Pineapples (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) cultivation on drained peats could affect the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere and also the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Carbon dioxide emission needs to be partitioned before deciding on whether cultivated peat is net sink or net source of carbon. Partitioning of CO2 emission into root respiration, microbial respiration, and oxidative peat decomposition was achieved using a lysimeter experiment with three treatments: peat soil cultivated with pineapple, bare peat soil, and bare peat soil fumigated with chloroform. Drainage water leached from cultivated peat and bare peat soil was also analyzed for DOC. On a yearly basis, CO2 emissions were higher under bare peat (218.8 t CO2 ha/yr) than under bare peat treated with chloroform (205 t CO2 ha/yr), and they were the lowest (179.6 t CO2 ha/yr) under cultivated peat. Decreasing CO2 emissions under pineapple were attributed to the positive effects of photosynthesis and soil autotrophic activities. An average 235.7 mg/L loss of DOC under bare peat suggests rapid decline of peat organic carbon through heterotrophic respiration and peat decomposition. Soil CO2 emission depended on moderate temperature fluctuations, but it was not affected by soil moisture.
The utilization of carbon dioxide for the production of valuable chemicals via catalysts is one of the efficient ways to mitigate the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is known that the carbon dioxide conversion and product yields are still low even if the reaction is operated at high pressure and temperature. The carbon dioxide utilization and conversion provides many challenges in exploring new concepts and opportunities for development of unique catalysts for the purpose of activating the carbon dioxide molecules. In this paper, the role of carbon-based nanocatalysts in the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from carbon dioxide and methanol are reviewed. The current catalytic results obtained with different carbon-based nanocatalysts systems are presented and how these materials contribute to the carbon dioxide conversion is explained. In addition, different strategies and preparation methods of nanometallic catalysts on various carbon supports are described to optimize the dispersion of metal nanoparticles and catalytic activity.
CO2 gasification of oil palm shell (OPS) char to produce CO through the Boudouard reaction (C + CO2 ↔ 2CO) was investigated under microwave irradiation. A microwave heating system was developed to carry out the CO2 gasification in a packed bed of OPS char. The influence of char particle size, temperature and gas flow rate on CO2 conversion and CO evolution was considered. It was attempted to improve the reactivity of OPS char in gasification reaction through incorporation of Fe catalyst into the char skeleton. Very promising results were achieved in our experiments, where a CO2 conversion of 99% could be maintained during 60 min microwave-induced gasification of iron-catalyzed char. When similar gasification experiments were performed in conventional electric furnace, the superior performance of microwave over thermal driven reaction was elucidated. The activation energies of 36.0, 74.2 and 247.2 kJ/mol were obtained for catalytic and non-catalytic microwave and thermal heating, respectively.
Palm shell was used to prepare activated carbon using potassium carbonate (K2CO3) as activating agent. The influence of carbonization temperatures (600-1000 degrees C) and impregnation ratios (0.5-2.0) of the prepared activated carbon on the pore development and yield were investigated. Results showed that in all cases, increasing the carbonization temperature and impregnation ratio, the yield decreased, while the adsorption of CO2 increased, progressively. Specific surface area of activated carbon was maximum about 1170 m2/g at 800 degrees C with activation duration of 2 h and at an impregnation ratio of 1.0.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) using biological process is one of the promising approaches for CO2 capture and storage. Recently, biological sequestration using microalgae has gained many interest due to its capability to utilize CO2 as carbon source and biomass produced can be used as a feedstock for other value added product for instance biofuel and chemicals. In this study, the CO2 biofixation by two microalgae species, Chlorella sp. and Tetraselmis suecica was investigated using different elevated CO2 concentration. The effect of CO2 concentration on microalgae growth kinetic, biofixation and its chemical composition were determined using 0.04, 5, 15 and 30% CO2. The variation of initial pH value and its relationship on CO2 concentration toward cultivation medium was also investigated. The present study indicated that both microalgae displayed different tolerance toward CO2 concentration. The maximum biomass production and biofixation for Chlorella sp. of 0.64gL-1 and 96.89mgL-1d-1 was obtained when the cultivation was carried out using 5 and 15% CO2, respectively. In contrast, the maximum biomass production and CO2 biofixation for T. suecica of 0.72gL-1 and 111.26mgL-1d-1 were obtained from cultivation using 15 and 5% CO2. The pH value for the cultivation medium using CO2 was between 7.5 and 9, which is favorable for microalgal growth. The potential of biomass obtained from the cultivation as a biorefinery feedstock was also evaluated. An anaerobic fermentation of the microalgae biomass by bacteria Clostridium saccharoperbutylacenaticum N1-4 produced various type of value added product such as organic acid and solvent. Approximately 0.27 and 0.90gL-1 of organic acid, which corresponding to acetic and butyric acid were produced from the fermentation of Chlorella sp. and T. suecica biomass. Overall, this study suggests that Chlorella sp. and T. suecica are efficient microorganism that can be used for CO2 biofixation and as a feedstock for chemical production.
