Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 261 in total

  1. Arasan, Jayanthi
    This paper investigates several asymptotic confidence interval estimates, based on the Wald, likelihood ratio and the score statistics for the parameters of a parallel two-component system model, with dependent failure and a time varying covariate, when data is censored. This model is an extension of the bivariate exponential model. The procedures are investigated via a coverage probability study using the simulated data. The results clearly indicate that the interval estimates, based on the likelihood ratio method, work better than any of the other two methods when dealing with the censored data.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidence Intervals
  2. Fauziah Maarof, Lim, Fong Peng, Noor Akma Ibrahim
    This paper investigates the confidence intervals of R2 MAD, the coefficient of determination based on
    median absolute deviation in the presence of outliers. Bootstrap bias-corrected accelerated (BCa)
    confidence intervals, known to have higher degree of correctness, are constructed for the mean and standard deviation of R2 MAD for samples generated from contaminated standard logistic distribution. The results indicate that by increasing the sample size and percentage of contaminants in the samples, and perturbing the location and scale of the distribution affect the lengths of the confidence intervals. The results obtained can also be used to verify the bound of R2 MAD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidence Intervals
  3. Tan, Yih Tyng, Abdul Rahman Othman, Lai, Choo Heng
    Setting a question paper for test, quiz, and examination is one of the teachers’ tasks. The factors that are usually taken into consideration in carrying out this particular task are the level of difficulty of the questions and the level of the students’ ability. In addition, teachers will also have to consider the number of questions that have impact on the examination. This research describes a model-based test theory to study the confidence intervals for the projected number of items of a test, given the reliability of the test, the difficulty of the question, and the students’ ability. Using the simulated data, the confidence intervals of the projected number of items were examined. The probability coverage and the length of the confidence interval were also used to evaluate the confidence intervals. The results showed that the data with a normal distribution, the ratio variance components of 4:1:5 and reliability equal to 0.80 gave the best confidence interval for the projected number of items.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidence Intervals
  4. Samira Ehsani, Jayanthi Arasan, Noor Akma Ibrahim
    Sains Malaysiana, 2013;42:981-987.
    In this paper, we extended a repairable system model under general repair that is based on repair history, to incorporate covariates. We calculated the bias, standard error and RMSE of the parameter estimates of this model at different sample sizes using simulated data. We applied the model to a real demonstration data and tested for existence of time trend, repair and covariate effects. Following that we also conducted a coverage probability study on the Wald confidence interval estimates. Finally we conducted hypothesis testing for the parameters of the model.The results indicated that the estimation procedure is working well for the proposed model but the Wald interval should be applied with much caution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidence Intervals
  5. Kiani K, Arasan J, Habshah Midi
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:471-480.
    There are numerous parametric models for analyzing survival data such as exponential, Weibull, log-normal and gamma. One of such models is the Gompertz model which is widely used in biology and demography. Most of these models are extended to new forms for accommodating different types of censoring mechanisms and different types of covariates. In this paper the performance of the Gompertz model with time-dependent covariate in the presence of right censored data was studied. Moreover, the performance of the model was compared at different censoring proportions (CP) and sample sizes. Also, the model was compared with fixed covariate model. In addition, the effect of fitting a fixed covariate model wrongly to a data with time-dependent covariate was studied. Finally, two confidence interval estimation techniques, Wald and jackknife, were applied to the parameters of this model and the performance of the methods was compared.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidence Intervals
  6. Yii, Mei Wo, Zaharuddin Ahmad
    The studies of ¹³⁷Cs content in the seawater surrounding Peninsular Malaysia had been carried out as part of the Malaysia Marine Radioactivity Database Project. The results of the measurement will serve as the baseline data and reference level to Malaysia. A numbers of sampling locations, including coastal and offshore at the East Coast (South China Sea) and West Coast (Straits of Malacca) of Peninsular Malaysia had been selected for the study. From each location at the coastal area, water samples were collected from the surface of the seawater. Meanwhile, for the offshore area, water samples have been collected at three different depths. Due to usual low concentration of ¹³⁷Cs in the marine environment, large volumes of seawater were collected and the co precipitation technique was employed to concentrate the ¹³⁷Cs. The activity of ¹³⁷Cs was determined by measuring the peak area under photo peak of the gamma spectrum at 661 keV, which is equivalent to the gamma intensity corrected to the HpGe detection efficiency and percentage of gamma ray abundance of the ¹³⁴Cs. At each study location, there were no significant differences for ¹³⁷Cs activities at 95% confidence interval. The activities of ¹³⁷Cs found to be quite uniformly distributed in the range of 2.33 to 5.00 Bq/m3and 1.76 to 4.76 Bq/m3for the South China Sea and the Straits of Malacca, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidence Intervals
