Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 66 in total

  1. Ho SY, Goh CW, Gan JY, Lee YS, Lam MK, Hong N, et al.
    Zebrafish, 2014 Oct;11(5):407-20.
    PMID: 24967707 DOI: 10.1089/zeb.2013.0879
    Existing zebrafish embryonic stem (ES) cell lines are derived and maintained using feeder layers. We describe here the derivation and long-term culture of an ES cell-like line derived from zebrafish blastomeres without the use of feeder cells. This line, designated as ZES1, has been maintained for more than 800 days in defined Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum, zebrafish embryo extract, trout serum, and human basic fibroblast growth factor. ZES1 cells possessed a morphology typical of ES cells, being round or polygonal in shape with a large nucleus and sparse cytoplasm and were mostly diploid. The cells formed individual colonies consisting of tightly packed cells that stained positively for alkaline phosphatase. ZES1 cells also formed embryoid bodies when transferred onto uncoated wells. The pluripotent nature of ZES1 cells was confirmed when they could be induced to differentiate in vitro into several cell types, through low- or high-density culture conditions. Treatment with retinoic acid also induced the differentiation of ZES1 cells into primarily neuronal cells. Using immunostaining and real-time polymerase chain reaction, we showed that Sox2, a known pluripotent marker in mammalian ES cells, was also present in ZES1 cells. Chimera experiments revealed that fluorescent-labeled ZES1 cells microinjected into zebrafish blastulas participated in the formation of all three germ layers. Using GFP-labeled ZES1 cells, chimera germline transmission was also demonstrated at the F1 generation. In conclusion, ZES1 cells possess both in vitro and in vivo pluripotency characteristics, indicating that nonmammalian ES cells can be readily derived and maintained for a long term under feeder-free culture conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Culture Techniques/methods*
  2. Chua KB, Chua IL, Chua IE, Chong KH, Chua KH
    Malays J Pathol, 2005 Dec;27(2):99-105.
    PMID: 17191392
    A mycological medium was developed for primary isolation and culture of lipophilic yeasts. It was initially based on published information of nutrients and trace components that would promote the growth of these yeasts. It was subsequently modified and adjusted to specifically promote the growth of lipophilic yeasts and simultaneously avoid the luxurious growth of other fungi and bacteria. With this medium, the conventional bacteriological procedures such as microbial streaking for pure culture and anti-microbial sensitivity testing could be carried out for these lipophilic yeasts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Culture Techniques/methods*
  3. Gantait S, El-Dawayati MM, Panigrahi J, Labrooy C, Verma SK
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2018 Oct;102(19):8229-8259.
    PMID: 30054703 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9232-x
    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the most important fruit trees that contribute a major part to the economy of Middle East and North African countries. It is quintessentially called "tree of life" owing to its resilience to adverse climatic conditions, along with manifold nutritional-cum-medicinal attributes that comes from its fruits and other plant parts. Being a tree with such immense utility, it has gained substantial attention of tree breeders for its genetic advancement via in vitro biotechnological interventions. Herein, an extensive review of biotechnological research advances in date palm has been consolidated as one of the major research achievements during the past two decades. This article compares the different biotechnological techniques used in this species such as: tissue and organ culture, bioreactor-mediated large-scale propagation, cell suspension culture, embryogenic culture, protoplast culture, conservation (for short- and long-term) of germplasms, in vitro mutagenesis, in vitro selection against biotic and abiotic stresses, secondary metabolite production in vitro, and genetic transformation. This review provides an insight on crop improvement and breeding programs for improved yield and quality fruits; besides, it would undeniably facilitate the tissue culture-based research on date palm for accelerated propagation and enhanced production of quality planting materials, along with conservation and exchange of germplasms, and genetic engineering. In addition, the unexplored research methodologies and major bottlenecks identified in this review should be contemplated on in near future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Culture Techniques/methods
  4. Ravanfar SA, Orbovic V, Moradpour M, Abdul Aziz M, Karan R, Wallace S, et al.
    Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev, 2017 Apr;33(1):1-25.
