Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 82 in total

  1. Ahmed Adam MA, Tabana YM, Musa KB, Sandai DA
    Oncol. Rep., 2017 Mar;37(3):1321-1336.
    PMID: 28184933 DOI: 10.3892/or.2017.5424
    The chemical nature of most of the mycotoxins makes them highly liposoluble compounds that can be absorbed from the site of exposure such as from the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract to the blood stream where it can be dissimilated throughout the body and reach different organs such as the liver and kidneys. Mycotoxins have a strong tendency and ability to penetrate the human and animal cells and reach the cellular genome where it causes a major mutagenic change in the nucleotide sequence which leads to strong and permanent defects in the genome. This defect will eventually be transcribed, translated and lead to the development of cancer. In this review, the chemical and physical nature of mycotoxins, the action of mycotoxins on the cellular genome and its effect on humans, mycotoxins and their carcinogenicity and mycotoxins research gaps are discussed, and new research areas are suggested. The research review posed various questions. What are the different mycotoxins that can cause cancer, what is the role of mycotoxins in causing cancer and what types of cancers can be caused by mycotoxins? These questions have been selected due to the significant increase in the mycotoxin contamination and the cancer incidence rate in the contemporary world. By revealing and understanding the role of mycotoxins in developing cancer, measures to reduce the risks and incidents of cancer could be taken.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/chemically induced; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/pathology*
  2. Shahruzaman SH, Fakurazi S, Maniam S
    Cancer Manag Res, 2018;10:2325-2335.
    PMID: 30104901 DOI: 10.2147/CMAR.S167424
    Adaptive metabolic responses toward a low oxygen environment are essential to maintain rapid proliferation and are relevant for tumorigenesis. Reprogramming of core metabolism in tumors confers a selective growth advantage such as the ability to evade apoptosis and/or enhance cell proliferation and promotes tumor growth and progression. One of the mechanisms that contributes to tumor growth is the impairment of cancer cell metabolism. In this review, we outline the small-molecule inhibitors identified over the past decade in targeting cancer cell metabolism and the usage of some of these molecules in clinical trials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic
  3. Zainina S, Cheong SK
    Clin Lab Haematol, 2006 Aug;28(4):282-3.
    PMID: 16898972
    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is recognized as a preleukaemic disorder with a variable risk of transformation to acute myeloid leukaemia. Usually the blast cells in leukaemia are transformed after MDS displays a myeloid phenotype. Even though lymphoid progression had been reported previously, most displayed myeloid-lymphoid hybrid or early B phenotype. We report a case of an elderly man who had MDS transformed into Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL:L3) which is a rare lymphoid transformation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/pathology*
  4. Misron NA, Looi LM, Nik Mustapha NR
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(4):1553-8.
    PMID: 25743830
    BACKGROUND: COX-2 has been shown to play an important role in the development of breast cancer and increased expression has been mooted as a poor prognostic factor. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between COX-2 immunohistochemical expression and known predictive and prognostic factors in breast cancer in a routine diagnostic histopathology setting.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin- embedded tumour tissue of 144 no special type (NST) invasive breast carcinomas histologically diagnosed between January 2009 and December 2012 in Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Setar, Kedah were immunostained with COX-2 antibody. COX-2 overexpression was analysed against demographic data, hormone receptor status, HER2- neu overexpression, histological grade, tumour size and lymph node status.