The carbon dioxide (CO2) crisis is one of the world's most urgent issues. Meeting the worldwide targets set for CO2 capture and storage (CCS) is crucial. Because it may significantly reduce energy consumption compared to traditional amine-based adsorption capture, adsorption dependant CO2 capture is regarded as one of the most hopeful techniques in this paradigm. The expansion of unique, critical edge adsorbent materials has received most of the research attention to date, with the main objective of improving adsorption capacity and lifespan while lowering the temperature of adsorption, thereby lowering the energy demand of sorbent revival. There are specific materials needed for each step of the carbon cycle, including capture, regeneration, and conversion. The potential and efficiency of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in overcoming this obstacle have recently been proven through research. In this study, we pinpoint MOFs' precise structural and chemical characteristics that have contributed to their high capture capacity, effective regeneration and separation processes, and efficient catalytic conversions. As prospective materials for the next generation of energy storage and conversion applications, carbon-based compounds like graphene, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes are receiving a lot of interest. Their distinctive physicochemical characteristics make them suitable for these popular study topics, including structural stability and flexibility, high porosity, and customizable physicochemical traits. It is possible to precisely design the interior of MOFs to include coordinatively unsaturated metal sites, certain heteroatoms, covalent functionalization, various building unit interactions, and integrated nanoscale metal catalysts. This is essential for the creation of MOFs with improved performance. Utilizing the accuracy of MOF chemistry, more complicated materials must be built to handle selectivity, capacity, and conversion all at once to achieve a comprehensive solution. This review summarizes, the most recent developments in adsorption-based CO2 combustion capture, the CO2 adsorption capacities of various classes of solid sorbents, and the significance of advanced carbon nanomaterials for environmental remediation and energy conversion. This review also addresses the difficulties and potential of developing carbon-based electrodes for energy conversion and storage applications.
Activated carbons are regularly used the treatment of dye wastewater. They can be produced from various organics materials having high level of carbon content. In this study, a novel Pinang frond activated carbon (PFAC) was produced at various CO₂ flow rates in the range of 150-600 mL/min at activation temperature of 800°C for 3 hours. The optimum PFAC sample is found on CO₂ flow rate of 300 mL/min which gives the highest BET surface area and pore volume of 958 m²/g and 0.5469 mL/g, respectively. This sample shows well-developed pore structure with high fixed carbon content of 79.74%. The removal of methylene blue (MB) by 95.8% for initial MB concentration of 50 mg/L and 72.6% for 500 mg/L is achieved via this sample. The PFAC is thus identified to be a suitable adsorbent for removing MB from aqueous solution.
Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)). A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the SC-CO(2) extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y) as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.
The review focuses on the application of supercritical fluids as antisolvents in the pharmaceutical field and demonstrates the supercritical antisolvent method in the use of drug encapsulation. The main factors for choosing the solvent and biodegradable polymer to produce fine particles to ensure effective drug delivery are emphasized and the effect of polymer structure on drug encapsulation is illustrated. The review also demonstrates the drug release mechanism and polymeric controlled release system, and discusses the effects of the various conditions in the process, such as pressure, temperature, concentration, chemical compositions (organic solvents, drug, and biodegradable polymer), nozzle geometry, CO(2) flow rate, and the liquid phase flow rate on particle size and its distribution.
Separation of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from gaseous mixture is an important issue for the removal of CO(2) in natural gas processing and power plants. The ordered mesoporous silicas (OMS) with uniform pore structure and high density of silanol groups, have attracted the interest of researchers for separation of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) using adsorption process. These mesoporous silicas after functionalization with amino groups have been studied for the removal of CO(2). The potential of functionalized ordered mesoporous silica membrane for separation of CO(2) is also recognized. The present paper reviews the synthesis of mesoporous silicas and important issues related to the development of mesoporous silicas. Recent studies on the CO(2) separation using ordered mesoporous silicas (OMS) as adsorbent and membrane are highlighted. The future prospectives of mesoporous silica membrane for CO(2) adsorption and separation are also presented and discussed.
Acclimation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria using inorganic carbon source (CO(2) and bicarbonate) and hydrogen gas as electron donor was performed in this study. In this regard, activated sludge was used as the seed source and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technique was applied for accomplishing the acclimatization. Three distinct strategies in feeding of carbon sources were applied: (I) continuous sparging of CO(2), (II) bicarbonate plus continuous sparging of CO(2), and (III) only bicarbonate. The pH-reducing nature of CO(2) showed an unfavorable impact on denitrification rate; however bicarbonate resulted in a buffered environment in the mixed liquor and provided a suitable mean to maintain the pH in the desirable range of 7-8.2. As a result, bicarbonate as the only carbon source showed a faster adaptation, while carbon dioxide as the only carbon source as well as a complementary carbon source added to bicarbonate resulted in longer acclimation period. Adapted hydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria, using bicarbonate and hydrogen gas in the aforementioned pH range, caused denitrification at a rate of 13.33 mg NO(3)(-)-N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 20 and 30 mg NO(3)(-)-N/L and 9.09 mg NO(3)(-)-N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 50mg NO(3)(-)-N/L.