    PMID: 28460558 DOI: 10.1080/02648725.2017.1309821
    Development of in vitro plant regeneration method from Brassica explants via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis is influenced by many factors such as culture environment, culture medium composition, explant sources, and genotypes which are reviewed in this study. An efficient in vitro regeneration system to allow genetic transformation of Brassica is a crucial tool for improving its economical value. Methods to optimize transformation protocols for the efficient introduction of desirable traits, and a comparative analysis of these methods are also reviewed. Hence, binary vectors, selectable marker genes, minimum inhibitory concentration of selection agents, reporter marker genes, preculture media, Agrobacterium concentration and regeneration ability of putative transformants for improvement of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brassica are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Culture Techniques/methods*
  5. Saadatnia G, Haj Ghani H, Khoo BY, Maimunah A, Rahmah N
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Apr;27(1):125-30.
    PMID: 20562822
    In vitro culture of Toxoplasma gondii can provide tachyzoites which are active, viable and with desirable purity. Thus the aim of this study was to optimize the cell culture method for T. gondii propagation to obtain a consistent source of parasites with maximum yield and viability, but minimum host cell contamination for use in production of excretory-secretory antigen. Tachyzoites with seed counts of 1x10(6), 1x10(7) and 1x10(8) harvested from infected mice were added to VERO cells of different degrees of confluence, namely 50%, 85% and 100%, and examined periodically using an inverted microscope. When the maximum release of the tachyzoites was observed from the host cells, the culture supernatant was removed and the tachyzoites harvested. Using a Neubauer chamber, the percentages of viable tachyzoites and host cell contamination were determined using trypan blue stain. Parameters that gave the best yield and purity of viable tachyzoites were found to be as follows: VERO cells at 85% confluence in DMEM medium and inoculum comprising 1x10(7) tachyzoites. After about 3 days post infection, the tachyzoites multiplied 78x, with a yield of ~7.8x10(8) per flask, 99% viability and 3% host cell contamination. This study has successfully optimized the method of propagation of T. gondii tachyzoites in VERO cells which produce parasites with high yield, purity and viability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Culture Techniques/methods*
  6. Yaacob JS, Mahmad N, Mat Taha R, Mohamed N, Mad Yussof AI, Saleh A
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:262710.
    PMID: 24977187 DOI: 10.1155/2014/262710
    Various explants (stem, leaf, and root) of Citrus assamensis were cultured on MS media supplemented with various combinations and concentrations (0.5-2.0 mg L(-1)) of NAA and BAP. Optimum shoot and root regeneration were obtained from stem cultures supplemented with 1.5 mg L(-1) NAA and 2.0 mg L(-1) BAP, respectively. Explant type affects the success of tissue culture of this species, whereby stem explants were observed to be the most responsive. Addition of 30 gL(-1) sucrose and pH of 5.8 was most optimum for in vitro regeneration of this species. Photoperiod of 16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness was most optimum for shoot regeneration, but photoperiod of 24 hours of darkness was beneficial for production of callus. The morphology (macro and micro) and anatomy of in vivo and in vitro/ex vitro Citrus assamensis were also observed to elucidate any irregularities (or somaclonal variation) that may arise due to tissue culture protocols. Several minor micromorphological and anatomical differences were observed, possibly due to stress of tissue culture, but in vitro plantlets are expected to revert back to normal phenotype following full adaptation to the natural environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Culture Techniques/methods*
  7. Imaizumi Y, Nagao N, Yusoff FM, Taguchi S, Toda T
    Bioresour Technol, 2014 Jun;162:53-9.
    PMID: 24747382 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.03.123
    To determine the optimum light intensity per cell required for rapid growth regardless of cell density, continuous cultures of the microalga Chlorella zofingiensis were grown with a sufficient supply of nutrients and CO2 and were subjected to different light intensities in the range of 75-1000 μE m(-2) s(-1). The cell density of culture increased over time for all light conditions except for the early stage of the high light condition of 1000 μE m(-2) s(-1). The light intensity per cell required for the high specific growth rate of 0.5 day(-1) was determined to be 28-45 μE g-ds(-1) s(-1). The specific growth rate was significantly correlated to light intensity (y=0.721×x/(66.98+x), r(2)=0.85, p<0.05). A high specific growth rate was maintained over a range of light intensities (250-1000 μE m(-2) s(-1)). This range of light intensities suggested that effective production of C. zofingiensis can be maintained outdoors under strong light by using the optimum specific light intensity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Culture Techniques/methods*
  8. Ataollahi F, Pingguan-Murphy B, Moradi A, Wan Abas WA, Chua KH, Abu Osman NA
    Cytotherapy, 2014 Aug;16(8):1145-52.
