Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 101 in total

  1. Rohaizak, M.
    Thyroidectomy for benign and malignant diseases has progressed dramatically over the last two decades. Moving from large collar incision to no scar is a very good news to the patient with neck swellings. The morbidity of the surgery remains low regardless of the technique and approaches used but scarless surgery is still limited to benign diseases and small cancers. Further study and future refinement of the technique might make these techniques also applicable to large tumours.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cicatrix
  2. Yenyuwadee S, Achavanuntakul P, Phisalprapa P, Levin M, Saokaew S, Kanchanasurakit S, et al.
    Acta Derm Venereol, 2024 Jan 08;104:adv18477.
    PMID: 38189223 DOI: 10.2340/actadv.v104.18477
    Utilization of lasers and energy-based devices for surgical scar minimization has been substantially evaluated in placebo-controlled trials. The aim of this study was to compare reported measures of efficacy of lasers and energy-based devices in clinical trials in preventing surgical scar formation in a systematic review and network meta-analyses. Five electronic databases, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library, were searched to retrieve relevant articles. The search was limited to randomized controlled trials that reported on clinical outcomes of surgical scars with treatment initiation no later than 6 months after surgery and a follow-up period of at least 3 months. A total of 18 randomized controlled trials involving 482 participants and 671 postsurgical wounds were included in the network meta-analyses. The results showed that the most efficacious treatments were achieved using low-level laser therapy) (weighted mean difference -3.78; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -6.32, -1.24) and pulsed dye laser (weighted mean difference -2.46; 95% CI -4.53, -0.38). Nevertheless, low-level laser therapy and pulsed dye laser demonstrated comparable outcomes in surgical scar minimization (weighted mean difference -1.32, 95% CI -3.53, 0.89). The findings of this network meta-analyses suggest that low-level laser therapy and pulsed dye laser are both effective treatments for minimization of scar formation following primary closure of surgical wounds with comparable treatment outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cicatrix/diagnosis; Cicatrix/etiology; Cicatrix/prevention & control
  3. Alshareefy Y, Shen CY, Prekash RJ
    Pathol Res Pract, 2023 Aug;248:154655.
    PMID: 37429175 DOI: 10.1016/j.prp.2023.154655
    This paper aims to present a detailed overview of fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC), a variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that accounts for approximately 1-9% of all cases a. according to the SEER database. Despite ongoing research, the aetiology of FLC tumours remains unclear. Nevertheless, FLC is believed to have a better overall prognosis than other primary liver tumours, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. This study aims to present a comprehensive overview of fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC), with a focus on its epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. FLC frequently incorporate features of stomach pain, weight loss, and malaise in their clinical signs and symptoms, which are generally nonspecific Ultimately, the most common physical finding is an abdominal mass or hepatomegaly. With this said, several unusual presentations have been documented such as Budd Chiari syndrome, severe anaemia, non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis and many more. In regards to this tumour's genetic analysis, it is characterised by a 400 kb deletion on chromosome 19 leading to a functional DNAJB1-PRKACA chimeric transcript in addition to tetraploidy in 50% of cases. FLC is chromosomally stable as compared to typical HCC. mTOR pathway activation has also been found to play a critical role in 47% of these tumours and EFGR over-expression is also evident. Fibrolamellar carcinomas (FLCs) exhibit a distinctive gross appearance, characterized by a yellow to pale tan colour, with a consistency that can vary from soft to firm and hard. In addition, a central scar is observed in 60-70% of FLC cases. The central scar is typically white or grey in colour and has a fibrous appearance, which is often surrounded by nodular, tumour-like tissue. Its histologic appearance is characterized by large polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, large vesiculated nuclei, large nucleoli, and arranged in lamellar bands of collagen fibres. Lamellar bands of fibrosis, consisting of collagen type I, III and IV, have also been identified