periodontium. These processes trigger the secretion of various proteins and enzymes into the saliva. This study aims to identify salivary proteins that change in expression during orthodontic tooth movement. These differentially expressed proteins can potentially serve as protein biomarkers for the monitoring of orthodontic treatment and tooth movement. Whole saliva from three healthy female subjects were collected before force application using fixed appliance and at 14 days after 0.014'' Niti wire was applied. Salivary proteins were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) over a pH range of 3-10, and the resulting proteome profiles were compared. Differentially expressed protein spots were then identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. Nine proteins were found to be differentially expressed; however, only eight were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Four of these proteins-Protein S100-A9, immunoglobulin J chain, Ig alpha-1 chain C region, and CRISP-3-have known roles in inflammation and bone resorption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis*
  11. Lee YK, Za'aba A, Madzhi NK, Ahmad A
    PMID: 19964239 DOI: 10.1109/IEMBS.2009.5333674
    Previous works on the effects of salivary alpha amylase in respond to various stressors report encouraging findings on it being a good indicator of stress. Ellestad protocol is a clinical procedure to screen for coronary artery disease by introducing exercise induced physical stress. If a salivary based biomarker profile in accordance to a stress test protocol could be established, the critical stress state which disable rational decision making could be ascertained in a standardized procedure. This technique would serve to aid human resource management in times of critical events such as rescue, firefighting or even military, that would potentially prevent unnecessary sacrifice of human lives. In this pilot study with five healthy volunteers performing the Ellestad protocol treadmill, a measurement profile with physiologic and salivary based biomarker is obtained. It is found that the alpha amylase levels or the changes in it as workload changes from resting-walking-running at ease-exhaustive running, is relatively more significant in reflecting the stress state than heart rate and blood pressure. Moreover, it is strongly associated with mood state with correlation coefficient of 0.8 and significance of 0.01.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  12. Al-Joudi FS, Iskandar ZA, Rusli J
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Jun;63(2):96-9.
    PMID: 18942291
    The p53 gene is a tumour suppressor gene that encodes a 393-amino-acid nuclear DNA-binding phosphoprotein. The significance of p53 detection is that p53 mutation is linked with chemo-resistance and transformation to more aggressive disease in a large number of tumour types and it was confirmed that mutant p53 is involved in neoplastic transformations. In addition, the expression of p53 has been closely correlated with clinicopathological findings. Since breast cancer has been reported as one of the most frequent malignancies in women in Malaysia, the expression of p53 was studied in 382 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, obtained from three major hospitals in the North-East States of Malaysia. The study utilized an enzyme immunohistochemistry assay for the detection of p53. It was found that p53 was expressed in 29.6% of all the study cases. Furthermore, its expression was significantly correlated with the age and the clinical grading of the disease. No significant statistical correlations were depicted with lymph node status, tumour size, side of tumour, and expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors. Nevertheless, knowledge of the p53 status may be valuable in making clinical decisions regarding diagnosis, prognosis and therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  13. Namasivayam P, Skepper J, Hanke D
    Plant Cell Rep., 2006 Sep;25(9):887-95.
    PMID: 16568254
    The Brassica napus secondary embryogenesis system requires no exogenous growth regulator to stimulate embryo development. It is stable embryogenically over a long period of culture and has a distinct pre-embryogenic stage. This system was used to investigate the morphological and cellular changes occurring in the embryogenic tissue compared to non-embryogenic tissue using various microscopy techniques. A unique ultrastructural feature designated the extracellular matrix (ECM) was observed on the surface of pre-embryogenic embryoids but not on the non-embryogenic individuals. The ECM layer was found to be dominant in the pre-embryogenic stage and reduced to fragments during embryo growth and development in mature embryogenic tissue. This is a novel aspect of the phenotype previously unreported in the Brassica system. This structure might be linked to acquisition of embryogenic competence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  14. Said RM, Cheah PL, Chin SC, Goh KL
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2004 Feb;16(2):195-9.
    PMID: 15075994
    BACKGROUND: The gastric biopsy urease test is the most frequently used test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in routine gastrointestinal endoscopy practice. In Malaysia up to recently, only one commercial biopsy urease test was available: the CLO test (Ballard Medical Products, Draper, Utah, USA). Large endoscopy units use their own 'homemade' unbuffered ultra rapid urease test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy and reaction time of a new biopsy urease test, Pronto Dry (Medical Instruments Corporation, Solothurn, Switzerland) and the CLO test in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection.

    METHODS: Consecutive patients presenting with dyspepsia to the endoscopy unit, University of Malaya Medical Centre were recruited for the study. Patients who were previously treated for H. pylori infection or who had received antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors or bismuth compounds in the preceding 4 weeks were excluded. H. pylori diagnosis was made based on the ultra rapid urease test and histological examination of gastric biopsies. Four antral and four corpus biopsies were taken for this purpose from all patients. A diagnosis of H. pylori infection was made when both the ultra rapid urease test and histology were positive in either the antral or corpus biopsies. A negative diagnosis of H. pylori was made when both tests from antral and corpus biopsies were all negative. Another four antral and four corpus biopsies (two each) were taken for the Pronto Dry and CLO tests. The Pronto Dry and CLO tests were stored and performed according to the manufacturer's instruction.

