Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 53 in total

  1. Chowdhury SR, Mh Busra MF, Lokanathan Y, Ng MH, Law JX, Cletus UC, et al.
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2018 10 26;1077:389-414.
    PMID: 30357700 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-0947-2_21
    Collagen type I is the most abundant matrix protein in the human body and is highly demanded in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and pharmaceutical applications. To meet the uprising demand in biomedical applications, collagen type I has been isolated from mammalians (bovine, porcine, goat and rat) and non-mammalians (fish, amphibian, and sea plant) source using various extraction techniques. Recent advancement enables fabrication of collagen scaffolds in multiple forms such as film, sponge, and hydrogel, with or without other biomaterials. The scaffolds are extensively used to develop tissue substitutes in regenerating or repairing diseased or damaged tissues. The 3D scaffolds are also used to develop in vitro model and as a vehicle for delivering drugs or active compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Collagen Type I*
  2. Jaziri AA, Shapawi R, Mohd Mokhtar RA, Md Noordin WN, Huda N
    PeerJ, 2022;10:e13103.
    PMID: 35310170 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.13103
    BACKGROUND: Lizardfish (Saurida tumbil Bloch, 1795) bone is a fish by-product generated during industrial surimi processing. This by-product is an important source of collagen production since the use of terrestrial animal-based collagens no longer sought due to concern regarding the transfer of infectious diseases and religious issues. Hence, this study was carried out to determine the biochemical analysis of collagens from the bone of lizardfish extracted with different acids.

    METHODS: Lizardfish bone collagens were extracted with various acids (i.e., acetic, lactic and citric acids). All extraction processes were conducted in a chiller room (4 °C). The extracted collagens were biochemically characterized, such as hydroxyproline content, Ultraviolet (UV) absorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra (FTIR), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and solubility in different pH values and NaCl concentrations.

    RESULTS: The yield of extracted collagens ranged between 1.73% and 2.59%, with the highest (p collagen (CaEC). Protein patterns confirmed that all-collagen samples had two identical subunits, α1 and α2, representing type I collagen. The highest whiteness value was found in acetic acid-extracted collagen (AaEC), but there was no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) compared to lactic acid-extracted collagen (LaEC). UV absorption and XRD analysis reflected the characteristics of the collagen, as reported in the literature. For the FTIR, all acid-extracted collagen samples presented a triple helical structure. The thermal transition temperature (T max = 77.92-89.04 °C) was in accordance with collagen extracted from other fish species. All extracted collagens were highly soluble in acidic pH and low concentrations of NaCl (0-20 g/L). In conclusion, collagens extracted from lizardfish bone may be used as alternative sources of collagen in industrial settings, and AaEC would be considered superior in terms of the characteristics evaluated in this study.

    Matched MeSH terms: Collagen Type I/chemistry
  3. Md Nazir N, Zulkifly AH, Khalid KA, Zainol I, Zamli Z, Sha'ban M
    Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2019 06;16(3):285-299.
    PMID: 31205857 DOI: 10.1007/s13770-019-00191-1
    Background: This study aimed to observe the cartilaginous matrix production in SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9 (SOX9)- and/or telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT)-transfected chondrocytes from monolayer to three-dimensional (3D) culture.