  7. Iliassa II, Mohammad WM, Tan JJ, Ayob Y
    Asian J Transfus Sci, 2016 Jul-Dec;10(2):145-9.
    PMID: 27605853 DOI: 10.4103/0973-6247.187934
    BACKGROUND: Cryoprecipitate is generally used to treat bleeding patients with hypofibrinogenemia, and the transfusion decision is guided based on published guidelines.
    AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the practice appropriateness in accordance to cryoprecipitate transfusion guidelines in Hospital Kuala Lumpur.
    METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional study of 117 cryoprecipitates transfused adult patients was conducted in Kuala Lumpur Hospital from January to June 2012. The compliance of the indication of cryoprecipitate was considered as appropriate if indicated for patients who have hypofibrinogenemia (<1.0 g/L) with bleeding, or otherwise inappropriate if pretransfusion fibrinogen level was more than 1.0 g/L, pretransfusion fibrinogen level was not examined and posttransfusion fibrinogen level more than 1.5 g/L.
    RESULTS: Most of the cryoprecipitate prescriptions were found to be inappropriate, which read 81.2% (95% confidence interval = 0.740, 0.880). Patients who underwent neurovascular surgery were the major recipient of cryoprecipitate, but majority of the prescription was found not appropriate. The decision to transfuse cryoprecipitate was found mostly appropriate when was guided by fibrinogen (52.2%), but the percentage dropped to 10.6% when pretransfusion fibrinogen test was not performed. Regrettably, only 19.7% of total cryoprecipitate were given based on pretransfusion fibrinogen level.
    KEYWORDS: Appropriateness; bleeding; cryoprecipitate transfusion; guideline
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidence Intervals
  8. Yong, W.Z., Haresh, K.K., Wong, W.C., 1 Pui, C.F., Son, R.
    The objectives highlighted in the present study were to determine the estimates of measurement uncertainty associated with PALCAM and CHROMagarTM Listeria media, to compare the efficacy between both media in relation to their measurement uncertainties. In addition, this study was carried out to assess the performance characteristics of spread and spiral plating procedures based on the comparison of Listeria monocytogenes enumeration between PALCAM and CHROMagarTM Listeria media. This work involved pure culture experiment, artificially contaminated samples experiment and naturally contaminated samples experiment. In pure culture experiment, PALCAM performance was relatively inferior to CHROMagarTM Listeria medium for both plating procedures. From the artificially contaminated samples, the results revealed that the values of repeatability, reproducibility, and measurement uncertainty at 95% confidence interval were comparable between both media under evaluation. However, at the level of naturally contaminated samples, the performance of CHROMagar
    TM Listeria medium was refutable as the presence of high number of competitive microorganisms reduced the clarity of the medium. The current emphasis in ensuring microbiological safety which requires use of accredited laboratories has led to measurable need for measurement uncertainty to ensure reliability of test results for global acceptance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidence Intervals
  9. Titik, B., Naiyana, C.
    The objectives of this study were predicting the transmission and survival of L. monocytogenes in cooked ham during supply chain. Cooked ham are frequently contaminated with L. monocytogenes during postprocessing steps through contact on surface of processing, handling, packaging equipment. Transfer rate of L. monocytogenes on static and dynamic condition in various surface type was investigated. The prevalence and level of L. monocytogenes in cooked ham at plant as well as the prevalence of unsatisfactory processing at retail were studied. A Monte Carlo simulation model was created by using @risk. The simulation predicted that the prevalence was 11.76 % with 90% confidence interval of 2% to 25% and estimated level was -4.02 log CFU/cm2. It was estimated to be occurred on slicing step at plant. Our results suggest that, the prevalence and level of L. monocytogenes can be reduced by Good Handling Process application and/or HACCP application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidence Intervals
  10. New, C.Y., Ubong, A., Nur Hasria, K., Nur Fatihah, A., Son, R.
    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is well known to be abundantly distributed in marine, coastal and
    estuarine environments. Since 1951, V. parahaemolyticus had been the source of numerous
    outbreaks related to contaminated or mishandled seafood. However, V. parahaemolyticus
    had been detected on other types of food. This issue has prompted this study to investigate
    on the prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus in various food samples and determine the risk
    associated with it. The results of the MPN-plating technique of the study indicated that V.
    parahaemolyticus was detected in seafood (33.3%, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 31.9 – 34.8 ,
    94 – 290 MPN/g) and vegetables (10.0%, 95% CI 9.7 – 10.3 , 9.2 – 23 MPN/g) while negative
    V. parahaemolyticus was detected in fruits (0.0%, 95% CI 0 – 1,
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidence Intervals
  11. Wan Nor Arifin, Wan Arfah Nadiah, Muhammad Irfan, Chen, Xin Wee, Nani Draman, Nyi, Nyi Naing