    RESULTS: COX-2 was overexpressed in 108/144 (75%) tumours and was significantly more prevalent (87%) in hormone receptor-positive tumours. There was no correlation between COX-2 overexpression and HER2/neu status. Triple negative cancers had the lowest prevalence (46%) (p<0.05). A rising trend of COX-2 overexpression with increasing age was observed. There was a significant inverse relationship with tumour grade (p<0.05), prevalences being 94%, 83% and 66% in grades 1, 2 and 3 tumours, respectively. A higher prevalence of COX-2 overexpression in smaller size tumours was observed but this did not reach statistical significance. There was no relationship between COX-2 expression and lymph node status.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study did not support the generally held notion that COX-2 overexpression is linked to poor prognosis, rather supporting a role in tumorigenesis. Larger scale studies with outcome data and basic studies on cancer pathogenetic pathways will be required to cast further light on whether COX-2 inhibitors would have clinical utility in cancer prevention or blockage of cancer progression. In either setting, the pathological assessment for COX-2 overexpression in breast cancers would have an important role in the selection of cancer patients for personalized therapy with COX-2 inhibitors.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/metabolism; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/pathology*
  5. Kumar SK, Zain RB, Ismail SM, Cheong SC
    J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res., 2005 Dec;24(4):639-46.
    PMID: 16471328
    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), the catalytic subunit of telomerase, is strongly associated with telomerase activity implicated in cellular immortalization and tumorigenesis. In situ detection of hTERT will aid in determining the localization of telomerase positive cells. The aim of this study was to detect hTERT protein expression in multistep oral carcinogenesis using paraffin embedded tissue samples, and to study the relationship of hTERT expression with different histological stages in oral carcinogenesis. Normal (n = 4), hyperplastic (n = 4), dysplastic (n = 4) and neoplastic (n = 10) oral epithelia representing different histological stages in oral carcinogenesis were included in the study. hTERT protein detection was done by immunohistochemistry (IHC) technique. Nuclear staining intensities were noted and the hTERT-labelling index was determined. Dysplastic and neoplastic oral epithelia showed an increased percentage of hTERT positive cells (Grade 4: > 50% positive staining nuclei) with intense staining in the basal, parabasal and superficial layers of the epithelia, unlike normal oral mucosa which showed intense staining only in the basal and parabasal cell layers, which are the normal proliferative progenitor compartments. hTERT protein expression was elevated with the corresponding advancement of the histological stages of oral carcinogenesis, from normal to hyperplasia to dysplasia to carcinoma. There seems to be an upregulation of hTERT protein expression during the progression of oral cancer, therefore, this may indicate the feasibility of IHC detection of hTERT protein in oral carcinogenesis as a potential diagnostic or prognostic marker.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/metabolism*; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/pathology
  6. Subramaniam, Sreeramanan, Balasubramaniam, Vinod, Poobathy, Ranjetta, Sreenivasan, Sasidharan, Rathinam, Xavier
    An early step in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Phalaenopsis violacea orchid was investigated to elucidate the plant-bacterium interaction. Directed movement in response to chemical attractants is of crucial importance to Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains. Chemotaxis of A. tumefaciens strains (EHA 101 and 105) towards wounded orchid tissues has been studied by using swarm agar plates. The results obtained indicate a minor role for chemotaxis in determining host specificity and suggest that it could not be responsible for the absence of tumourigenesis in P. violacea orchid under natural conditions. The spectrometric GUS and green fluorescent protein (GFP) assays provided information on the amount of inoculated A. tumefaciens that effectively bound to various orchid tissues. It can be concluded that, at least during the two early steps of interaction, A. tumefaciens appears to be compatible with P. violacea, indicating a potential basis for genetic transformation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic
  7. Yaacob, H.B., Ngeow, W.C., Tan, P.L., Zainal Arif, A.R.
    Ann Dent, 2002;9(1):-.
    The controversy on malignant transformation of oral lichen planus has always intrigued researchers. We present a case of lichenoid lesion and squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, occurring in a middle aged Indian lady. The diagnosis and timing of these lesions is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic
  8. Velapasamy S, Dawson CW, Young LS, Paterson IC, Yap LF
    Cancers, 2018 Jul 27;10(8).
    PMID: 30060514 DOI: 10.3390/cancers10080247
    The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signalling pathway plays a critical role in carcinogenesis. It has a biphasic action by initially suppressing tumorigenesis but promoting tumour progression in the later stages of disease. Consequently, the functional outcome of TGF-β signalling is strongly context-dependent and is influenced by various factors including cell, tissue and cancer type. Disruption of this pathway can be caused by various means, including genetic and environmental factors. A number of human viruses have been shown to modulate TGF-β signalling during tumorigenesis. In this review, we describe how this pathway is perturbed in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated cancers and how EBV interferes with TGF-β signal transduction. The role of TGF-β in regulating the EBV life cycle in tumour cells is also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic
  9. Akhir MKAM, Choy CS, Abdullah MA, Ghani FA, Veerakumarasivam A, Hussin H
    PMID: 32158343 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2020.27.1.4
    Introduction: Lin-11, Isl-1 and Mec-3 domains (LIM) homeobox genes are among the most important sub-families of homeobox genes. These genes are thought to play an important role in cancer. In this study, the protein expression of these genes was examined in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. The expression pattern of Islet-1 (ISL1) and LIM homeobox 5 (LHX5) across different cancer stages and grades, as well as the association between the protein expression of these genes and patient demographics and clinicopathological features, were examined.

    Methods: A total of 100 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded urothelial carcinoma tissues were selected from the Department of Pathology, Hospital Kuala Lumpur and the protein expression of ISL1 and LHX5 was determined using immunohistochemistry.