The developed microbial granules containing photosynthetic pigments had successfully achieved approximately 18-21% of carbon dioxide (CO2) removal in POME for one complete SBR cycle. Also, the granules had reached CO2 removal at 15-29% within 24h and removal of 25% after 5 days. Both results were inconsistent possibly due to the slow mass transfer rate of CO2 from gas to liquid as well as the simultaneous effect of CO2 production and respiration among the microbes. Furthermore, results showed the removal of CO2 from air increases proportionally with the CO2 removed in liquid. The CO2 biofixation of granules attained was approximately 0.23g/L/day for a week. Using the regression model, the removal of CO2 between liquid and gas, CO2 biofixation rate were highly correlated with the treatment time. A statistically significant relationship was obtained between CO2 concentration in liquid, biomass productivity and treatment time for the CO2 biofixation rate of the granules.
In this study, hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of a biomass was used as a means to improve the physicochemical properties of rubber seed shell (RSS) and enhance its reactivity in the char-CO2 gasification reaction, known as the Boudouard reaction (C + CO2 ↔ 2CO). Hydrochar samples were developed by hydrothermal treatment of RSS, without separating the solid residue from the liquid product, at 433, 473, 513, and 553 K under autogenous pressure. The CO2 gasification reactivity of the developed hydrochars was then investigated at different heating rates (5, 10, 20, and 30 K/min) by the non-isothermal thermogravimetric method. The hydrochars revealed higher reactivity and improved gasification characteristics compared to the untreated biomass, while the hydrochar which was filtered from the liquid slurry showed lower reactivity compared to the untreated biomass. This was due to the chemical and structural evolutions of the biomass during hydrothermal treatment as indicated by various analyses. The gasification reactivity of the hydrochar was substantially enhanced by introduction of a catalyst (NaNO3) during HTC. Kinetic analysis of the char-CO2 gasification reaction was carried out by applying Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), and Starink isoconversional methods, and thermodynamic parameters were also determined. The activation energy of the Na-loaded RSS hydrochar in CO2 gasification (120-154 kJ/mol) was considerably lower than that of the untreated biomass (153-172 kJ/mol). Thermodynamic studies also confirmed the promoting effect of hydrothermal treatment and catalyst impregnation on enhancement of reactivity of the virgin biomass and reduction of gasification temperature.
In an effort to seek a new technical platform for disposal of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS: alum sludge), pyrolysis of DWTS was mainly investigated in this study. To establish a more sustainable thermolytic platform for DWTS, this study particularly employed CO2 as reactive gas medium. Thus, this study laid great emphasis on elucidating the mechanistic roles of CO2 during the thermolysis of DWTS. A series of the TGA tests of DWTS in CO2 in reference to N2 revealed no occurrence of the heterogeneous reaction between CO2 and the sample surface of DWTS. As such, at the temperature regime before initiating the Boudouard reaction (i.e., ≥700 °C), the mass decay patterns of DWTS in N2 and CO2 were nearly identical. However, the gaseous effluents from lab-scale pyrolysis of DWTS in CO2 in reference to N2 were different. In sum, the homogeneous reactions between CO2 and volatile matters (VMs) evolved from the thermolysis of DWTS led to the enhanced generation of CO. Also, CO2 suppressed dehydrogenation of VMs. Such the genuine mechanistic roles of CO2 in the thermolysis of DWTS subsequently led to the compositional modifications of the chemical species in pyrolytic oil. Furthermore, the biochar composite was obtained as byproduct of pyrolysis of DWTS. Considering that the high content of Al2O3 and Fe-species in the biochar composite imparts a strong affinity for As(V), the practical use of the biochar composite as a sorptive material for arsenic (V) was evaluated at the fundamental levels. This work reported that adsorption of As(V) onto the biochar composite followed the pseudo-second order model and the Freundlich isotherm model.
