Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 76 in total

  1. Mandal A, Mani AK, Lamech R, Anandajothi E, Venkatachalam SA, Dinakaran GK, et al.
    Biochem Genet, 2021 Aug;59(4):856-869.
    PMID: 33544298 DOI: 10.1007/s10528-021-10032-3
    Misleading identification and subsequent publications on biological, molecular, and aquaculture data of mangrove mud crab (genus Scylla de Hann 1833) is a major concern in many countries. In this study, multiple molecular markers were used for genetic identification of all four known mud crab species under genus Scylla collected from India, Philippines, Myanmar, Malaysia and Indonesia. Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS-1), Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and PCR-based species-specific markers were used to resolve taxonomic ambiguity. PCR-RFLP techniques using NlaIV and BsaJI restriction endonucleases were efficient to differentiate four different mud crab species under genus Scylla with specific fragment profile. The results also justified the use of ITS-1 and PCR-based species-specific markers to identify mud crab species available in many countries quite rapidly and effectively. Several new molecular markers generated during the study are reported here to resolve the taxonomic ambiguity of Scylla species and the results reconfirmed that India is only having two commonly available mud crab species which was reported by the authors earlier.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  2. Rehiman SH, Lim SM, Neoh CF, Majeed ABA, Chin AV, Tan MP, et al.
    Ageing Res Rev, 2020 07;60:101066.
    PMID: 32294542 DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2020.101066
    In order to gauge the impact of proteomics in discovery of Alzheimer's disease (AD) blood-based biomarkers, this study had systematically reviewed articles published between 1984-2019. Articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were assessed for risk of bias. A meta-analysis was performed for replicable candidate biomarkers (CB). Of the 1651 articles that were identified, 17 case-control and two cohort studies, as well as three combined case-control and longitudinal designs were shortlisted. A total of 207 AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) CB were discovered, with 48 reported in >2 studies. This review highlights six CB, namely alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M)ps, pancreatic polypeptide (PP)ps, apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1)ps, afaminp, insulin growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2)ps and fibrinogen-γ-chainp, all of which exhibited consistent pattern of regulation in >three independent cohorts. They are involved in AD pathogenesis via amyloid-beta (Aβ), neurofibrillary tangles, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Meta-analysis indicated that ApoA-1ps was significantly downregulated in AD (SMD = -1.52, 95% CI: -1.89, -1.16, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  3. Lim WY, Goh BT, Khor SM
    PMID: 28683395 DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2017.06.040
    Clinicians, working in the health-care diagnostic systems of developing countries, currently face the challenges of rising costs, increased number of patient visits, and limited resources. A significant trend is using low-cost substrates to develop microfluidic devices for diagnostic purposes. Various fabrication techniques, materials, and detection methods have been explored to develop these devices. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) have gained attention for sensing multiplex analytes, confirming diagnostic test results, rapid sample analysis, and reducing the volume of samples and analytical reagents. μPADs, which can provide accurate and reliable direct measurement without sample pretreatment, can reduce patient medical burden and yield rapid test results, aiding physicians in choosing appropriate treatment. The objectives of this review are to provide an overview of the strategies used for developing paper-based sensors with enhanced analytical performances and to discuss the current challenges, limitations, advantages, disadvantages, and future prospects of paper-based microfluidic platforms in clinical diagnostics. μPADs, with validated and justified analytical performances, can potentially improve the quality of life by providing inexpensive, rapid, portable, biodegradable, and reliable diagnostics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis*
  4. Mohd Nasri FA, Zainal Ariffin SH, Karsani SA, Megat Abdul Wahab R
    BMC Oral Health, 2020 09 11;20(1):256.
    PMID: 32917196 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-020-01246-9
    BACKGROUND: Orthodontically-induced root resorption is an iatrogenic effect and it cannot be examined regularly due to the harmful effects of sequential doses of radiation with more frequent radiography. This study aims to compare protein abundance (PA) of pre-treatment and during orthodontic treatment for root resorption and to determine potential early markers for root resorption.