    Results: Positive expression of ISL1 and LHX5 was detected in 94% and 98% of the samples, respectively. There were no distinct LHX5 expression patterns associated with different cancer stages, but the proportion of high-expressing tumours was higher in high-grade tumours. In addition, there was a significant association between the expression of LHX5 and tumour grade. The proportion of tumours expressing high levels of ISL1 was found to be highest in later stage tumours.

    Conclusion: The high percentage of tumours expressing both these genes suggests that ISL1 and LHX5 play an important role in bladder tumourigenesis across multiple stages.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic
  10. Chai BY, Yip WK, Dusa N, Mohtarrudin N, Seow HF
    Pathol. Oncol. Res., 2020 Oct;26(4):2291-2298.
    PMID: 32462420 DOI: 10.1007/s12253-020-00820-4
    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine found in various cancers. Current evidence indicates that IL-17 plays a vital role in tumour initiation and progression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) via binding with its receptor, IL-17RA. However, the association between clinicopathological features and presence of IL-17 and IL-17RA protein in primary CRC tissues remains unclear. This study also investigates the difference between the presence of IL-17 and IL-17RA in the paired tumour tissues versus adjacent normal tissues. The presence of IL-17RA and IL-17 protein in primary CRC tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry. Associations between clinicopathological features and IL-17RA and IL-17 immunoreactivity, were analyzed by χ2 tests. We found that both IL-17RA (p = 0.001) and IL-17 (p = 0.025) in tumour cells of primary CRC tissues was significantly lower as compared to adjacent normal tissue. Positive immunoreactivity for IL-17RA and IL-17 were detected in 51.0% and 16.8% of tumour tissues, respectively. Furthermore, negative immunoreactivity of IL-17R was significantly associated with advanced stage according to TNM classifier (p = 0.027), high grade of tumour (p = 0.019), increased depth of tumour invasion (p = 0.023) and vascular invasion (p = 0.039). Positive IL-17 immunoreactivity was associated with advanced stage (p = 0.008) and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.008). Thus, this study suggests that the loss of IL-17RA expression occurs as tumour progresses and this may predict the aggressiveness of tumour whilst expression of IL-17 promotes tumour progression and lymph node metastasis. Thus, loss of IL-17RA could be a useful prognostic biomarker for tumour progression in CRC patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic
  11. Wynn, Aye Aye, Myint, Ohnmar, Mya, Nang Khin
    Apoptosis is a programmed cell death which occurs following a variety of stimuli. Physiologically the process is important for morphogenesis of organs and homeostasis of different types of cells. Apoptotic cell death is responsible for a variety of pathologic states such as elimination of cell death in mutated cells, infected cells, tumour cells and transplant rejection well as the pathological atrophy. In this review, there is discussion about the control of apoptosis, detection methods of apoptosis, its association with infectious and non-communicable diseases. Intracellular microorganisms survive through inhibition of host cell apoptosis as well as they destroy the parenchymal cells causing impaired functions. It plays important role in tumourigenesis. There are possible therapeutic roles of drugs that modify apoptosis in human diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic
  12. Kavitha N, Vijayarathna S, Jothy SL, Oon CE, Chen Y, Kanwar JR, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(18):7489-97.
    PMID: 25292018
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs of 20-24 nucleotides that play important roles in carcinogenesis. Accordingly, miRNAs control numerous cancer-relevant biological events such as cell proliferation, cell cycle control, metabolism and apoptosis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge and concepts concerning the biogenesis of miRNAs, miRNA roles in cancer and their potential as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis including the regulation of key cancer-related pathways, such as cell cycle control and miRNA dysregulation. Moreover, microRNA molecules are already receiving the attention of world researchers as therapeutic targets and agents. Therefore, in-depth knowledge of microRNAs has the potential not only to identify their roles in cancer, but also to exploit them as potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and identify therapeutic targets for new drug discovery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/pathology*
  13. Yong KW, Safwani WKZW, Xu F, Zhang X, Choi JR, Abas WABW, et al.
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2017 08;11(8):2217-2226.
    PMID: 26756982 DOI: 10.1002/term.2120
    Cryopreservation represents an efficient way to preserve human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) at early culture/passage, and allows pooling of cells to achieve sufficient cells required for off-the-shelf use in clinical applications, e.g. cell-based therapies and regenerative medicine. To fully apply cryopreserved hMSCs in a clinical setting, it is necessary to evaluate their biosafety, e.g. chromosomal abnormality and tumourigenic potential. To date, many studies have demonstrated that cryopreserved hMSCs display no chromosomal abnormalities. However, the tumourigenic potential of cryopreserved hMSCs has not yet been evaluated. In the present study, we cryopreserved human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) for 3 months, using a slow freezing method with various cryoprotective agents (CPAs), followed by assessment of the tumourigenic potential of the cryopreserved hASCs after thawing and subculture. We found that long-term cryopreserved hASCs maintained normal levels of the tumour suppressor markers p53, p21, p16 and pRb, hTERT, telomerase activity and telomere length. Further, we did not observe significant DNA damage or signs of p53 mutation in cryopreserved hASCs. Our findings suggest that long-term cryopreserved hASCs are at low risk of tumourigenesis. These findings aid in establishing the biosafety profile of cryopreserved hASCs, and thus establishing low hazardous risk perception with the use of long-term cryopreserved hASCs for future clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic*
  14. Chong LA, Josephine P, Ariffin H
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Jun;61(2):236-8.
    PMID: 16898320 MyJurnal
    We report a case of a child with severe congenital neutropenia (Kostmann's syndrome) who was treated with daily prophylactic subcutaneous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) from the age of eight to sixteen years before being discontinued for poor haematological and clinical response. She did not have a HLA-matched sibling to enable bone marrow transplantation. She subsequently developed acute megakaryoblastic leukemia at the age of 17 years and succumbed during induction chemotherapy. The role of G-CSF in the pathogenesis of her malignant transformation to AML is complicated as this disorder has a propensity for myelodysplasia or AML as part of its natural history.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/pathology*
  15. Thomson PJ, Goodson ML, Smith DR
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2017 Nov;46(10):888-895.
    PMID: 28833670 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12625
    BACKGROUND: Oral potentially malignant disorders harbour variable and unpredictable risk for squamous carcinoma development. Whilst current management strategies utilise histopathological diagnoses, dysplasia grading and targeted intervention for "high-risk" lesions, clinicians are unable to predict malignant potential.