    RESULTS: Two hundred and eight patients were recruited in the study. Eighty-six of the patients were males and 122 were females. The mean age was 46.3 years with a range of 15-82 years. The results for both the Pronto Dry and the CLO tests were completely concordant with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of 98.1%, 100%, 100%, 98.1% and 99%, respectively. The Pronto Dry test showed a faster reaction time to positive compared with the CLO test, with 96.2% positive reaction by 30 min versus 70.8% and 100% positive reaction time by 55 min versus 83%. The colorimetric change was also more distinct with the Pronto Dry test compared with the CLO test.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both the Pronto Dry and the CLO tests were highly accurate for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. The Pronto Dry test showed a quicker positive reaction time and the positive colour change was more distinct.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  15. Yeang HY, Arif SA, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Loke YH, Sander I, Sulong SH, et al.
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2004 Sep;114(3):593-8.
    PMID: 15356563 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2004.05.039
    BACKGROUND:
    Sensitization to natural rubber latex has been linked to proteins from medical latex gloves. Various assays to estimate the amount of residual allergenic proteins extractable from latex gloves to assess their potential exposure hazard have inherent weaknesses.

    OBJECTIVE:
    This investigation was aimed at developing 2-site immunoenzymetric assays and identifying appropriate protein markers to assess the allergenic potential of latex gloves.

    METHODS:
    The presence of 6 latex allergens--Hev b 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 13--was measured in a cross-section of commercial latex medical gloves by using monoclonal and polyclonal antibody-based 2-site immunoenzymetric assays. The overall allergenic potential of these gloves was assessed by IgE-inhibition assay. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to identify marker allergens that best explained the variation in latex glove allergenicity.

    RESULTS:
    All 6 latex allergens were detected in at least some of the glove samples. Hev b 5 and Hev b 13 were identified as the marker allergens that combined best to explain the variation in the glove allergenicity. The significant multiple correlation (R=0.855) between these 2 markers and glove allergenic potency forms the basis of an assay to gauge latex glove allergenicity.