    Methods: The genes were transferred into chondrocytes at passage-1 (P1) via lipofection. The post-transfected chondrocytes (SOX9-, TERT- and SOX9/TERT) were analysed at P1, P2 and P3. The non-transfected group was used as control. The 3D culture was established using the chondrocytes seeded in a disc-shaped PLGA/fibrin and PLGA scaffolds. The resulting 3D "cells-scaffolds" constructs were analysed at week-1, -2 and -3. The histoarchitecture was evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin, alcian blue and safranin o stains. The quantitative sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content was measured using biochemical assay. The cartilage-specific markers expression were analysed via real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Results: All monolayer cultured chondrocytes showed flattened, fibroblast-like appearance throughout passages. Proteoglycan and sGAG were not detected at the pericellular matrix region of the chondrocytes. The sGAG content assay indicated the matrix production depletion in the culture. The cartilage-specific markers, COL2A1 and ACAN, were downregulated. However, the dedifferentiation marker, COL1A1 was upregulated. In 3D "cells-scaffolds" constructs, regardless of transfection groups, chondrocytes seeded in PLGA/fibrin showed a more uniform distribution and produced denser matrix than the PLGA group especially at week-3. Both sGAG and proteoglycan were clearly visualised in the constructs, supported by the increment of sGAG content, quantitatively. Both COL2A1 and ACAN were upregulated in SOX9/TERT-PLGA and SOX9/TERT-PLGA/fibrin respectively. While, COL1A1 was downregulated in SOX9/TERT-PLGA.

    Conclusion: These findings indicated that the SOX9/TERT-transfected chondrocytes incorporation into 3D scaffolds facilitates the cartilage regeneration which is viable structurally and functionally.