as a distinctive histologic feature that is observed under low power magnification. Ultrasound, CT and MRI along with image guided biopsy are the primary modalities in diagnosis. Current management options include systemic therapy which has thus far been unremarkable with platinum-based therapies as well combination therapy with interferon alpha-2b being the most successful options. Surgical resection remains the primary treatment modality and there have been no advances in targeted therapies. Although the prognosis for FLC is favourable as compared to other hepatic cancer subtypes such as intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, there is a high rate of recurrence ranging from 33% to 100% with a median recurrence-free survival of 20-48 months. As a result of this there is a low overall cure rate associated with this tumour type and much more research is required to gain an in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanisms occurring in order to provide more adequate treatment to patients who suffer from this condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cicatrix/pathology
  4. Azhany Y, Rahman WFWA, Jaafar H, Low JH, Yusuf WNW, Liza-Sharmini AT, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2023 Apr 17;24(8).
    PMID: 37108535 DOI: 10.3390/ijms24087372
    Post-surgical scarring is a known cause of trabeculectomy failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ranibizumab as an adjuvant anti-scarring agent in experimental trabeculectomy. Forty New Zealand white rabbits were randomised into four eye treatment groups: groups A (control), B (ranibizumab 0.5 mg/mL), C (mitomycin C [MMC] 0.4 mg/mL), and D (ranibizumab 0.5 mg/mL and MMC 0.4 mg/mL). Modified trabeculectomy was performed. Clinical parameters were assessed on post-operative days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, and 21. Twenty rabbits were euthanised on day 7, and the other twenty were euthanised on day 21. Eye tissue samples were obtained from the rabbits and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). All treatment groups showed a significant difference in IOP reduction compared with group A (p < 0.05). Groups C and D showed a significant difference in bleb status on days 7 (p = 0.001) and 21 (p = 0.002) relative to group A. H&E staining showed significantly low fibrotic activity (p < 0.001) in group C on both days and inflammatory cell grade in group B on day 7 (p < 0.001). The grade for new vessel formation was significantly low in groups B and D on day 7 (p < 0.001) and in group D on day 21 (p = 0.007). Ranibizumab plays a role in reducing scarring, and a single application of the ranibizumab-MMC combination showed a moderate wound-modulating effect in the early post-operative phase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cicatrix/drug therapy
  5. Hariraj V, Wo WK, Lee SC, Ramli A
    J Clin Pharmacol, 2023 Oct;63(10):1126-1132.
    PMID: 37291071 DOI: 10.1002/jcph.2289
    Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs) are a life-threatening condition. We aimed to identify all carbamazepine-induced SCARs voluntarily reported to the Malaysian pharmacovigilance database and to compare between children and adults. Adverse drug reaction reports for carbamazepine were extracted from 2000 to 2020, and divided into 2 groups, that is, children (aged 0-17 years) and adults (aged 18 years and above). Age, sex, race, and carbamazepine dose were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Of 1102 carbamazepine adverse drug reaction reports, 416 reports were SCARs (99 children, 317 adults). Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis were the main SCAR types for both age groups. Median time-to-onset for any type of SCAR was 13 days, regardless of age. In children, Malay individuals were 3.6 times more likely to report SCARs (95% confidence interval, 1.356-9.546; P = .010) compared to the Chinese population. In adults, carbamazepine-induced SCARs were reported as 3.6 times higher in those with a daily dose of 200 mg or less as compared to a daily dose of 400 mg or more. (95% confidence interval, 2.257-5.758; P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Cicatrix/chemically induced
  6. Hasan S, Chew KS, Balang RV, Wong SSL
    BMC Womens Health, 2023 Nov 13;23(1):596.
    PMID: 37953265 DOI: 10.1186/s12905-023-02734-0
    BACKGROUND: As breast cancer incidence rises among younger women, there is a knowledge gap regarding the emotional, physical, and social effects of mastectomy, specifically in a crisis-affected country such as Syria. This study aimed to explore these effects on young women with breast cancer in Syria, taking into consideration the cultural significance of a woman's breast as part of her feminine identity.