    To ensure the reliability of manual blood pressure (BP) readings in a clinical trial, sources of error due to measurement must be reduced as much as possible. Apart from following standard procedure for BP measurement and ensuring good equipments, the measurement errors that come from the assessors themselves should be assessed. Objective: To demonstrate the use of two-way random effects, interactions absent, absolute agreement (Type A), single measures (Type 1) intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) in the assessment of reliability of manual BP readings among assessors involved in a clinical trial using manual BP measurement, by using an interrater reliability study conducted by the authors as an example study. Methods: The steps involved in obtaining ICC in the study were discussed. Sample size given the number of assessors in the study was calculated. BP was measured using regularly maintained mercury sphygnomanometers, following recommendations by Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) for BP measurement in office setting. The outcomes were systolic and diastolic BP readings. A type of ICC, two-way random effects, interactions absent, absolute agreement (Type A), single measures (Type 1) ICC was chosen for the analysis and specifically discussed. Pre-requisite assumptions for ICC were meticulously checked and described. The interrater reliability for systolic and diastolic BP readings as expressed by ICC (single measure) were presented with confidence interval (CI). The ICCs obtained in the example study were discussed and concluded. The flaws of the study were also criticised. Results: The interrater reliability for systolic and diastolic BP measurements as expressed by ICC (single measure) were 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.722, 0.956) and 0.77 (95% CI 0.560, 0.918) respectively. Conclusion: We demonstrated the steps required to obtain ICC. Since the use of manual BP measurement using mercury sphygmomanometer is still considered as gold standard of BP measurement, it is important that studies in which the BP outcome is measured using such method conduct interrater reliability studies properly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidence Intervals
  12. Chew ST, Gallagher JB
    Sci Rep, 2018 02 07;8(1):2553.
    PMID: 29416101 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-20644-2
    The canopies and roots of seagrass, mangrove, and saltmarsh protect a legacy of buried sedimentary organic carbon from resuspension and remineralisation. This legacy's value, in terms of mitigating anthropogenic emissions of CO2, is based on total organic carbon (TOC) inventories to a depth likely to be disturbed. However, failure to subtract allochthonous recalcitrant carbon overvalues the storage service. Simply put, burial of oxidation-resistant organics formed outside of the ecosystem provides no additional protection from remineralisation. Here, we assess whether black carbon (BC), an allochthonous and recalcitrant form of organic carbon, is contributing to a significant overestimation of blue carbon stocks. To test this supposition, BC and TOC contents were measured in different types of seagrass and mangrove sediment cores across tropical and temperate regimes, with different histories of air pollution and fire together with a reanalysis of published data from a subtropical system. The results suggest current carbon stock estimates are positively biased, particularly for low-organic-content sandy seagrass environs, by 18 ± 3% (±95% confidence interval) and 43 ± 21% (±95% CI) for the temperate and tropical regions respectively. The higher BC fractions appear to originate from atmospheric deposition and substantially enrich the relatively low TOC fraction within these environs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidence Intervals
  13. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2016;76(7):401.
    PMID: 28286414 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-016-4219-1
    A measurement of the W boson pair production cross section in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text] TeV is presented. The data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.4[Formula: see text]. The [Formula: see text] candidates are selected from events with two charged leptons, electrons or muons, and large missing transverse energy. The measured [Formula: see text] cross section is [Formula: see text], consistent with the standard model prediction. The [Formula: see text] cross sections are also measured in two different fiducial phase space regions. The normalized differential cross section is measured as a function of kinematic variables of the final-state charged leptons and compared with several perturbative QCD predictions. Limits on anomalous gauge couplings associated with dimension-six operators are also given in the framework of an effective field theory. The corresponding 95 % confidence level intervals are [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], in the HISZ basis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidence Intervals
  14. Mohd Salleh NA, Richardson L, Kerr T, Shoveller J, Montaner J, Kamarulzaman A, et al.
    J Addict Med, 2018 3 10;12(4):308-314.
    PMID: 29521670 DOI: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000403
    OBJECTIVES: Among people living with HIV (PLWH), high levels of adherence to prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) is required to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. However, little is known about the effects of daily pill burden on adherence amongst PLWH who use drugs. We sought to investigate the association between daily pill burden and adherence to ART among members of this key population in Vancouver, Canada.