    METHODS: Detailed, retrospective clinico-pathological analysis of potentially malignant lesions undergoing malignant transformation, from a 590 patient cohort treated by interventional laser surgery and followed for a mean of 7.3 years, was undertaken. Clinical outcome was documented at study census date (31 December 2014).

    RESULTS: A total of 99 patients (16.8%) developed cancer: 71 (12%) seen "unexpectedly" upon excision and 28 (4.8%) progressing to malignancy at a median of 87.3 months post-surgery. Thirty "unexpected" excisions were micro-invasive (42.3%) arising primarily in severely dysplastic precursors (75%) at ventro-lateral tongue and floor of mouth sites (54.5%); 1 patient (1.4%) had a cancer-related death, whilst 58 (81.7%) were disease free. A total of 19 of 28 "progressive" cancers (67.9%) arose at new sites, with erythroleukoplakia a significant predictor of malignancy (P = .0019). Nine (32.1%) developed at the same precursor site, with 6 (77.7%) on the ventro-lateral tongue and floor of mouth. Three (10.7%) were micro-invasive, 9 patients (32.1%) died from metastatic disease and 12 (42.9%) were disease free (P < .001).

    CONCLUSION: Squamous carcinoma may arise at the site of a precursor lesion as transformation or new-site development via field cancerisation. Whilst interventional surgery facilitates early diagnosis and treatment of occult disease, thus reducing risk from same-site transformation, new-site cancer is a significant long-term risk for patients with potentially malignant disorder.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic*
  16. Mansor NA, Yusof N, Tang YL, Ithnin A, Azma RZ, Tumian NR, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2018 Aug;40(2):191-197.
    PMID: 30173238 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Essential thrombocythaemia (ET) is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) characterised by persistent thombocytosis. It is an indolent disorder but transformation to myelofibrosis (MF), acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or myelodyplastic syndrome (MDS) has been reported.

    CASE REPORT: We described a patient with ET whose disease evolved into MDS with fibrosis and complex karyotype after 15 years of stable disease. She was asymptomatic and was on hydroxyurea (HU) treatment until recently when she presented with worsening anaemia. Physical examination showed mild splenomegaly. Full blood picture showed leukoerythroblastic picture with presence of 3% circulating blasts and background of dysplastic features such as hypogranular cytoplasm and nuclear hyposegmentation of neutrophils. The bone marrow aspiration was haemodiluted but revealed presence of 6% blast cells, trilineage dysplasia and predominant erythroid precursors (60%). Trephine biopsy showed no excess of blast cells and normal quantity of erythroid precursors, but there was increased in fibrosis (WHO grade 2) and presence of dysmegakaryopoeisis such as nuclear hypolobation, multinucleation and micromegakaryocytes. Cytogenetic study showed complex karyotype; monosomy of chromosome 2, chromosome 5, chromosome 18 and presence of a marker chromosome (42~44, XX,-2,-5,-18,+mar). Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) showed 5q deletion (CSF1R and EGR1).