    PMID: 24831838 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2014.01.010
    Numerous protocols for the isolation of bovine aortic endothelial cells have been described in the previous literature. However, these protocols prevent researchers from obtaining the pure population of endothelial cells. Thus, this study aimed to develop a new and economical method for the isolation of pure endothelial cells by introducing a new strategy to the enzymatic digestion method proposed by previous researchers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Culture Techniques/methods*
  9. Alshelmani MI, Loh TC, Foo HL, Lau WH, Sazili AQ
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:689235.
    PMID: 24319380 DOI: 10.1155/2013/689235
    Nine aerobic cellulolytic bacterial cultures were obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The objectives of this study were to characterize the cellulolytic bacteria and to determine the optimum moisture ratio required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC). The bacteria cultures were grown on reconstituted nutrient broth, incubated at 30°C and agitated at 200 rpm. Carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase activities were determined using different substrates and after SSF of PKC. The SSF was conducted for 4 and 7 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC concentration-to-moisture ratios: 1 : 0.2, 1 : 0.3, 1 : 0.4, and 1 : 0.5. Results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1067 DSMZ, Bacillus megaterium 9885 ATCC, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus 10248 DSMZ, and Paenibacillus polymyxa 842 ATCC produced higher enzyme activities as compared to other bacterial cultures grown on different substrates. The cultures mentioned above also produced higher enzyme activities when they were incubated under SSF using PKC as a substrate in different PKC-to-moisture ratios after 4 days of incubation, indicating that these cellulolytic bacteria can be used to degrade and improve the nutrient quality of PKC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Culture Techniques/methods
  10. Reshak AH, Shahimin MM, Buang F
    Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol., 2013 Nov;113(2):295-8.
    PMID: 24080186 DOI: 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2013.09.001
    Mammalian adipose tissue derived stem cells (AT-SC) have a tremendous potential in regenerative medicine for tissue engineering and somatic nuclear transfer (SNT). The isolation methods of human and bovine adipose tissue derived stem cells are compared in this paper to determine the feasibility and optimum method of isolation. The optimum isolation method will reduce the processing time, efforts and money as isolation is the first crucial and important step in stem cells research. Human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and bovine abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue are digested in three collagenase type 1 concentration 0.075%, 0.3% and 0.6% agitated at 1 h and 2 h under 37 °C in 5% CO2 incubator. The cultures are then morphologically characterised. Human adipose tissue stem cells are found to be best isolated using abdominal subcutaneous depot, using 0.075% collagenase type 1 agitated at 1 h under 37 °C in CO2 incubator. While bovine adipose tissue derived stem cells are best isolated using abdominal subcutaneous depot, using 0.6% collagenase type 1 agitated at 2 h under 37 °C in CO2 incubator.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Culture Techniques/methods
  11. Al-Amrani WA, Lim PE, Seng CE, Ngah WS
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 Aug;118:633-7.
    PMID: 22704829 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.05.090
    The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the role of mixed culture of biomass in the regeneration of mono-amine modified silica (MAMS) and granular activated carbon (GAC) loaded with Acid Orange 7 (AO7), (2) to quantify and compare the bioregeneration efficiencies of AO7-loaded MAMS and GAC using the sequential adsorption and biodegradation approach and (3) to evaluate the reusability of bioregenerated MAMS. The results show that considerably higher bioregeneration efficiency of AO7-loaded MAMS as compared to that of AO7-loaded GAC was achieved due to higher reversibility of adsorption of MAMS for AO7 and favorable pH factor resulting in more AO7 desorption. The progressive loss of adsorption capacity of MAMS for AO7 with multiple cycles of use suggests possible chemical and microbial fouling of the adsorption sites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Batch Cell Culture Techniques/methods*
  12. Khan MA, Ngabura M, Choong TS, Masood H, Chuah LA
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 Jan;103(1):35-42.