    METHODS: Ten subjects (n = 10) who had upper and lower fixed appliances (MBT, 3 M Unitek, 0.022″ × 0.028″) were recruited for this study. Human gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was obtained using periopaper strips at pre-treatment (T0), 1 month (T1), 3 months (T3), and 6 months (T6) of orthodontic treatment. Periapical radiographs of the upper permanent central incisors were taken at T0 and T6 to measure the amount of root resorption. Identification of changes in PA was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Student's t-test was then performed to determine the significance of the differences in protein abundance before and after orthodontic treatment.

    RESULTS: Our findings showed that all ten subjects had mild root resorption, with an average resorption length of 0.56 ± 0.30 mm. A total of 186 proteins were found to be commonly present at T0, T1, T3, and T6. There were significant changes in the abundance of 16 proteins (student's t-test, p ≤ 0.05). The increased PA of S100A9, immunoglobulin J chain, heat shock protein 1A, immunoglobulin heavy variable 4-34 and vitronectin at T1 suggested a response to stress that involved inflammation during the early phase of orthodontic treatment. On the other hand, the increased PA of thymidine phosphorylase at T3 suggested growth promotion and, angiogenic and chemotactic activities.

    CONCLUSIONS: The identified proteins can be potential early markers for root resorption based on the increase in their respective PA and predicted roles during the early phase of orthodontic treatment. Non-invasive detection of root resorption using protein markers as early as possible is extremely important as it can aid orthodontists in successful orthodontic treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  5. Ng WL, Mohd Mohidin TB, Shukla K
    RNA Biol, 2018;15(8):995-1005.
    PMID: 29954251 DOI: 10.1080/15476286.2018.1486659
    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a large class of endogenously expressed non-coding RNAs formed by covalently closed loops through back-splicing. High throughput sequencing technologies have identified thousands of circRNAs with high sequence conservation and cell type specific expression in eukaryotes. CircRNAs play multiple important roles in cellular physiology functioning as miRNA sponges, transcriptional regulators, RBP binding molecules, templates for protein translation, and immune regulators. In a clinical context, circRNAs expression is correlated with patient's clinicopathological features in cancers including breast, liver, gastric, colorectal, and lung cancer. Additionally, distinct properties of circRNAs, such as high stability, exonuclease resistance, and existence in body fluids, show promising role for circRNAs as molecular biomarkers for tumor diagnosis, non-invasive monitoring, prognosis, and therapeutic intervention. Therefore, it is critical to further understand the molecular mechanism underlying circRNAs interaction in tumors and the recent progress of this RNA species in cancer development. In this review, we provide a detailed description of biological functions, molecular role of circRNAs in different cancers, and its potential role as biomarkers in a clinical context.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis*
  6. Alsalahi MA, Latif MT, Ali MM, Dominick D, Khan MF, Mustaffa NI, et al.
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2015 Apr 15;93(1-2):278-83.
    PMID: 25682566 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.01.011
    This study aims to determine the concentration of sterols used as biomarkers in the surface microlayer (SML) in estuarine areas of the Selangor River, Malaysia. Samples were collected during different seasons through the use of a rotation drum. The analysis of sterols was performed using gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID). The results showed that the concentrations of total sterols in the SML ranged from 107.06 to 505.55 ng L(-1). The total sterol concentration was found to be higher in the wet season. Cholesterol was found to be the most abundant sterols component in the SML. The diagnostic ratios of sterols show the influence of natural sources and waste on the contribution of sterols in the SML. Further analysis, using principal component analysis (PCA), showed distinct inputs of sterols derived from human activity (40.58%), terrigenous and plant inputs (22.59%) as well as phytoplankton and marine inputs (17.35%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  7. Leong YH, Latiff AA, Ahmad NI, Rosma A
    Mycotoxin Res, 2012 May;28(2):79-87.
    PMID: 23606045 DOI: 10.1007/s12550-012-0129-8
    Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary fungal metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Human exposure to aflatoxins may result directly from ingestion of contaminated foods, or indirectly from consumption of foods from animals previously exposed to aflatoxins in feeds. This paper focuses on exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in various human body fluids. Research on different metabolites present in blood, urine, breast milk, and other human fluids or tissues including their detection techniques is reviewed. The association between dietary intake of aflatoxins and biomarker measurement is also highlighted. Finally, aspects related to the differences between aflatoxin determination in food versus the biomarker approach are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis*
  8. Tsutsumi S, Yamaguchi Y, Nishida I, Akiyama K, Zakaria MP, Takada H
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2002;45(1-12):325-31.
    PMID: 12398403