    CONCLUSION: The findings were consistent with transformation of ET to MDS with fibrosis and complex karyotype. ET progression to MDS is considered rare. The presence of complex karyotype and fibrosis in MDS are associated with unfavourable outcome.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics*
  17. Alwahaibi NY, Budin SB, Mohamed J, Alhamdani A
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2010 Apr;25(4):786-91.
    PMID: 20492335 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2009.06160.x
    Selenium's molecular mechanism for cancer chemoprevention remains unknown. We aimed to study the gene expression of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), tumor growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) and cyclin D1 and the effects of sodium selenite using preventive and therapeutic approaches in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/chemically induced; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/drug effects*; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/metabolism; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/pathology
  18. Ho KL, Chong PP, Yazan LS, Ismail M
    J Med Food, 2012 Dec;15(12):1096-102.
    PMID: 23216109 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2012.2245
    Vanillin is the substance responsible for the flavor and smell of vanilla, a widely used flavoring agent. Previous studies reported that vanillin is a good antimutagen and anticarcinogen. However, there are also some contradicting findings showing that vanillin was a comutagen and cocarcinogen. This study investigated whether vanillin is an anticarcinogen or a cocarcinogen in rats induced with azoxymethane (AOM). Rats induced with AOM will develop aberrant crypt foci (ACF). AOM-challenged rats were treated with vanillin orally and intraperitoneally at low and high concentrations and ACF density, multiplicity, and distribution were observed. The gene expression of 14 colorectal cancer-related genes was also studied. Results showed that vanillin consumed orally had no effect on ACF. However, high concentrations (300 mg/kg body weight) of vanillin administered through intraperitoneal injection could increase ACF density and ACF multiplicity. ACF were mainly found in the distal colon rather than in the mid-section and proximal colon. The expression of colorectal cancer biomarkers, protooncogenes, recombinational repair, mismatch repair, and cell cycle arrest, and tumor suppressor gene expression were also affected by vanillin. Vanillin was not cocarcinogenic when consumed orally. However, it was cocarcinogenic when being administered intraperitoneally at high concentration. Hence, the use of vanillin in food should be safe but might have cocarcinogenic potential when it is used in high concentration for therapeutic purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/drug effects; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/pathology
  19. Yeong LT, Hamid RA, Yazan LS, Khaza'ai H
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(4):2301-5.
    PMID: 23725131
    Ardisia crispa (Family: Myrsinaceae) is an evergreen, fruiting shrub that has been traditionally used as folklore medicine. Despite a scarcity of research publications, we have succeeded in showing suppressive effects on murine skin papillomagenesis. In extension, the present research was aimed at determining the effect of a quinone-rich fraction (QRF) isolated from the same root hexane extract on both initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis, at the selected dose of 30 mg/kg. Mice (groups I-IV) were initiated with a single dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA, 100 μg/100 μl) followed by repeated promotion of croton oil (1%) twice weekly for 20 weeks. In addition, group I (anti-initiation) received QRF 7 days before and after DMBA; group II (anti-promotion) received QRF 30 minutes before each croton oil application; group III (anti-initiation/ promotion) was treated with QRF as a combination of group I and II. A further two groups served as vehicle control (group V) and treated control (group VI). As carcinogen control, group IV showed the highest tumor volume (8.79±5.44) and tumor burden (3.60±1.17). Comparatively, group III revealed only 20% of tumor incidence, tumor burden (3.00±1.00) and tumor volume (2.40±1.12), which were significantly different from group IV. Group II also showed significant reduction of tumor volume (3.11), tumor burden (3.00) and tumor incidence (11.11%), along with prominent increase of latency period of tumor formation (week 12). Group I, nonetheless, demonstrated marked increment of tumor incidence by 40% with prompted latency period of tumor formation (week 7). No tumor formation was observed in groups V and VI. This study provided clear evidence of inhibitory effects of QRF during promotion period which was in agreement with our previous findings. The mechanism(s) underlying such effects have yet to be elucidated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/drug effects*; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/pathology
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