MATERIALS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin- embedded tumour tissue of 144 no special type (NST) invasive breast carcinomas histologically diagnosed between January 2009 and December 2012 in Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Setar, Kedah were immunostained with COX-2 antibody. COX-2 overexpression was analysed against demographic data, hormone receptor status, HER2- neu overexpression, histological grade, tumour size and lymph node status.
RESULTS: COX-2 was overexpressed in 108/144 (75%) tumours and was significantly more prevalent (87%) in hormone receptor-positive tumours. There was no correlation between COX-2 overexpression and HER2/neu status. Triple negative cancers had the lowest prevalence (46%) (p<0.05). A rising trend of COX-2 overexpression with increasing age was observed. There was a significant inverse relationship with tumour grade (p<0.05), prevalences being 94%, 83% and 66% in grades 1, 2 and 3 tumours, respectively. A higher prevalence of COX-2 overexpression in smaller size tumours was observed but this did not reach statistical significance. There was no relationship between COX-2 expression and lymph node status.
CONCLUSIONS: This study did not support the generally held notion that COX-2 overexpression is linked to poor prognosis, rather supporting a role in tumorigenesis. Larger scale studies with outcome data and basic studies on cancer pathogenetic pathways will be required to cast further light on whether COX-2 inhibitors would have clinical utility in cancer prevention or blockage of cancer progression. In either setting, the pathological assessment for COX-2 overexpression in breast cancers would have an important role in the selection of cancer patients for personalized therapy with COX-2 inhibitors.
Methods: A total of 100 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded urothelial carcinoma tissues were selected from the Department of Pathology, Hospital Kuala Lumpur and the protein expression of ISL1 and LHX5 was determined using immunohistochemistry.
Results: Positive expression of ISL1 and LHX5 was detected in 94% and 98% of the samples, respectively. There were no distinct LHX5 expression patterns associated with different cancer stages, but the proportion of high-expressing tumours was higher in high-grade tumours. In addition, there was a significant association between the expression of LHX5 and tumour grade. The proportion of tumours expressing high levels of ISL1 was found to be highest in later stage tumours.
Conclusion: The high percentage of tumours expressing both these genes suggests that ISL1 and LHX5 play an important role in bladder tumourigenesis across multiple stages.
METHODS: Detailed, retrospective clinico-pathological analysis of potentially malignant lesions undergoing malignant transformation, from a 590 patient cohort treated by interventional laser surgery and followed for a mean of 7.3 years, was undertaken. Clinical outcome was documented at study census date (31 December 2014).
RESULTS: A total of 99 patients (16.8%) developed cancer: 71 (12%) seen "unexpectedly" upon excision and 28 (4.8%) progressing to malignancy at a median of 87.3 months post-surgery. Thirty "unexpected" excisions were micro-invasive (42.3%) arising primarily in severely dysplastic precursors (75%) at ventro-lateral tongue and floor of mouth sites (54.5%); 1 patient (1.4%) had a cancer-related death, whilst 58 (81.7%) were disease free. A total of 19 of 28 "progressive" cancers (67.9%) arose at new sites, with erythroleukoplakia a significant predictor of malignancy (P = .0019). Nine (32.1%) developed at the same precursor site, with 6 (77.7%) on the ventro-lateral tongue and floor of mouth. Three (10.7%) were micro-invasive, 9 patients (32.1%) died from metastatic disease and 12 (42.9%) were disease free (P < .001).
CONCLUSION: Squamous carcinoma may arise at the site of a precursor lesion as transformation or new-site development via field cancerisation. Whilst interventional surgery facilitates early diagnosis and treatment of occult disease, thus reducing risk from same-site transformation, new-site cancer is a significant long-term risk for patients with potentially malignant disorder.
CASE REPORT: We described a patient with ET whose disease evolved into MDS with fibrosis and complex karyotype after 15 years of stable disease. She was asymptomatic and was on hydroxyurea (HU) treatment until recently when she presented with worsening anaemia. Physical examination showed mild splenomegaly. Full blood picture showed leukoerythroblastic picture with presence of 3% circulating blasts and background of dysplastic features such as hypogranular cytoplasm and nuclear hyposegmentation of neutrophils. The bone marrow aspiration was haemodiluted but revealed presence of 6% blast cells, trilineage dysplasia and predominant erythroid precursors (60%). Trephine biopsy showed no excess of blast cells and normal quantity of erythroid precursors, but there was increased in fibrosis (WHO grade 2) and presence of dysmegakaryopoeisis such as nuclear hypolobation, multinucleation and micromegakaryocytes. Cytogenetic study showed complex karyotype; monosomy of chromosome 2, chromosome 5, chromosome 18 and presence of a marker chromosome (42~44, XX,-2,-5,-18,+mar). Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) showed 5q deletion (CSF1R and EGR1).
CONCLUSION: The findings were consistent with transformation of ET to MDS with fibrosis and complex karyotype. ET progression to MDS is considered rare. The presence of complex karyotype and fibrosis in MDS are associated with unfavourable outcome.