    Alkylbenzenes, molecular markers of sewage, were measured in 34 green mussels collected from India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and the Philippines together with blue mussels collected from Tokyo Bay, Japan. Linear alkylbenzene (LAB) concentrations in South and South East Asian countries ranged from 10 to 1,640 ng-sigmaLAB/g-dry tissue. In some populous cities, LAB concentrations were similar or higher than those found in northern Tokyo Bay which is heavily impacted by sewage effluents. I/E ratios (a ratio of internal to external isomers of LABs) in the South and South East Asian countries (1-3) were much lower than those in Tokyo Bay (3-8), indicating sewage discharged in the coastal zone is poorly treated (e.g., raw sewage and/or primary effluents). Alkylbenzenes with branched alkyl chains, tetrapropylene-based alkylbenzenes, were also detected in mussels from Indonesia and Philippines. This "tell-tale" sign indicates that poorly degradable detergents are still in use in this area, although they have long been phased-out in many industrialized countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis*
  9. Enche Ady CNA, Lim SM, Teh LK, Salleh MZ, Chin AV, Tan MP, et al.
    J Neurosci Res, 2017 Oct;95(10):2005-2024.
    PMID: 28301062 DOI: 10.1002/jnr.24048
    The rapid increase in the older population has made age-related diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) a global concern. Given that there is still no cure for this neurodegenerative disease, the drastic growth in the number of susceptible individuals represents a major emerging threat to public health. The poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying AD is deemed the greatest stumbling block against progress in definitive diagnosis and management of this disease. There is a dire need for biomarkers that can facilitate early diagnosis, classification, prognosis, and treatment response. Efforts have been directed toward discovery of reliable and distinctive AD biomarkers but with very little success. With the recent emergence of high-throughput technology that is able to collect and catalogue vast datasets of small metabolites, metabolomics offers hope for a better understanding of AD and subsequent identification of biomarkers. This review article highlights the potential of using multiple metabolomics platforms as useful means in uncovering AD biomarkers from body fluids. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis*
  10. Arshad MKM, Adzhri R, Fathil MFM, Gopinath SCB, N M NM
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2018 Aug 01;18(8):5283-5291.
    PMID: 29458578 DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2018.15419
    The development of electrical biosensor towards device miniaturization in order to achieve better sensitivity with enhanced electrical signal has certain limitations especially complexity in fabrication process and costs. In this paper, an alternative technique with minor modification in the device structure is presented for signal amplification by implementing ambipolar conduction in the biosensor itself. We demonstrated the field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensor coupled back-gate for attaining a higher sensitivity with the detection of lower target abundance. To utilize the coupled back-gate as a pre-amplifier, silicon-on-insulator wafer with thicknesses of top-silicon and buried oxide (BOX) layers of 70 nm and 145 nm, respectively were desired. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanomaterial was deposited using sol-gel method on the channel which acts as a transducer. Surface functionalization on TiO2 thin film allowed an effective immobilization of anti-cardiac troponin I antibody to interact cardiac troponin I (cTnI). Binding events at each step was validated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Further, electrical characterization (Id-Vd) confirms the potentiality of FET-based biosensor to detect cTnI (represents acute myocardial infarction disease) with the concentration ranges from 10 μg/ml down to 1 fg/ml. The sensitivity of 459.2 nA (g/ml)-1 and lower detection limit of 1 fg/ml were achieved at Vbg = -5 V and Vd = 5 V. The designed device demonstrates its ability to detect lower level of cTnI with pre-amplified electrical signal by back-gate biasing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  11. Fathil MF, Md Arshad MK, Ruslinda AR, Nuzaihan M N M, Gopinath SC, Adzhri R, et al.
    Anal Chim Acta, 2016 Sep 07;935:30-43.
    PMID: 27543013 DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2016.06.012
    A real-time ability to interpret the interaction between targeted biomolecules and the surface of semiconductors (metal transducers) into readable electrical signals, without biomolecular modification involving fluorescence dyes, redox enzymes, and radioactive labels, created by label-free biosensors has been extensively researched. Field-effect transistor (FET)- and capacitor-based biosensors are among the diverse electrical charge biosensing architectures that have drawn much attention for having charge transduction; thus, enabling the early and rapid diagnosis of the appropriate cardiac biomarkers at lower concentrations. These semiconducting material-based transducers are very suitable to be integrated with portable electronic devices for future online collection, transmission, reception, analysis, and reporting. This overview elucidates and clarifies two major electrical label-free systems (FET- and capacitor-based biosensors) with cardiac troponin (cTn) biomarker-mediated charge transduction for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) diagnosis. Advances in these systems are highlighted by their progression in bridging the laboratory and industry; the foremost technologies have made the transition from benchtop to bedside and beyond.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  12. Breadmore MC, Grochocki W, Kalsoom U, Alves MN, Phung SC, Rokh MT, et al.