    Matched MeSH terms: Collagen Type I/genetics; Collagen Type I/metabolism; Collagen Type II/genetics; Collagen Type II/metabolism
  4. Ooi, Foong Kiew, Azlina Aziz
    This study investigated the effects of 6 weeks combined circuit training programme and honey
    supplementation on bone metabolism markers in young males. Forty male participants were divided into four
    groups (n=10 per group): sedentary without honey supplementation control (C), sedentary with honey
    supplementation (H), circuit training without honey supplementation (Ex), circuit training with honey
    supplementation (HEx) groups. Circuit training was carried out one hour/session, 3 times/week. Participants in
    H and HEx consumed 300 mLof honey drink containing 20g of Tualang honey for 7 days/week. Immediately
    before and after six weeks of experimental period, blood samples were taken for measuring concentrations of
    serum total calcium, serum alkaline phosphatase as bone formation marker and serum C-terminal telopeptide
    of type 1 collagen (1CTP) as bone resorption marker. There was significantly (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Collagen Type I
  5. Wu CH, Chang YF, Chen CH, Lewiecki EM, Wüster C, Reid I, et al.
    J Clin Densitom, 2019 03 20;24(1):3-13.
    PMID: 31010789 DOI: 10.1016/j.jocd.2019.03.004
    Osteoporosis is a major health issue. By 2050, a greater than 2-fold increase in patients number with hip fractures will occur in Asia representing 50% of all hip fractures worldwide. For the Asia-Pacific (AP) region, more efforts on controlling osteoporosis and the subsequent fractures are crucial. Bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is commonly used to diagnose osteoporosis and monitor osteoporosis treatment. However, the inconvenience, cost, limited availability of DXA and the delay in detection of BMD changes after treatment initiation support an important role for bone turnover markers (BTMs), as short-term tools to monitor therapy. With regards to low adherence rates of medical treatment of osteoporosis, the experts reached consensus on the use of BTMs for both raising awareness and short-term monitoring of osteoporosis treatment in the AP region. The experts endorse the use of BTMs, especially serum C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX) and serum procollagen type 1 N propeptide (P1NP), as short-term monitoring tools to help clinicians assess the responses to osteoporosis therapies and appropriately adjust treatment regimens earlier than BMD. Either the absolute values or the degree of change from baseline in BTMs can be used to monitor the potential efficacy of osteoporosis therapies. The use of BTMs can be incorporated in osteoporosis care programs, such as fracture liaison service (FLS), to improve patient adherence and treatment outcomes. Encouraging sufficient reimbursement from health care systems may facilitate widespread use of BTMs in clinical practice in the AP region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Collagen Type I
  6. Nur Adelina AN, Aminuddin BS, Munirah S, Chua KH, Fuzina NH, Saim L, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:188-9.
    PMID: 15468881
    Cartilage is regularly needed for reconstructive surgery. Basic research in tissue engineering is necessary to develop its full potential. We presented here the expression profile of type II collagen gene and type I collagen gene in human auricular monolayer culture expansion. Cultured chondrocytes documented a reduction in the expression level of collagen type II gene whilst collagen type I gene was gradually expressed through all the passages. This study demonstrated that human auricular chondrocytes lose its phenotypic expression during monolayer culture expansion. Further studies are required to enhance cartilage specific gene expression, collagen type II throughout the in vitro culture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Collagen Type I/genetics*; Collagen Type II/genetics*
  7. Ismarul IN, Ishak Y, Ismail Z, Mohd Shalihuddin WM
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:57-8.
    PMID: 15468817
    Various proportions of chitosan/collagen films (70/30% to 95/05%) w/w were prepared and evaluated for its suitability as skin regenerating scaffold. Interactions between chitosan and collagen were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Colorimetry (DSC). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the morphology of the blend. Mechanical properties were evaluated using a Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The chitosan/collagen films were found to swell proportionally with time until it reaches equilibrium. FTIR spectroscopy indicated no chemical interaction between the components of the blends. DSC data indicated only one peak proving that these two materials are compatible at all proportions investigated. SEM micrographs also indicated good homogeneity between these two materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Collagen Type I/analysis*
  8. Law JX, Chowdhury SR, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BHI
    Cell Tissue Bank, 2017 Dec;18(4):585-595.
    PMID: 28748415 DOI: 10.1007/s10561-017-9645-2