    PMID: 22055093 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.09.065
    Biosorption potential of mustard oil cake (MOC) for Ni(II) from aqueous medium was studied. Spectroscopic studies showed possible involvement of acidic (hydroxyl, carbonyl and carboxyl) groups in biosorption. Optimum biosorption was observed at pH 8. Contact time, reaction temperature, biosorbent dose and adsorbate concentration showed significant influence. Linear and non-linear isotherms comparison suggests applicability of Temkin model at 303 and 313 K and Freundlich model at 323K. Kinetics studies revealed applicability of Pseudo-second-order model. The process was endothermic and spontaneous. Freundlich constant (n) and activation energy (Ea) values confirm physical nature of the process. The breakthrough and exhaustive capacities for 5 mg/L initial Ni(II) concentration were 0.25 and 4.5 mg/g, while for 10 mg/L initial Ni(II) concentration were 4.5 and 9.5 mg/g, respectively. Batch desorption studies showed maximum Ni(II) recovery in acidic medium. Regeneration studies by batch and column process confirmed reutilization of biomass without appreciable loss in biosorption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Batch Cell Culture Techniques/methods*
  13. Zain MM, Kofli NT, Rozaimah S, Abdullah S
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2011 May 01;14(9):526-32.
    PMID: 22032081
    Bioethanol production using yeast has become a popular topic due to worrying depleting worldwide fuel reserve. The aim of the study was to investigate the capability of Malaysia yeast strains isolated from starter culture used in traditional fermented food and alcoholic beverages in producing Bioethanol using alginate beads entrapment method. The starter yeast consists of groups of microbes, thus the yeasts were grown in Sabouraud agar to obtain single colony called ST1 (tuak) and ST3 (tapai). The growth in Yeast Potatoes Dextrose (YPD) resulted in specific growth of ST1 at micro = 0.396 h-1 and ST3 at micro = 0.38 h-1, with maximum ethanol production of 7.36 g L-1 observed using ST1 strain. The two strains were then immobilized using calcium alginate entrapment method producing average alginate beads size of 0.51 cm and were grown in different substrates; YPD medium and Local Brown Sugar (LBS) for 8 h in flask. The maximum ethanol concentration measured after 7 h were at 6.63 and 6.59 g L-1 in YPD media and 1.54 and 1.39 g L-1in LBS media for ST1 and ST3, respectively. The use of LBS as carbon source showed higher yield of product (Yp/s), 0.59 g g-1 compared to YPD, 0.25 g g-1 in ST1 and (Yp/s), 0.54 g g-1 compared to YPD, 0.24 g g-1 in ST3 . This study indicated the possibility of using local strains (STI and ST3) to produce bioethanol via immobilization technique with local materials as substrate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Culture Techniques/methods
  14. Fatimah SS, Ng SL, Chua KH, Hayati AR, Tan AE, Tan GC
    Hum. Cell, 2010 Nov;23(4):141-51.
    PMID: 21166885 DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-0774.2010.00096.x
    Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) are potentially one of the key players in tissue engineering due to their easy availability. The aim of the present study was to develop an optimal isolation and transportation technique, as well as to determine the immunophenotype and epithelial gene expression of hAECs. Amnion was mechanically peeled off from the chorion and digested with trypsin-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The isolated hAECs were cultured in medium containing 10 ng/mL epidermal growth factor until P4. The epithelial gene expression, cell surface antigen and protein expression of hAECs were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. hAECs were also cultured in adipogenic, osteogenic and neurogenic induction media. The best cell yield of hAECs was seen in the digestion of 15 pieces of amnion (2 × 2 cm) and isolated 30 min after digestion with trypsin. F12:Dulbecco's modified eagle medium was the best medium for short term storage at 4 °C. hAECs expressed CD9, CD44, CD73 and CD90, and negligibly expressed CD31, CD34, CD45 and CD117. After serial passage, CK3, CK19 and involucrin gene expressions were upregulated, while p63, CK1 and CK14 gene expressions were downregulated. Sustained gene expressions of integrin β1 and CK18 were observed. At initial culture, these cells might have stem-like properties. However, they differentiated after serial passage. Nonetheless, hAECs have epithelial stem cell characteristics and have the potential to differentiate into corneal epithelial cells. Further investigations are still needed to elucidate the mechanism of differentiation involved and to optimize the culture condition for long term in vitro culture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Culture Techniques/methods*
  15. Ariffin H, Hassan MA, Shah UK, Abdullah N, Ghazali FM, Shirai Y
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2008 Sep;106(3):231-6.