    Electrophoresis, 2019 01;40(1):17-39.
    PMID: 30362581 DOI: 10.1002/elps.201800384
    One of the most cited limitations of capillary and microchip electrophoresis is the poor sensitivity. This review continues to update this series of biannual reviews, first published in Electrophoresis in 2007, on developments in the field of online/in-line concentration methods in capillaries and microchips, covering the period July 2016-June 2018. It includes developments in the field of stacking, covering all methods from field-amplified sample stacking and large-volume sample stacking, through to isotachophoresis, dynamic pH junction, and sweeping. Attention is also given to online or in-line extraction methods that have been used for electrophoresis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  13. Ellias MF, Zainal Ariffin SH, Karsani SA, Abdul Rahman M, Senafi S, Megat Abdul Wahab R
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:647240.
    PMID: 22919344 DOI: 10.1100/2012/647240
    Orthodontic treatment has been shown to induce inflammation, followed by bone remodelling in the periodontium. These processes trigger the secretion of various proteins and enzymes into the saliva. This study aims to identify salivary proteins that change in expression during orthodontic tooth movement. These differentially expressed proteins can potentially serve as protein biomarkers for the monitoring of orthodontic treatment and tooth movement. Whole saliva from three healthy female subjects were collected before force application using fixed appliance and at 14 days after 0.014'' Niti wire was applied. Salivary proteins were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) over a pH range of 3-10, and the resulting proteome profiles were compared. Differentially expressed protein spots were then identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. Nine proteins were found to be differentially expressed; however, only eight were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Four of these proteins-Protein S100-A9, immunoglobulin J chain, Ig alpha-1 chain C region, and CRISP-3-have known roles in inflammation and bone resorption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis*
  14. Lee YK, Za'aba A, Madzhi NK, Ahmad A
    PMID: 19964239 DOI: 10.1109/IEMBS.2009.5333674
    Previous works on the effects of salivary alpha amylase in respond to various stressors report encouraging findings on it being a good indicator of stress. Ellestad protocol is a clinical procedure to screen for coronary artery disease by introducing exercise induced physical stress. If a salivary based biomarker profile in accordance to a stress test protocol could be established, the critical stress state which disable rational decision making could be ascertained in a standardized procedure. This technique would serve to aid human resource management in times of critical events such as rescue, firefighting or even military, that would potentially prevent unnecessary sacrifice of human lives. In this pilot study with five healthy volunteers performing the Ellestad protocol treadmill, a measurement profile with physiologic and salivary based biomarker is obtained. It is found that the alpha amylase levels or the changes in it as workload changes from resting-walking-running at ease-exhaustive running, is relatively more significant in reflecting the stress state than heart rate and blood pressure. Moreover, it is strongly associated with mood state with correlation coefficient of 0.8 and significance of 0.01.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  15. Al-Joudi FS, Iskandar ZA, Rusli J
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jun;63(2):96-9.
    PMID: 18942291
    The p53 gene is a tumour suppressor gene that encodes a 393-amino-acid nuclear DNA-binding phosphoprotein. The significance of p53 detection is that p53 mutation is linked with chemo-resistance and transformation to more aggressive disease in a large number of tumour types and it was confirmed that mutant p53 is involved in neoplastic transformations. In addition, the expression of p53 has been closely correlated with clinicopathological findings. Since breast cancer has been reported as one of the most frequent malignancies in women in Malaysia, the expression of p53 was studied in 382 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, obtained from three major hospitals in the North-East States of Malaysia. The study utilized an enzyme immunohistochemistry assay for the detection of p53. It was found that p53 was expressed in 29.6% of all the study cases. Furthermore, its expression was significantly correlated with the age and the clinical grading of the disease. No significant statistical correlations were depicted with lymph node status, tumour size, side of tumour, and expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors. Nevertheless, knowledge of the p53 status may be valuable in making clinical decisions regarding diagnosis, prognosis and therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  16. Yeang HY, Arif SA, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Loke YH, Sander I, Sulong SH, et al.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2004 Sep;114(3):593-8.
    PMID: 15356563 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2004.05.039
    Sensitization to natural rubber latex has been linked to proteins from medical latex gloves. Various assays to estimate the amount of residual allergenic proteins extractable from latex gloves to assess their potential exposure hazard have inherent weaknesses.