    METHODS: A qualitative design, using semi-structured in-depth interviews with 10 young women with breast cancer who underwent mastectomy, was conducted between June to December 2022.

    RESULTS: Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data, and five main themes were identified: (1) psychological and emotional well-being (altered self-esteem and femininity, impact on sexual life and relationships, psychological distress associated with mastectomy, mirror trauma and the need for psychological care); (2) body image and breast reconstruction (the dilemma over reconstruction decision, body image and clothing and lack of access to prosthetic information/services); (3) social and interpersonal factors (lack of marriage choices and society's view and stigma); (4) coping mechanisms with mastectomy effects (family support; faith in god almighty; comparing their situation to others and use of prosthetics) and (5) physical health and functioning (physical effects on mobility and function).

    CONCLUSION: Mastectomy has significant physical, emotional, and social consequences on young women with breast cancer, particularly in crisis-affected Syria where access to breast reconstruction is limited. It is crucial for healthcare professionals to understand these impacts, to raise awareness, encourage early detection, and promote less aggressive treatments to improve women's quality of life.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cicatrix/surgery
  7. Kanaheswari Y, Mohd Rizal AM
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2015 Dec;51(12):1175-81.
    PMID: 26041512 DOI: 10.1111/jpc.12938
    The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of renal cortical scarring and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children with neurogenic bladder secondary to spina bifida (SB) managed at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre. The secondary objective was to identify the clinical factors associated with these adverse outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cicatrix
  8. Leung AKC, Leong KF, Lam JM
    Case Rep Pediatr, 2020;2020:8824757.
    PMID: 32908765 DOI: 10.1155/2020/8824757
    Aplasia cutis congenita associated with fetus papyraceus, though rare, is well known. On the other hand, aplasia cutis congenita associated with fetus papyraceus presenting with symmetrical circumferential scarring encircling the trunk has not been previously reported. Herein, we report a 2-month-old girl with symmetrical circumferential scarring encircling the trunk associated with fetus papyraceus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cicatrix
  9. Ong SL, Bajuri MY, Abdul Suki MH, Nadira F, Zamri KS
    Cureus, 2020 Jul 29;12(7):e9451.
    PMID: 32864272 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.9451
    Hypertrophic scar formation is a major clinical problem that results in both cosmetic issues and functional loss. The management of a hypertrophic scar varies according to the severity of the sequelae from the scar. We describe a method of treatment in a patient who had a history of multiple debridements due to snake bite resulting in severe contracture of the fourth toe complicated with a hypertrophic scar.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cicatrix, Hypertrophic
  10. Salari N, Kazeminia M, Shohaimi S, Nankali AA, Mohammadi M
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol, 2020 Nov 09;18(1):108.
    PMID: 33168010 DOI: 10.1186/s12958-020-00666-0
    BACKGROUND: Previous caesarean scar pregnancy is one type of ectopic pregnancy in myometrium and fibrous tissue of previous caesarean scar. One of the therapeutic methods of this type of ectopic pregnancy is treatment with methotrexate. Given various findings on the treatment of caesarean scar pregnancy with methotrexate and lack of global report in this regard, we aimed to achieve a global report on the treatment of CSP with methotrexate through related literature review and analysis of the results of the studies, to enable more precise planning to reduce complications of CSP.

    METHOD: This review study extracted information through searching national and international databases of SID،, Embase, ScienceDirect, ، Scopus, ، PubMed, Web of Science (ISI) between 2003 and January 2020. To perform the meta-analysis, random-effects model and heterogeneity of the studies with I2 index were investigated. Data were sanalysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 2.

    RESULTS: In total, 26 articles with a sample size of 600 individuals were enrolled in the meta-analysis. According to the results of the study, the mean level of β-hCG was 28,744.98 ± 4425.1 mIU/ml before the intervention and was 23,836.78 ± 4533.1 mIU/ml after the intervention. The mean intraoperative blood loss (ml) was 4.8 ± 3.76 ml, mean hospital stay (days) was 11.7 ± 1.2 days, mean time for serum-hCG normalization (days) was 41.6 ± 3.2 days, success was 90.7% (95% CI: 86.7-93.5%), and complication was 9% (95% CI: 6.3-12.8%).