Clinical solid waste (CSW) poses a challenge to health care facilities because of the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, leading to concerns in the effective sterilization of the CSW for safe handling and elimination of infectious disease transmission. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) was applied to inactivate gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and gram-negative Escherichia coli in CSW. The effects of SC-CO2 sterilization parameters such as pressure, temperature, and time were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Results showed that the data were adequately fitted into the second-order polynomial model. The linear quadratic terms and interaction between pressure and temperature had significant effects on the inactivation of S. aureus, E. coli, E. faecalis, and B. subtilis in CSW. Optimum conditions for the complete inactivation of bacteria within the experimental range of the studied variables were 20 MPa, 60 °C, and 60 min. The SC-CO2-treated bacterial cells, observed under a scanning electron microscope, showed morphological changes, including cell breakage and dislodged cell walls, which could have caused the inactivation. This espouses the inference that SC-CO2 exerts strong inactivating effects on the bacteria present in CSW, and has the potential to be used in CSW management for the safe handling and recycling-reuse of CSW materials.
Phytosterols provide important health benefits: in particular, the lowering of cholesterol. From environmental and commercial points of view, the most appropriate technique has been searched for extracting phytosterols from plant matrices. As a green technology, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide (CO2) is widely used to extract bioactive compounds from different plant matrices. Several studies have been performed to extract phytosterols using supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and this technology has clearly offered potential advantages over conventional extraction methods. However, the efficiency of SFE technology fully relies on the processing parameters, chemistry of interest compounds, nature of the plant matrices and expertise of handling. This review covers SFE technology with particular reference to phytosterol extraction using SC-CO2. Moreover, the chemistry of phytosterols, properties of supercritical fluids (SFs) and the applied experimental designs have been discussed for better understanding of phytosterol solubility in SC-CO2.
In this investigation, palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and almond shell (AS) were implemented as two natural catalysts rich in alkali metals, especially potassium, to enhance the reactivity of tire-char through co-gasification process. Co-gasification experiments were conducted at several blending ratios using isothermal Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under CO2. The pronounced effect of inherent alkali content of biomass-chars on promoting the reactivity of tire-char was proven when acid-treated biomass-chars did not exert any catalytic effect on improving the reactivity of tire-char in co-gasification experiments. In kinetic studies of the co-gasified samples in chemically-controlled regime, modified random pore model (M-RPM) was adopted to describe the reactive behavior of the tire-char/biomass-char blends. By virtue of the catalytic effect of biomass, the activation energy for tire-char gasification was lowered from 250 kJ/mol in pure form 203 to 187 kJ/mol for AS-char and EFB-char co-gasified samples, respectively.
Activated carbons can be produced from different precursors, including coals of different ranks, and lignocellulosic materials, by physical or chemical activation processes. The objective of this paper is to characterize oil-palm shells, as a biomass byproduct from palm-oil mills which were converted into activated carbons by nitrogen pyrolysis followed by CO2 activation. The effects of no holding peak pyrolysis temperature on the physical characteristics of the activated carbons are studied. The BET surface area of the activated carbon is investigated using N2 adsorption at 77 K with selected temperatures of 500, 600, and 700°C. These pyrolysis conditions for preparing the activated carbons are found to yield higher BET surface area at a pyrolysis temperature of 700°C compared to selected commercial activated carbon. The activated carbons thus result in well-developed porosities and predominantly microporosities. By using this activation method, significant improvement can be obtained in the surface characteristics of the activated carbons. Thus this study shows that the preparation time can be shortened while better results of activated carbon can be produced.
Candlenut oil was extracted using supercritical CO(2) (SC-CO(2)) with an optimization of parameters, by the response surface methodology. The ground candlenut samples were treated in 2 different ways, that is, dried in either a heat oven (sample moisture content of 2.91%) or dried in a vacuum oven (sample moisture content of 1.98%), before extraction. An untreated sample (moisture content of 4.87%) was used as a control. The maximum percentage of oil was extracted from the heat-oven-dried sample (77.27%), followed by the vacuum-oven-dried sample (74.32%), and the untreated sample (70.12%). At an SC-CO(2) pressure of 48.26 Mpa and 60 min of extraction time, the optimal temperatures for extraction were found to be 76.4 °C, 73.9 °C, and 70.6 °C for the untreated, heat-oven-dried, and vacuum-oven-dried samples, respectively. The heat-oven-dried sample contains the highest percentage of linoleic acid, followed by the untreated and vacuum-oven-dried samples. The antiradical activity of candlenut oil corresponded to an IC(50) value of 30.37 mg/mL.
This study performed an assessment on the beneficial of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) application on waste treatment system in a local palm oil industry in Malaysia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to assess the environmental impacts of the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction from the CDM application. Calculations on the emission reduction used the methodology based on AM002 (Avoided Wastewater and On-site Energy Use Emissions in the Industrial Sector) Version 4 published by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). The results from the studies showed that the introduction of CDM in the palm oil mill through conversion of the captured biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment into power generation were able to reduce approximate 0.12 tonnes CO2 equivalent concentration (tCO2e) emission and 30 kW x hr power generation per 1 tonne of fresh fruit bunch processed. Thus, the application of CDM methodology on palm oil mill wastewater treatment was able to reduce up to 1/4 of the overall environment impact generated in palm oil mill.