    This investigation was aimed at developing 2-site immunoenzymetric assays and identifying appropriate protein markers to assess the allergenic potential of latex gloves.

    The presence of 6 latex allergens--Hev b 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 13--was measured in a cross-section of commercial latex medical gloves by using monoclonal and polyclonal antibody-based 2-site immunoenzymetric assays. The overall allergenic potential of these gloves was assessed by IgE-inhibition assay. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to identify marker allergens that best explained the variation in latex glove allergenicity.

    All 6 latex allergens were detected in at least some of the glove samples. Hev b 5 and Hev b 13 were identified as the marker allergens that combined best to explain the variation in the glove allergenicity. The significant multiple correlation (R=0.855) between these 2 markers and glove allergenic potency forms the basis of an assay to gauge latex glove allergenicity.

    The overall allergenic potential of latex gloves can be estimated by using Hev b 5 and Hev b 13 as indicator allergens. The correlation between glove allergenicity and the level of these allergens was maintained for low-protein gloves (<200 microg/g). This estimation of glove allergenicity was superior to that obtained by using total protein readings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  17. Zakaria MP, Okuda T, Takada H
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2001 Dec;42(12):1357-66.
    PMID: 11827123
    Malaysian coasts are subjected to various threats of petroleum pollution including routine and accidental oil spill from tankers, spillage of crude oils from inland and off-shore oil fields, and run-off from land-based human activities. Due to its strategic location, the Straits of Malacca serves as a major shipping lane. This paper expands the utility of biomarker compounds, hopanes, in identifying the source of tar-balls stranded on Malaysian coasts. 20 tar-ball samples collected from the east and west coast were analyzed for hopanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four of the 13 tar-ball samples collected from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were identified as the Middle East crude oil (MECO) based on their biomarker signatures, suggesting tanker-derived sources significantly contributing the petroleum pollution in the Straits of Malacca. The tar-balls found on the east coast seem to originate from the offshore oil platforms in the South China Sea. The presence of South East Asian crude oil (SEACO) tar-balls on the west coast carry several plausible explanations. Some of the tar-balls could have been transported via sea currents from the east coast. The tankers carrying SEACO to other countries could have accidentally spilt the oil as well. Furthermore, discharge of tank washings and ballast water from the tankers were suggested based on the abundance in higher molecular weight n-alkanes and the absence of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) in the tar-ball samples. The other possibilities are that the tar-balls may have been originated from the Sumatran oil fields and spillage of domestic oil from oil refineries in Port Dickson and Malacca. The results of PAHs analysis suggest that all the tar-ball samples have undergone various extent of weathering through evaporation, dissolution and photooxidation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  18. Tenang EM, McCaldin B
    Biochem. Int., 1989 Jan;18(1):197-202.
    PMID: 2541720