    Fibrin has excellent biocompatibility and biological properties to support tissue regeneration and promote wound healing. However, the role of diluted fibrin in wound healing has yet to be elucidated as it is commonly used in high concentration. This study was aimed to examine the effects of diluted plasma-derived fibrin (PDF) on keratinocyte and fibroblast wound healing in term of cell proliferation, migration, extracellular matrix (ECM) production and soluble factor secretion. Two PDF concentrations, 10 and 20% (v/v) were tested on keratinocytes and fibroblasts indirectly co-cultured in the transwell system. The control group was cultured with 5% FBS. Results showed that PDF reduced the keratinocyte growth rate and fibroblast migration, and increased the fibroblast ECM gene expression whereby significant differences were found between the 20% PDF group and the 5% FBS group. Similar trend was seen for the 10% PDF group but the differences were not significant. Comparison of the soluble factors between the PDF groups demonstrated that the level of growth-related oncogene alpha, interleukin-8 and epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide-78 were significantly higher in the 10% PDF group, whilst interleukin-1 alpha and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor were significantly more concentrated in the 20% PDF group. Our results suggested that PDF selectively elevated the expression of collagen type 1 and collagen type 3 in fibroblasts but slowed down the migration in concentration-dependent manner. These novel findings provide new insight into the role of PDF in wound healing and may have important implications for the use of fibrin in skin tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Collagen Type I/metabolism
  9. Abedin MZ, Karim AA, Ahmed F, Latiff AA, Gan CY, Che Ghazali F, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2013 Mar 30;93(5):1083-8.
    PMID: 22936269 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.5854
    Sea cucumber (Stichopus vastus) is considered an underutilized resource, since only its stomach and intestines are eaten raw as salad in a few countries and the remaining parts, especially the integument rich in collagen, is discarded. Hence a valuable by-product having potential nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications is wasted. In the present investigation, pepsin-solubilized collagen (PSC) from the integument of S. vastus was isolated, purified and characterized.
    Matched MeSH terms: Collagen Type I/economics; Collagen Type I/isolation & purification; Collagen Type I/metabolism; Collagen Type I/chemistry
  10. Sha'ban M, Yoon SJ, Ko YK, Ha HJ, Kim SH, So JW, et al.
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2008;19(9):1219-37.
    PMID: 18727862 DOI: 10.1163/156856208785540163
    Previously, we have proven that fibrin and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds facilitate cell proliferation, matrix production and early chondrogenesis of rabbit articular chondrocytes in in vitro and in vivo experiments. In this study, we evaluated the potential of fibrin/PLGA scaffold for intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue engineering using annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells in relation to potential clinical application. PLGA scaffolds were soaked in cells-fibrin suspension and polymerized by dropping thrombin-sodium chloride (CaCl(2)) solution. A PLGA-cell complex without fibrin was used as control. Higher cellular proliferation activity was observed in fibrin/PLGA-seeded AF and NP cells at each time point of 3, 7, 14 and 7 days using the MTT assay. After 3 weeks in vitro incubation, fibrin/PLGA exhibited a firmer gross morphology than PLGA groups. A significant cartilaginous tissue formation was observed in fibrin/PLGA, as proven by the development of cells cluster of various sizes and three-dimensional (3D) cartilaginous histoarchitecture and the presence of proteoglycan-rich matrix and glycosaminoglycan (GAG). The sGAG production measured by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay revealed greater sGAG production in fibrin/PLGA than PLGA group. Immunohistochemical analyses showed expressions of collagen type II, aggrecan core protein and collagen type I genes throughout in vitro culture in both fibrin/PLGA and PLGA. In conclusion, fibrin promotes cell proliferation, stable in vitro tissue morphology, superior cartilaginous tissue formation and sGAG production of AF and NP cells cultured in PLGA scaffold. The 3D porous PLGA scaffold-cell complexes using fibrin can provide a vehicle for delivery of cells to regenerate tissue-engineered IVD tissue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Collagen Type I/genetics; Collagen Type I/metabolism; Collagen Type II/genetics; Collagen Type II/metabolism
  11. Othman MI, Majid MI, Singh M, Man CN, Lay-Harn G
    Ann. Clin. Biochem., 2008 May;45(Pt 3):299-306.
    PMID: 18482919 DOI: 10.1258/acb.2007.007104
    Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDCA) is the most common type of breast cancer accounting for 85% of all invasive breast cancers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Collagen Type I/analysis; Collagen Type I/isolation & purification
  12. Fauzi MB, Rashidbenam Z, Bin Saim A, Binti Hj Idrus R
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Nov 25;12(12).
    PMID: 33255581 DOI: 10.3390/polym12122784
    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro skin models have been widely used for cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical applications aiming to reduce animal use in experiment. This study investigate capability of ovine tendon collagen type I (OTC-I) sponge suitable platform for a 3D in vitro skin model using co-cultured skin cells (CC) containing human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) under submerged (SM) and air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions. Briefly, the extracted OTC-I was freeze-dried and crosslinked with genipin (OTC-I_GNP) and carbodiimide (OTC-I_EDC). The gross appearance, physico-chemical characteristics, biocompatibility and growth profile of seeded skin cells were assessed. The light brown and white appearance for the OTC-I_GNP scaffold and other groups were observed, respectively. The OTC-I_GNP scaffold demonstrated the highest swelling ratio (~1885%) and water uptake (94.96 ± 0.14%). The Fourier transformation infrared demonstrated amide A, B and I, II and III which represent collagen type I. The microstructure of all fabricated sponges presented a similar surface roughness with the presence of visible collagen fibers and a heterogenous porous structure. The OTC-I_EDC scaffold was more toxic and showed the lowest cell attachment and proliferation as compared to other groups. The micrographic evaluation revealed that CC potentially formed the epidermal- and dermal-like layers in both SM and ALI that prominently observed with OTC-I_GNP compared to others. In conclusion, these results suggest that OTC_GNP could be used as a 3D in vitro skin model under ALI microenvironment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Collagen Type I