    METHODS: We used data from the AIDS Care Cohort to Evaluate Exposure to Survival Services study, a long-running community-recruited cohort of PLWH who use illicit drugs linked to comprehensive HIV clinical records. The longitudinal relationship between daily pill burden and the odds of ≥95% adherence to ART among ART-exposed individuals was analyzed using multivariable generalized linear mixed-effects modeling, adjusting for sociodemographic, behavioural, and structural factors linked to adherence.

    RESULTS: Between December 2005 and May 2014, the study enrolled 770 ART-exposed participants, including 257 (34%) women, with a median age of 43 years. At baseline, 437 (56.7%) participants achieved ≥95% adherence in the previous 180 days. Among all interview periods, the median adherence was 100% (interquartile range 71%-100%). In a multivariable model, a greater number of pills per day was negatively associated with ≥95% adherence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.87 per pill, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-0.91). Further analysis showed that once-a-day ART regimens were positively associated with optimal adherence (AOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.07-1.80).

    CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, simpler dosing demands (ie, fewer pills and once-a-day single tablet regimens) promoted optimal adherence among PLWH who use drugs. Our findings highlight the need for simpler dosing to be encouraged explicitly for PWUD with multiple adherence barriers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Confidence Intervals
  15. Tan OL, Safii SH, Razali M
    Pharmaceutics, 2020 Nov 12;12(11).
    PMID: 33198248 DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics12111086
    This review aimed to rank the clinical efficacy of commercially available single-application local drug delivery and adjunctive agents (LDAs) compared with subgingival mechanical debridement (SMD) in nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). Randomized controlled clinical trials that compared LDAs against SMD alone or with placebo in adults (aged at least 18 years) diagnosed with periodontitis with a minimum of 6 months follow-up were included. A frequentist approach to random-effects network meta-analysis was implemented. The efficacies of the LDAs measured by probing pocket depth (PPD) reduction and clinical attachment level (CAL) gain were reported as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The treatments were ranked according to their P-score. Four network meta-analyses suggested that sulfonic/sulfuric acid gel (PPD MD -1.13 mm, 95% CI -1.74 to -0.53, P-score 0.91; CAL MD -1.09 mm, 95% CI -1.58 to -0.61, P-score 0.95) and doxycycline hyclate gel (PPD MD -0.90 mm, 95% CI -1.50 to -0.30, P-score 0.93; CAL MD -0.84 mm, 95% CI -1.40 to -0.28, P-score 0.92) were the most effective in reducing PPD and gaining CAL in split-mouth and parallel studies, respectively (moderate certainty of evidence). LDAs have differing efficacies, but they present with possible clinical significance over SMD alone in NSPT.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidence Intervals
  16. Sureisen M, Saw LB, Wei Chan CY, Singh DA, Kwan MK
    Indian J Orthop, 2011 Nov;45(6):504-7.
    PMID: 22144742 DOI: 10.4103/0019-5413.87118
    BACKGROUND: Various lateral mass screw fixation methods have been described in the literature with various levels of safety in relation to the anterior neurovascular structures. This study was designed to radiologically determine the minimum lateral angulations of the screw to avoid penetration of the vertebral artery canalusing three of the most common techniques: Roy-Camille, An, and Magerl.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty normal cervical CT scans were reviewed. A minimum lateral angulation of a 3.5 mm lateral mass screw which was required to avoid penetration of the vertebral artery canal at each level of vertebra were measured.