    The activities of membrane marker enzymes in normal (3T3) and simian virus transformed mouse cells (SV3T3) are affected not only by densities of cultures but also by the sera types used in the growth media. We have assayed the levels of 5'nucleotidase, monoamine oxidase and rotenone insensitive NADH ferricyanide reductase in these cells grown to sparse and confluent cultures in medium supplemented with 10% newborn calf serum (n.c.s.) or in medium supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum (f.b.s.). It was found that in 3T3 cells grown in 10% f.b.s. the transition from sparse to confluent cultures was associated with a reduction in the activities of the marker enzymes while in those grown in 10% n.c.s., the activities of these enzymes increased. In the SV3T3 cells, the activities of all the enzymes except for monoamine oxidase decreased from sparse to confluent culture densities in cells grown in 10% n.c.s. whereas in those grown in 10% f.b.s. there were no significant change in the activities of the enzymes over the same culture densities. The results suggest that the marker enzymes are affected by sera types and culture densities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis*
  19. Vedam VKV, Boaz K, Natarajan S, Ganapathy S
    J Clin Lab Anal, 2017 May;31(3).
    PMID: 27637993 DOI: 10.1002/jcla.22048
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary amylase in patients with primary oral cancer undergoing radiotherapy as the main modality of treatment.

    MATERIALS/METHODS: The study was conducted on ten histologically proven cases of oral cancer undergoing radiotherapy. Stimulated whole saliva was collected at three stages of radiotherapy-0, 3, and 6 weeks. Salivary amylase was estimated using Henry-Chiamori method and comparison was made with appropriate age- and gender-matched controls.

    RESULTS: Salivary amylase levels showed significant decrease in healthy subjects when compared to oral cancer patients (P < 0.001). The latter group also showed changing trend with initial decrease from 0 to 3 weeks followed by increase from 3 to 6 weeks following radiotherapy (P < 0.0528).

    CONCLUSIONS: The trend in changes in the levels of salivary amylase could be used as a surrogate marker of salivary gland function in patients with oral cancer undergoing radiotherapy as primary treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis*
  20. Wei LK, Quan LS
    Comput Biol Chem, 2019 Dec;83:107116.
    PMID: 31561071 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2019.107116
    According to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment, ischemic stroke is classified into five subtypes. However, the predictive biomarkers of ischemic stroke subtypes are still largely unknown. The utmost objective of this study is to map, construct and analyze protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks for all subtypes of ischemic stroke, and to suggest the predominant biological pathways for each subtypes. Through 6285 protein data retrieved from PolySearch2 and STRING database, the first PPI networks for all subtypes of ischemic stroke were constructed. Notably, F2 and PLG were identified as the critical proteins for large artery atherosclerosis (LAA), lacunar, cardioembolic, stroke of other determined etiology (SOE) and stroke of undetermined etiology (SUE). Gene ontology and DAVID analysis revealed that GO:0030193 regulation of blood coagulation and GO:0051917 regulation of fibrinolysis were the important functional clusters for all the subtypes. In addition, inflammatory pathway was the key etiology for LAA and lacunar, while FOS and JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathways might contribute to cardioembolic stroke. Due to many risk factors associated with SOE and SUE, the precise etiology for these two subtypes remained to be concluded.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
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