    CONCLUSION: The results of the current study show methotrexate significantly reduces β-hCG levels and can be effective in treating caesarean scar pregnancy and its complications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cicatrix/drug therapy*; Cicatrix/etiology; Cicatrix/epidemiology
  11. Nor Azlin, M.I., Amelia, A.Z., Zainul Rashid, M.R.
    Extrapelvic endometriosis is fairly rare and may occur in numerous sites throughout the body. Unnecessary investigation may be performed before the diagnosis could be made. Here we present two cases where endometriotic nodules occurred on a caesarean section scar and in the vagina. Further management is discussed in the report.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cicatrix
  12. Majid, Z., Chong, A., Setan, H., Ahmad, A., Rajion, Z.A.
    This paper describes the use of stereophotogrammetry approach to measure and hence identify accurately threedimensional (3D) coordinates of important landmarks on a craniofacial surface. A "novel" technique dubbed as "natural features" technique was employed to accurately compute the 3D coordinates of selected craniofacial landmarks. The natural features technique involves the use of 3D coordinates of the natural features (such as acne, scar, corners of eyes, edge of mouth, point of chin, etc.) that appear on the craniofacial surface as an absolute stereophotogrammetric mapping control points. The 3D coordinates of the natural features were gained using digital photogrammetric bundle adjustment method. Validation of the proposed technique has firstly been carried out using mannequin and finally, it was applied on the real-life human faces. The result shows that the craniofacial landmark measurement accuracy of 0.8mm with one standard deviation can be successfully achieved by the proposed technique.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cicatrix
  13. Irfan, M., Wong,C. Y., Nik Fariza, H., Maha, K., Nor Hayati, O.
    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are tumors found predominantly in the elderly. Most of the cases reported were from patients of more than 50 years old. In our case, it affects a young patient, a 26 year old lady who has a history of a severely burnt and scarred face since childhood. She represents a rare case of a high grade aggressive tumor involving her right eyelid and right parotid gland.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cicatrix
  14. Tan MK, Hasan Adli DS, Tumiran MA, Abdulla MA, Yusoff KM
    PMID: 22536292 DOI: 10.1155/2012/805932
    Honey is one of the oldest substances used in wound management. Efficacy of Gelam honey in wound healing was evaluated in this paper. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups of 24 rats each (untreated group, saline group, Intrasite Gel group, and Gelam honey group) with 2 cm by 2 cm full thickness, excisional wound created on neck area. Wounds were dressed topically according to groups. Rats were sacrificed on days 1, 5, 10, and 15 of treatments. Wounds were then processed for macroscopic and histological observations. Gelam-honey-dressed wounds healed earlier (day 13) than untreated and saline treated groups, as did wounds treated with Intrasite Gel. Honey-treated wounds exhibited less scab and only thin scar formations. Histological features demonstrated positive effects of Gelam honey on the wounds. This paper showed that Gelam honey dressing on excisional wound accelerated the process of wound healing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cicatrix
  15. Wong TE, Lim LH, Tan WJ, Khoo TH
    Burns, 2010 Aug;36(5):e78-81.
    PMID: 20036061 DOI: 10.1016/j.burns.2009.10.016
    Matched MeSH terms: Cicatrix/pathology; Cicatrix/surgery*
  16. Chan KY, Lau CL, Adeeb SM, Somasundaram S, Nasir-Zahari M
    Plast Reconstr Surg, 2005 Sep 15;116(4):1013-20; discussion 1021-2.
    PMID: 16163087
    BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic scarring caused by sternotomy is prevalent among Asians. The effectiveness of silicone gel in scar prevention may influence the decision of surgeons and patients regarding its routine use during the postoperative period.

    METHODS: The authors conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, prospective clinical trial. The susceptibility to scar development varied among patients; therefore, sternal wounds were divided into the upper half and the lower half. Two types of coded gel prepared by an independent pharmacist were used on either half. Thus, selection and assessment biases and confounders were eliminated.