    PMID: 18929997 DOI: 10.1263/jbb.106.231
    In this study, endoglucanase was produced from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) by a locally isolated aerobic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus EB3. The effects of the fermentation parameters such as initial pH, temperature, and nitrogen source on the endoglucanase production were studied using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the carbon source. Endoglucanase from B. pumilus EB3 was maximally secreted at 37 degrees C, initial pH 7.0 with 10 g/l of CMC as carbon source, and 2 g/l of yeast extract as organic nitrogen source. The activity recorded during the fermentation was 0.076 U/ml. The productivity of the enzyme increased twofold when 2 g/l of yeast extract was used as the organic nitrogen supplement as compared to the non-supplemented medium. An interesting finding from this study is that pretreated OPEFB medium showed comparable results to CMC medium in terms of enzyme production with an activity of 0.063 U/ml. As OPEFB is an abundant solid waste at palm oil mills, it has the potential of acting as a substrate in cellulase production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Culture Techniques/methods*
  16. Halim NHA, Zakaria N, Satar NA, Yahaya BH
    Methods Mol Biol, 2016;1516:371-388.
    PMID: 27032945 DOI: 10.1007/7651_2016_326
    Cancer is a major health problem worldwide. The failure of current treatments to completely eradicate cancer cells often leads to cancer recurrence and dissemination. Studies have suggested that tumor growth and spread are driven by a minority of cancer cells that exhibit characteristics similar to those of normal stem cells, thus these cells are called cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are believed to play an important role in initiating and promoting cancer. CSCs are resistant to currently available cancer therapies, and understanding the mechanisms that control the growth of CSCs might have great implications for cancer therapy. Cancer cells are consist of heterogeneous population of cells, thus methods of identification, isolation, and characterisation of CSCs are fundamental to obtain a pure CSC populations. Therefore, this chapter describes in detail a method for isolating and characterizing a pure population of CSCs from heterogeneous population of cancer cells and CSCs based on specific cell surface markers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Culture Techniques/methods*
  17. Wan Safwani WKZ, Choi JR, Yong KW, Ting I, Mat Adenan NA, Pingguan-Murphy B
    Cryobiology, 2017 04;75:91-99.
    PMID: 28108309 DOI: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2017.01.006
    Cryopreservation is the only existing method of storage of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) for clinical use. However, cryopreservation has been shown to be detrimental to ASCs, particularly in term of cell viability. To restore the viability of cryopreserved ASCs, it is proposed to culture the cells in a hypoxic condition. To this end, we aim to investigate the effect of hypoxia on the cryopreserved human ASCs in terms of not only cell viability, but also their growth and stemness properties, which have not been explored yet. In this study, human ASCs were cultured under four different conditions: fresh (non-cryopreserved) cells cultured in 1) normoxia (21% O2) and 2) hypoxia (2% O2) and cryopreserved cells cultured in 3) normoxia and 4) hypoxia. ASCs at passage 3 were subjected to assessment of viability, proliferation, differentiation, and expression of stemness markers and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). We found that hypoxia enhances the viability and the proliferation rate of cryopreserved ASCs. Further, hypoxia upregulates HIF-1α in cryopreserved ASCs, which in turn activates chondrogenic genes to promote chondrogenic differentiation. In conclusion, hypoxic-preconditioned cryopreserved ASCs could be an ideal cell source for cartilage repair and regeneration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Culture Techniques/methods*
  18. Abd Rahim MH, Lim EJ, Hasan H, Abbas A
    J Microbiol Methods, 2019 09;164:105672.
    PMID: 31326443 DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2019.105672
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the effect of nitrogen, salt and pre-culture conditions on the production of lovastatin in A. terreus ATCC 20542.

    METHODS: Different combinations of nitrogen sources, salts and pre-culture combinations were applied in the fermentation media and lovastatin yield was analysed chromatographically.