  13. Mohamed AM
    Malays J Med Sci, 2008 Jan;15(1):4-12.
    PMID: 22589609 MyJurnal
    Bone is a specialised connective tissue and together with cartilage forms the strong and rigid endoskeleton. These tissues serve three main functions: scaffold for muscle attachment for locomotion, protection for vital organs and soft tissues and reservoir of ions for the entire organism especially calcium and phosphate. One of the most unique and important properties of bone is its ability to constantly undergo remodelling even after growth and modelling of the skeleton have been completed. Remodelling processes enable the bone to respond and adapt to changing functional situations. Bone is composed of various types of cells and collagenous extracellular organic matrix, which is predominantly type I collagen (85-95%) called osteoid that becomes mineralised by the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite. The non-collagenous constituents are composed of proteins and proteoglycans, which are specific to bone and the dental hard connective tissues. Maintenance of appropriate bone mass depends upon the precise balance of bone formation and bone resorption which is facilitated by the ability of osteoblastic cells to regulate the rate of both differentiation and activity of osteoclasts as well as to form new bone. An overview of genetics and molecular mechanisms that involved in the differentiation of osteoblast and osteoclast is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Collagen Type I
  14. Zulfahmi Said, Hellen Colley, Craig Murdoch
    Introduction: Tissue-engineered oral mucosa (TEOM) is increasingly being used to model oral mucosal diseases and to assess drug toxicity. Current TEOM models are constructed using normal oral fibroblasts (NOF) contained within a hydrogel matrix with normal oral keratinocytes (NOK) cultured on top. NOK are not commercially available and suffer from donor-to-donor variability. Therefore, oral mucosal models based on immortalised keratinocytes may offer advantages over NOK-based models. The objective of this study was to construct and characterise the TEOM developed using TERT2-immortalised oral keratinocyte (FNB6) cells and validate its similarity to normal oral muco-sal tissue. Methods: TEOM were constructed by culturing FNB6 cells on top of a NOF-populated collagen type-1 hydrogel in tissue culture transwell inserts cultured at an air-to-liquid interface and collected at 14 day. TEOM were subjected to morphological (H&E and PAS), ultrastructural (TEM) and immunohistological (Ki-67, cytokeratin 14 and E-cadherin) analysis. Results: Histologically TEOM mimicked native oral mucosa displaying a stratified epithelium, fibroblast-containing connective tissue and basement membrane. Furthermore, TEM confirmed the presence of des-mosomes and hemi-desmosomes in the epithelium. IHC revealed expression of differentiation markers (cytokeratin 14), proliferation (Ki-67), cell adhesion (E-cadherin). Conclusion: FNB6 mucosal models able to mimic native oral mucosa structure. It has potential for drug delivery and toxicity evaluation, and replacing models based on NOK where access to primary cells is limited.
    Matched MeSH terms: Collagen Type I
  15. Nam HY, Murali MR, Ahmad RE, Pingguan-Murphy B, Raghavendran HRB, Kamarul T
    Stem Cells Int, 2020;2020:5385960.
    PMID: 32908542 DOI: 10.1155/2020/5385960
    It has been suggested that mechanical strain may elicit cell differentiation in adult somatic cells through activation of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC). However, such phenomenon has not been previously demonstrated in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). The present study was thus conducted to investigate the role of ENaC in human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hMSCs) tenogenic differentiation during uniaxial tensile loading. Passaged-2 hMSCs were seeded onto silicone chambers coated with collagen I and subjected to stretching at 1 Hz frequency and 8% strain for 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Analyses at these time points included cell morphology and alignment observation, immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence staining (collagen I, collagen III, fibronectin, and N-cadherin), and gene expression (ENaC subunits, and tenogenic markers). Unstrained cells at similar time points served as the control group. To demonstrate the involvement of ENaC in the differentiation process, an ENaC blocker (benzamil) was used and the results were compared to the noninhibited hMSCs. ENaC subunits' (α, β, γ, and δ) expression was observed in hMSCs, although only α subunit was significantly increased during stretching. An increase in tenogenic genes' (collagen1, collagen3, decorin, tenascin-c, scleraxis, and tenomodulin) and proteins' (collagen I, collagen III, fibronectin, and N-cadherin) expression suggests that hMSCs underwent tenogenic differentiation when subjected to uniaxial loading. Inhibition of ENaC function resulted in decreased expression of these markers, thereby suggesting that ENaC plays a vital role in tenogenic differentiation of hMSCs during mechanical loading.
    Matched MeSH terms: Collagen Type I
  16. Busra FM, Lokanathan Y, Nadzir MM, Saim A, Idrus RBH, Chowdhury SR
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Mar;24(2):33-43.
    PMID: 28894402 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.2.5
    INTRODUCTION: Collagen type I is widely used as a biomaterial for tissue-engineered substitutes. This study aimed to fabricate different three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds using ovine tendon collagen type I (OTC-I), and compare the attachment, proliferation and morphological features of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) on the scaffolds.