    RESULTS: The mean lateral angulations of the lateral mass screws (with 95% confidence interval) to avoid vertebral artery canal penetration, in relation to the starting point at the midpoint (Roy-Camille), 1 mm medial (An), and 2 mm medial (Magerl) to the midpoint of lateral mass were 6.8° (range, 6.3-7.4°), 10.3° (range, 9.8-10.8°), and 14.1° (range, 13.6-14.6°) at C3 vertebrae; 6.8° (range, 6.2-7.5°), 10.7° (range, 10.0-11.5°), and 14.1° (range, 13.4-14.8°) at C4 vertebrae; 6.6° (range, 6.0-7.2°), 10.1° (range, 9.3-10.8°), and 13.5° (range, 12.8-14.3°) at C5 vertebrae and 7.6° (range, 6.9-8.3°), 10.9° (range, 10.3-11.6°), and 14.3° (range, 13.7-15.0°) at C6 vertebrae. The recommended lateral angulations for Roy-Camille, Magerl, and An are 10°, 25°,and 30°, respectively. Statistically, there is a higher risk of vertebral foramen violation with the Roy-Camille technique at C3, C4 and C6 levels, P < 0.05.

    CONCLUSIONS: Magerl and An techniques have a wide margin of safety. Caution should be practised with Roy-Camille's technique at C3, C4, and C6 levels to avoid vertebral vessels injury in Asian population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Confidence Intervals
  17. Arellano G
    Ecol Evol, 2019 Sep;9(17):9644-9653.
    PMID: 31534682 DOI: 10.1002/ece3.5495
    Many ecological applications, like the study of mortality rates, require the estimation of proportions and confidence intervals for them. The traditional way of doing this applies the binomial distribution, which describes the outcome of a series of Bernoulli trials. This distribution assumes that observations are independent and the probability of success is the same for all the individual observations. Both assumptions are obviously false in many cases.I show how to apply bootstrap and the Poisson binomial distribution (a generalization of the binomial distribution) to the estimation of proportions. Any information at the individual level would result in better (narrower) confidence intervals around the estimation of proportions. As a case study, I applied this method to the calculation of mortality rates in a forest plot of tropical trees in Lambir Hills National Park, Malaysia.I calculated central estimates and 95% confidence intervals for species-level mortality rates for 1,007 tree species. I used a very simple model of spatial dependence in survival to estimate individual-level risk of mortality. The results obtained by accounting for heterogeneity in individual-level risk of mortality were comparable to those obtained with the binomial distribution in terms of central estimates, but the precision increased in virtually all cases, with an average reduction in the width of the confidence interval of ~20%.Spatial information allows the estimation of individual-level probabilities of survival, and this increases the precision in the estimates of mortality rates. The general method described here, with modifications, could be applied to reduce uncertainty in the estimation of proportions related to any spatially structured phenomenon with two possible outcomes. More sophisticated approaches can yield better estimates of individual-level mortality and thus narrower confidence intervals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidence Intervals
  18. Rajah R, Hassali MAA, Murugiah MK
    Public Health, 2019 Feb;167:8-15.
    PMID: 30544041 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2018.09.028
    OBJECTIVES: Health literacy is increasingly recognized as a public health concern. Most of the literature on health literacy concentrate in the Western countries. Therefore, this study aimed to systematically review and examine the available studies on health literacy in Southeast Asian countries and estimate its prevalence in this region.

    STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review.

    METHODS: A search for relevant articles was carried out using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and MEDLINE (via EBSCOhost), Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar with multiple search terms. Inclusion criteria comprised articles published in English language and assessing general health literacy. Risk of bias reduced with the involvement of two independent reviewers in the screening of the literature and the quality assessment process.

    RESULTS: A total of 11 studies were included, which only consist of studies from five countries out of 11 making up the Southeast Asian region. The overall prevalence of limited health literacy varied considerably, 1.6%-99.5% with a mean of 55.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35.1%-75.6%). A much higher prevalence was noted in studies conducted in healthcare settings, 67.5% (95% CI: 48.6%-86.3%). The most common factors associated with limited health literacy were education attainment, age, income and socio-economic background. Other factors identified were gender and health behaviours.

    CONCLUSIONS: In summary, despite the little evidence available and existences of high heterogeneity among studies, limited health literacy is still prevalent in Southeast Asian countries. Urgent strategies to improve and promote health literacy in the region are highly warranted. Besides, more studies on health literacy with better quality on the methodology aspect are needed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Confidence Intervals
  19. Ros Syazmini Mohd Ghani, Razak Wahab, Noor Maisarah Che Musthafa, Nasihah Mokhtar, Mohamad Saiful Sulaiman, Lee, Man Djun
    The study was carried out to determine the physical and mechanical properties of composite lumber made from cassava (Mahinot esculenta Crantz) and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) in different ratios which is 100% cassava with 0% bamboo, 75% cassava with 25% bamboo, 50% cassava with 50% bamboo, 25% cassava with 75% bamboo and 0% cassava with 100% bamboo. The tests samples for determining the strength properties were divided into two categories namely mechanical testing and physical testing. Basic density of the samples was carried out for physical testing. The lowest basic density was in samples with 100% cassava which is 0.49 g/cm3 and highest in samples with 100% bamboo which is 0.68 g/cm3. Two tests for the mechanical testing are bending test and compression test. In bending test, modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) were both highest for samples with 100% bamboo which the reading of MOE was 16794.03 N/mm2 and 122.52 N/mm2 for MOR. Similar to the bending test, compression test is the highest for the samples with 100% bamboo which are 65.58 N/mm2. From statistical analysis, the basic density, static bending can compression strength give significant value at 95% confidence interval.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidence Intervals
  20. Law ZK, England TJ, Mistri AK, Woodhouse LJ, Cala L, Dineen R, et al.
    Eur Stroke J, 2020 Jun;5(2):123-129.
    PMID: 32637645 DOI: 10.1177/2396987320901391
    Introduction: Seizures are common after intracerebral haemorrhage. Tranexamic acid increases the risk of seizures in non-intracerebral haemorrhage population but its effect on post-intracerebral haemorrhage seizures is unknown. We explored the risk factors and outcomes of seizures after intracerebral haemorrhage and if tranexamic acid increased the risk of seizures in the Tranexamic acid for IntraCerebral Haemorrhage-2 trial.

    Patients and methods: Seizures were reported prospectively up to day 90. Cox regression analyses were used to determine the predictors of seizures within 90 days and early seizures (≤7 days). We explored the effect of early seizures on day 90 outcomes.

    Results: Of 2325 patients recruited, 193 (8.3%) had seizures including 163 (84.5%) early seizures and 30 (15.5%) late seizures (>7 days). Younger age (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.98 per year increase, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-0.99; p = 0.008), lobar haematoma (aHR 5.84, 95%CI 3.58-9.52; p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Confidence Intervals
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