    RESULTS: One hundred wounds in 50 patients were randomized into two arms, 50 control and 50 silicone gels. The median age was 61 years and there were 34 men and 16 women. Ethnic distribution was 28 Malays, 18 Chinese, and four Indians. No side effect caused by the silicone gel was noted. Ninety-eight percent of patients had moderate to good compliance. The incidence of sternotomy scar was 94 percent. At the third month postoperatively, the silicone gel wounds were scored lower when compared with the control wounds. The differences were statistically significant in all parameters, including pigmentation (p = 0.02), vascularity (p = 0.001), pliability (p = 0.001), height (p = 0.001), pain (p = 0.001), and itchiness (p = 0.02).

    CONCLUSIONS: The effect of silicone gel in prevention of hypertrophic scar development in sternotomy wounds is promising. There are no side effects and patients' compliance is satisfactory. This study may popularize the use of silicone gel in all types of surgery to minimize the formation of hypertrophic scars in the early postoperative period.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/ethnology; Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/prevention & control*
  17. Khoo TL, Halim AS, Zakaria Z, Mat Saad AZ, Wu LY, Lau HY
    J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg, 2011 Jun;64(6):e137-45.
    PMID: 20869928 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjps.2010.08.029
    Despite widespread beliefs regarding the use of topical tocotrienol in the prevention of hypertrophic scars, there is very little evidence from well controlled and randomised clinical trials to justify its benefits for surgical scars.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/pathology; Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/prevention & control*
  18. Mourougayan V
    Cleft Palate Craniofac J, 2006 Nov;43(6):656-8.
    PMID: 17105330
    To study the quality of scars following the use of butyl cyanoacrylate to close the skin during cleft lip repair.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cicatrix/classification; Cicatrix/pathology
  19. Gomathysankar S, Halim AS, Yaacob NS
    Arch Plast Surg, 2014 Sep;41(5):452-7.
    PMID: 25276634 DOI: 10.5999/aps.2014.41.5.452
    In the field of tissue engineering and reconstruction, the development of efficient biomaterial is in high demand to achieve uncomplicated wound healing. Chronic wounds and excessive scarring are the major complications of tissue repair and, as this inadequate healing continues to increase, novel therapies and treatments for dysfunctional skin repair and reconstruction are important. This paper reviews the various aspects of the complications related to wound healing and focuses on chitosan because of its unique function in accelerating wound healing. The proliferation of keratinocytes is essential for wound closure, and adipose-derived stem cells play a significant role in wound healing. Thus, chitosan in combination with keratinocytes and adipose-derived stem cells may act as a vehicle for delivering cells, which would increase the proliferation of keratinocytes and help complete recovery from injuries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cicatrix
  20. Kataria K, Venkatesh M, Chumber S, Rathore Y, Srivastava A, Dhar A, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2021 Feb;28(1):51-58.
    PMID: 33679220 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2021.28.1.7
    Background: Lipomas are benign adipocytic tumours. Surgical excision is the gold standard for treating such lipomas, but it results in unaesthetic scarring.

    Methods: A total of 126 patients were randomised into two groups. The patients in Group A underwent mesotherapy (n = 66) and those in Group B underwent surgery (n = 60). The patients in Group A group received six sessions of mesotherapy treatment at 2-week intervals. Both groups were followed up for 12 weeks, during which they were assessed for complications arising from treatment, reduction of the size of the lipoma and cosmetic outcomes.

    Results: The overall mean age of the patients was 32.93 (± 10.1) years old and the mean volume of the lipomas was 2.29 (± 3.8) mL. A 55.86% (P = 0.0032) mean reduction in the volume of lipomas was noted in the patients who received mesotherapy, while one patient showed a gain of 16% by volume. The patients in Group A (cosmetic score ≥ 4: 63%) were happier with the treatment than those in Group B (cosmetic score ≥ 4: 21%).

    Conclusion: Our findings indicate that mesotherapy modestly reduces the volume of lipomas with very few and minor complications and excellent cosmetic outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cicatrix
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