    METHODS: This study was conducted between the years 2014 to 2016 at the Tissue Engineering Centre, UKM Medical Centre. OTC-I was extracted from ovine tendon, and fabricated into 3D scaffolds in the form of sponge, hydrogel and film. A polystyrene surface coated with OTC-I was used as the 2D culture condition. Genipin was used to crosslink the OTC-I. A non-coated polystyrene surface was used as a control. The mechanical strength of OTC-I scaffolds was evaluated. Attachment, proliferation and morphological features of HDF were assessed and compared between conditions.

    RESULTS: The mechanical strength of OTC-I sponge was significantly higher than that of the other scaffolds. OTC-I scaffolds and the coated surface significantly enhanced HDF attachment and proliferation compared to the control, but no differences were observed between the scaffolds and coated surface. In contrast, the morphological features of HDF including spreading, filopodia, lamellipodia and actin cytoskeletal formation differed between conditions.

    CONCLUSION: OTC-I can be moulded into various scaffolds that are biocompatible and thus could be suitable as scaffolds for developing tissue substitutes for clinical applications and in vitro tissue models. However, further study is required to determine the effect of morphological properties on the functional and molecular properties of HDF.

    Matched MeSH terms: Collagen Type I
  17. Md Yusof A, Abd Ghafar N, Kamarudin TA, Chua KH, Azmi MF, Ng SL, et al.
    Cytotechnology, 2019 Dec;71(6):1121-1135.
    PMID: 31606844 DOI: 10.1007/s10616-019-00349-8
    This study evaluated the effects of Gelam honey (GH) on ex vivo corneal fibroblast ulcer model via wound healing assay, gene expression and immunocytochemistry. Corneal fibroblasts from New Zealand white rabbits were culture expanded. The corneal fibroblast wound healing capacity was observed by creating a circular wound onto confluent monolayer cells cultured in basal medium (BM), BM with GH, serum-enriched basal medium (BMS) and BMS with GH respectively. Wound healing assay and phenotypic characterization of the corneal fibroblast were performed at different stages of wound closure. Expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), lumican, collagen I and matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP 12) were measured at day 1, day 3 and complete wound closure day. Corneal fibroblast cultured in BMS with GH demonstrated the fastest wound closure, at day 5 post wounding. The gene expressions of ALDH and vimentin were higher than control groups while α-SMA expression was lower, in GH enriched media. The expressions of lumican, collagen I and MMP 12 were also higher in cells cultured in GH enriched media compared to the control groups. GH was shown to promote in vitro corneal fibroblast wound healing and may be a potential natural adjunct in the treatment of corneal wound.
    Matched MeSH terms: Collagen Type I
  18. Thu HE, Mohamed IN, Hussain Z, Shuid AN
    J Ayurveda Integr Med, 2017 11 13;9(4):272-280.
    PMID: 29146110 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaim.2017.04.005
    BACKGROUND: Among the numerous well-documented medicinal herbs, Eurycoma longifolia (EL) has gained remarkable recognition due to its promising efficacy of stimulating bone formation in androgen-deficient osteoporosis. Though numerous animal studies have explored the bone-forming capacity of EL, the exact mechanism was yet to be explored.