    RESULT: The exclusion of MnSO4 ·5H2O, CuSO4·5H2O and FeCl3·6H2O were shown to significantly improve lovastatin production (282%), while KH2PO4, MgSO4·7H2O, and NaCl and ZnSO4·7H2O were indispensable for good lovastatin production. Simple nitrogen source (ammonia) was unfavourable for morphology, growth and lovastatin production. In contrast, yeast extract (complex nitrogen source) produced the highest lovastatin yield (25.52 mg/L), while powdered soybean favoured the production of co-metabolites ((+)-geodin and sulochrin). Intermediate lactose: yeast extract (5:4) ratio produced the optimal lovastatin yield (12.33 mg/L) during pre-culture, while high (5:2) or low (5:6) lactose to yeast extract ratio produced significantly lower lovastatin yield (7.98 mg/L and 9.12 mg/L, respectively). High spore concentration, up to 107 spores/L was shown to be beneficial for lovastatin, but not for co-metabolite production, while higher spore age was shown to be beneficial for all of its metabolites.

    CONCLUSION: The findings from these investigations could be used for future cultivation of A. terreus in the production of desired metabolites.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Culture Techniques/methods
  19. Al-Shorgani NKN, Al-Tabib AI, Kadier A, Zanil MF, Lee KM, Kalil MS
    Sci Rep, 2019 03 15;9(1):4622.
    PMID: 30874578 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-40840-y
    Continuous fermentation of dilute acid-pretreated de-oiled rice bran (DRB) to butanol by the Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1 strain was investigated. Pretreatment of DRB with dilute sulfuric acid (1%) resulted in the production of 42.12 g/L total sugars, including 25.57 g/L glucose, 15.1 g/L xylose and 1.46 g/L cellobiose. Pretreated-DRB (SADRB) was used as a fermentation medium at various dilution rates, and a dilution rate of 0.02 h-1 was optimal for solvent production, in which 11.18 g/L of total solvent was produced (acetone 4.37 g/L, butanol 5.89 g/L and ethanol 0.92 g/L). Detoxification of SADRB with activated charcoal resulted in the high removal of fermentation inhibitory compounds. Fermentation of detoxified-SADRB in continuous fermentation with a dilution rate of 0.02 h-1 achieved higher concentrations of solvent (12.42 g/L) and butanol (6.87 g/L), respectively, with a solvent productivity of 0.248 g/L.h. This study showed that the solvent concentration and productivity in continuous fermentation from SADRB was higher than that obtained from batch culture fermentation. This study also provides an economic assessment for butanol production in continuous fermentation process from DRB to validate the commercial viability of this process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Batch Cell Culture Techniques/methods*
  20. Hii KS, Lim PT, Kon NF, Usup G, Gu H, Leaw CP
    Gene, 2019 Aug 30;711:143950.
    PMID: 31255736 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2019.143950
    The marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum is known to produce saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning in human worldwide through consumption of the contaminated shellfish mollusks. Despite numerous studies on the growth physiology and saxitoxin production of this species, the knowledge on the molecular basis of nutrient uptakes in relation to toxin production in this species is limited. In this study, relative expressions of the high-affinity transporter genes of nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate (AmNrt2, AmAmt1 and AmPiPT1) and the assimilation genes, nitrate reductase (AmNas), glutamine synthase (AmGSIII) and carbamoyl phosphate synthase (AmCPSII) from A. minutum were studied in batch clonal culture condition with two nitrogen sources (nitrate: NO3- or ammonium: NH4+) under different N:P ratios (high-P: N:P of 14 and 16, and low-P: N:P of 155). The expression of AmAmt1 was suppressed in excess NH4+-grown condition but was not observed in AmNrt2 and AmNas. Expressions of AmAmt1, AmNrt2, AmNas, AmGSIII, AmCPSII, and AmPiPT1 were high in P-deficient condition, showing that A. minutum is likely to take up nutrients for growth under P-stress condition. Conversely, relative expression of AmCPSII was incongruent with cell growth, but was well correlated with toxin quota, suggesting that the gene might involve in arginine metabolism and related toxin production pathway. The expression of AmGSIII is found coincided with higher toxin production and is believed to involve in mechanism to detoxify the cells from excess ammonium stress. The gene regulation observed in this study has provided better insights into the ecophysiology of A. minutum in relation to its adaptive strategies in unfavorable environments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Batch Cell Culture Techniques/methods*
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