    CONCLUSION:
    The overall allergenic potential of latex gloves can be estimated by using Hev b 5 and Hev b 13 as indicator allergens. The correlation between glove allergenicity and the level of these allergens was maintained for low-protein gloves (<200 microg/g). This estimation of glove allergenicity was superior to that obtained by using total protein readings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  16. Zakaria MP, Okuda T, Takada H
    Mar. Pollut. Bull., 2001 Dec;42(12):1357-66.
    PMID: 11827123
    Malaysian coasts are subjected to various threats of petroleum pollution including routine and accidental oil spill from tankers, spillage of crude oils from inland and off-shore oil fields, and run-off from land-based human activities. Due to its strategic location, the Straits of Malacca serves as a major shipping lane. This paper expands the utility of biomarker compounds, hopanes, in identifying the source of tar-balls stranded on Malaysian coasts. 20 tar-ball samples collected from the east and west coast were analyzed for hopanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four of the 13 tar-ball samples collected from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were identified as the Middle East crude oil (MECO) based on their biomarker signatures, suggesting tanker-derived sources significantly contributing the petroleum pollution in the Straits of Malacca. The tar-balls found on the east coast seem to originate from the offshore oil platforms in the South China Sea. The presence of South East Asian crude oil (SEACO) tar-balls on the west coast carry several plausible explanations. Some of the tar-balls could have been transported via sea currents from the east coast. The tankers carrying SEACO to other countries could have accidentally spilt the oil as well. Furthermore, discharge of tank washings and ballast water from the tankers were suggested based on the abundance in higher molecular weight n-alkanes and the absence of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) in the tar-ball samples. The other possibilities are that the tar-balls may have been originated from the Sumatran oil fields and spillage of domestic oil from oil refineries in Port Dickson and Malacca. The results of PAHs analysis suggest that all the tar-ball samples have undergone various extent of weathering through evaporation, dissolution and photooxidation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  17. Tenang EM, McCaldin B
    Biochem. Int., 1989 Jan;18(1):197-202.
    PMID: 2541720
    The activities of membrane marker enzymes in normal (3T3) and simian virus transformed mouse cells (SV3T3) are affected not only by densities of cultures but also by the sera types used in the growth media. We have assayed the levels of 5'nucleotidase, monoamine oxidase and rotenone insensitive NADH ferricyanide reductase in these cells grown to sparse and confluent cultures in medium supplemented with 10% newborn calf serum (n.c.s.) or in medium supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum (f.b.s.). It was found that in 3T3 cells grown in 10% f.b.s. the transition from sparse to confluent cultures was associated with a reduction in the activities of the marker enzymes while in those grown in 10% n.c.s., the activities of these enzymes increased. In the SV3T3 cells, the activities of all the enzymes except for monoamine oxidase decreased from sparse to confluent culture densities in cells grown in 10% n.c.s. whereas in those grown in 10% f.b.s. there were no significant change in the activities of the enzymes over the same culture densities. The results suggest that the marker enzymes are affected by sera types and culture densities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis*
  18. Vasanthan P, Jayaraman P, Kunasekaran W, Lawrence A, Gnanasegaran N, Govindasamy V, et al.
    Naturwissenschaften, 2016 Aug;103(7-8):62.
    PMID: 27379400 DOI: 10.1007/s00114-016-1387-7
    Human deciduous periodontal ligament stem cells have been introduced for as an easily accessible source of stem cells from dental origin. Although recent studies have revealed the ability of these stem cells in multipotential attribute, their efficiency of hepatic lineage differentiation has not been addressed so far. The aim of this study is to investigate hepatic lineage fate competence of periodontal ligament stem cells through direct media induction. Differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells was conducted by the exposure of two phase media induction. First phase was performed in the presence of hepatocyte growth factors to induce a definitive endoderm formation. In the subsequent phase, the cells were treated with oncostatin M and dexamethosone followed by insulin and transferrin to generate hepatocyte-like cells. Hepatic-related characters of the generated hepatocyte-like cells were determined at both mRNA and protein level followed by functional assays. Foremost changes observed in the generation of hepatocyte-like cells were the morphological features in which these cells were transformed from fibroblastic shape to polygonal shape. Temporal expression of hepatic markers ranging from early endodermal up to late markers were detected in the hepatocyte-like cells. Crucial hepatic markers such as glycogen storage, albumin, and urea secretion were also shown. These findings exhibited the ability of periodontal ligament stem cells of dental origin to be directed into hepatic lineage fate. These cells can be regarded as an alternative autologous source in the usage of stem cell-based treatment for liver diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  19. Orimaye SO, Wong JS, Golden KJ, Wong CP, Soyiri IN
    BMC Bioinformatics, 2017 Jan 14;18(1):34.
    PMID: 28088191 DOI: 10.1186/s12859-016-1456-0
    BACKGROUND: The manual diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related Dementias has been a challenge. Currently, these disorders are diagnosed using specific clinical diagnostic criteria and neuropsychological examinations. The use of several Machine Learning algorithms to build automated diagnostic models using low-level linguistic features resulting from verbal utterances could aid diagnosis of patients with probable AD from a large population. For this purpose, we developed different Machine Learning models on the DementiaBank language transcript clinical dataset, consisting of 99 patients with probable AD and 99 healthy controls.

    RESULTS: Our models learned several syntactic, lexical, and n-gram linguistic biomarkers to distinguish the probable AD group from the healthy group. In contrast to the healthy group, we found that the probable AD patients had significantly less usage of syntactic components and significantly higher usage of lexical components in their language. Also, we observed a significant difference in the use of n-grams as the healthy group were able to identify and make sense of more objects in their n-grams than the probable AD group. As such, our best diagnostic model significantly distinguished the probable AD group from the healthy elderly group with a better Area Under the Receiving Operating Characteristics Curve (AUC) using the Support Vector Machines (SVM).

    CONCLUSIONS: Experimental and statistical evaluations suggest that using ML algorithms for learning linguistic biomarkers from the verbal utterances of elderly individuals could help the clinical diagnosis of probable AD. We emphasise that the best ML model for predicting the disease group combines significant syntactic, lexical and top n-gram features. However, there is a need to train the diagnostic models on larger datasets, which could lead to a better AUC and clinical diagnosis of probable AD.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  20. Lin HR, Heish CW, Liu CH, Muduli S, Li HF, Higuchi A, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 01 10;7:40069.
    PMID: 28071738 DOI: 10.1038/srep40069
    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) are easily isolated from fat tissue without ethical concerns, but differ in purity, pluripotency, differentiation ability, and stem cell marker expression, depending on the isolation method. We isolated hADSCs from a primary fat tissue solution using: (1) conventional culture, (2) a membrane filtration method, (3) a membrane migration method where the primary cell solution was permeated through membranes, adhered hADSCs were cultured, and hADSCs migrated out from the membranes. Expression of mesenchymal stem cell markers and pluripotency genes, and osteogenic differentiation were compared for hADSCs isolated by different methods using nylon mesh filter membranes with pore sizes ranging from 11 to 80 μm. hADSCs isolated by the membrane migration method had the highest MSC surface marker expression and efficient differentiation into osteoblasts. Osteogenic differentiation ability of hADSCs and MSC surface marker expression were correlated, but osteogenic differentiation ability and pluripotent gene expression were not.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
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