    OBJECTIVE(S): The present study was aimed to investigate the mechanism of bone-forming capacity of EL using MC3T3-E1 as an in vitro osteoblastic model.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cell differentiation capacity of EL was investigated by evaluating cell growth, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen deposition and mineralization. Taken together, time-mannered expression of bone-related mediators which include bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), ALP, runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx-2), osteocalcin (OCN), type I collagen, osteopontin (OPN), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and androgen receptor (AR) were measured to comprehend bone-forming mechanism of EL.

    RESULTS: Results demonstrated a superior cell differentiation efficacy of EL (particularly at a dose of 25 μg/mL) that was evidenced by dramatically increased cell growth, higher ALP activity, collagen deposition and mineralization compared to the testosterone. Results analysis of the bone-related protein biomarkers indicated that the expression of these mediators was well-regulated in EL-treated cell cultures compared to the control groups. These findings revealed potential molecular mechanism of EL for the prevention and treatment of male osteoporosis.

    CONCLUSION: The resulting data suggested that EL exhibited superior efficacy in stimulating bone formation via up-regulating the expression of various mitogenic proteins and thus can be considered as a potential natural alternative therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Collagen Type I
  19. Abd Ghafar N, Chua KH, Wan Ngah WZ, Che Hamzah J, Othman F, Abd Rahman R, et al.
    Cell Tissue Bank, 2014 Mar;15(1):25-34.
    PMID: 23292197 DOI: 10.1007/s10561-012-9360-y
    The in vivo quiescent corneal stroma keratocytes need to be transformed to activated state in order to obtain sufficient number of cells either for monolayer evaluation or corneal stroma reconstruction. This study aimed to investigate the phenotypic characterization of corneal stromal cells during culture expansion from the limbal region of the cornea. Isolated corneal keratocytes from limbal tissue of New Zealand White Strain rabbits' corneas (n = 6) were culture expanded until three passages. Keratocytes morphology was examined daily with viability, growth rate, number of cell doubling and population doubling time were recorded at each passage. The expression of collagen type 1, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), lumican and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were detected by RT-PCR. Immunocytochemistry was also used to detect ALDH, α-SMA, collagen type I and Cytokeratin-3 (CK3). Growth kinetic study revealed that the growth rate was low at the initial passage but increase to about two folds with concomitant reduction in population doubling time in later passages. Freshly isolated and cultured keratocytes expressed collagen type 1, ALDH and lumican but α-SMA expression was absent. However, α-SMA was expressed along with the other genes during culture expansion. Keratocytes at P1 expressed all the proteins except CK3. These results suggest that cultured keratocytes maintained most of the gene expression profile of native keratocytes while the emergence of α-SMA in serial passages showed a mix population of various phenotypes. The phenotypic characterization of monolayer keratocytes provides useful information before reconstruction of bioengineered tissue or in vitro pharmaceutical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Collagen Type I/biosynthesis
  20. Mohamad N, Loh EYX, Fauzi MB, Ng MH, Mohd Amin MCI
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):444-452.
    PMID: 29302918 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-017-0475-3
    The healing of wounds, including those from burns, currently exerts a burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Hydrogels are widely used as wound dressings and in the field of tissue engineering. The popularity of bacterial cellulose-based hydrogels has increased owing to their biocompatibility. Previous study demonstrated that bacterial cellulose/acrylic acid (BC/AA) hydrogel increased the healing rate of burn wound. This in vivo study using athymic mice has extended the use of BC/AA hydrogel by the addition of human epidermal keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts. The results showed that hydrogel loaded with cells produces the greatest acceleration on burn wound healing, followed by treatment with hydrogel alone, compared with the untreated group. The percentage wound reduction on day 13 in the mice treated with hydrogel loaded with cells (77.34 ± 6.21%) was significantly higher than that in the control-treated mice (64.79 ± 6.84%). Histological analysis, the expression of collagen type I via immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy indicated a greater deposition of collagen in the mice treated with hydrogel loaded with cells than in the mice administered other treatments. Therefore, the BC/AA hydrogel has promising application as a wound dressing and a cell carrier.
    Matched MeSH terms: Collagen Type I/metabolism
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