The present study describes the phytoremediation performance of water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) for physicochemical pollutants elimination from paper mill effluent (PME). For this, pot (glass aquarium) experiments were conducted using 0% (BWW: borewell water), 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% treatments of PME under natural day/light regime. Results of the experiments showed that the highest removal of pH (10.75%), electrical conductivity (EC: 63.82%), total dissolved solids (TDS: 71.20%) biological oxygen demand (BOD: 85.03%), chemical oxygen demand (COD: 80.46%), total Kjeldahl's nitrogen (TKN: 93.03%), phosphorus (P: 85.56%), sodium (Na: 91.89%), potassium (K: 84.04%), calcium (Ca: 84.75%), and magnesium (Mg: 83.62%), most probable number (MPN: 77.63%), and standard plate count (SPC: 74.43%) was noted in 75% treatment of PME after treatment by P. stratiotes. PCA showed the best vector length for TKN, Na, and Ca. The maximum plant growth parameters including, total fresh biomass (81.30 ± 0.28 g), chlorophyll content (3.67 ± 0.05 mg g-1 f.wt), and relative growth rate (0.0051 gg-1 d-1 ) was also measured in 75% PME treatment after phytoremediation experiments. The findings of this study make useful insight into the biological management of PME through plant-based pollutant eradication while leftover biomass may be used as a feedstock for low-cost bioenergy production. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Biological treatment of paper mill effluent using water lettuce is presented. Best reduction of physicochemical and microbiological pollutants was attained in 75% treatment. Maximum production of chlorophyll, plant biomass, and highest growth rate was also observed in 75% treatment.
A diesel engine running on diesel/biodiesel mixtures containing ethylene glycol diacetate (EGDA) was investigated from the exergoeconomic and exergoenvironmental viewpoints. Biodiesel was mixed with petrodiesel at 5% and 20% volume ratios, and the resultant mixtures were then doped with EGDA at 1-3% volume ratios. The exergetic sustainability indicators of the engine operating on the prepared fuel formulations were determined at varying engine loads. The indicators were selected to support decision-making on fuel composition and engine load following thermodynamic, economic, and environmental considerations. The engine load markedly affected all the studied exergetic parameters. The highest engine exergetic efficiency (39.5%) was obtained for petrodiesel doped with 1 v/v% EGDA at the engine load of 50%. The minimum value of the unit cost of brake power exergy (49.6 US$/GJ) was found for straight petrodiesel at full-load conditions, while the minimum value of the unit environmental impact of brake power exergy (29.9 mPts/GJ) was observed for petrodiesel mixed with 5 v/v% biodiesel at the engine load of 75%. Overall, adding EGDA to fuel mixtures did not favorably influence the outcomes of both exergetic methods due to its energy-intensive and cost-prohibitive production process. In conclusion, although petrodiesel fuel improvers such EGDA used in the present study could properly mitigate pollutant emissions, the adverse effects of such additives on thermodynamic parameters of diesel engines, particularly on exergoeconomic and exergoenvironmental indices, need to be taken into account, and necessary optimizations should be made before their real-world application.
Biochar is a stabilized, carbon-rich by-product derived from pyrolysis of biomass. Recently, biochar has received extensive attentions because of its multi-functionality for agricultural and environmental applications. Biochar can contribute to sequestration of atmosphere carbon, improvement of soils quality, and mitigation of environmental contaminations. The capability of biochar for specific application is determined by its properties which are predominantly controlled by source material and pyrolysis route variables. The biochar sorption potential is a function of its surface area, pores volume, ash contents, and functional groups. The impacts of each production factors on these characteristics of biochar need to be well-understood to design efficient biochars for pesticides removal. The effects of biomass type on biochar sorptive properties are determined by relative amounts of its lingo-cellulosic compounds, minerals content, particles size, and structure. The highest treatment temperature is the most effective pyrolysis factor in the determination of biochar sorption behavior. The expansion of micro-porosity and surface area and also increase of biochar organic carbon content and hydrophobicity mostly happen by pyrolysis peak temperature rise. These changes make biochar suitable for immobilization of organic contaminants. Heating rate, gas pressure, and reaction retention time after the pyrolysis temperatures are sequentially important pyrolysis variables effective on biochar sorptive properties. This review compiles the available knowledge about the impacts of production variables on biochars sorptive properties and discusses the aging process as the main factor in post-pyrolysis alterations of biochars sorption capacity. The drawbacks of biochar application in the environment are summarized as well in the last section.
Setiu Wetland is rapidly developing into an aquaculture and agriculture hub, causing concern about its water quality condition. To address this issue, it is imperative to acquire knowledge of the spatial and temporal distributions of pollutants. Consequently, this study applied combinations of hydrodynamic and particle tracking models to identify the transport behaviour of pollutants and calculate the residence time in Setiu Lagoon. The particle tracking results indicated that the residence time in Setiu Lagoon was highly influenced by the release location, where particles released closer to the river mouth exhibited shorter residence times than those released further upstream. Despite this fact, the pulse of river discharges successfully reduced the residence time in the order of two to twelve times shorter. Under different tidal phases, the residence time during the neap tide was longer regardless of heavy rainfalls, implying the domination of tidal flow in the water renewal within the lagoon.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is the most harmful pollutant in the air, causing environmental issues and adversely affecting humans and the vegetation and then raises global warming indirectly. CO oxidation is one of the most effective methods of reducing CO by converting it into carbon dioxide (CO2) using a suitable catalytic system, due to its simplicity and great value for pollution control. The CO oxidation reaction has been widely studied in various applications, including proton-exchange membrane fuel cell technology and catalytic converters. CO oxidation has also been of great academic interest over the last few decades as a model reaction. Many review studies have been produced on catalysts development for CO oxidation, emphasizing noble metal catalysts, the configuration of catalysts, process parameter influence, and the deactivation of catalysts. Nevertheless, there is still some gap in a state of the art knowledge devoted exclusively to synergistic interactions between catalytic activity and physicochemical properties. In an effort to fill this gap, this analysis updates and clarifies innovations for various latest developed catalytic CO oxidation systems with contemporary evaluation and the synergistic relationship between oxygen vacancies, strong metal-support interaction, particle size, metal dispersion, chemical composition acidity/basicity, reducibility, porosity, and surface area. This review study is useful for environmentalists, scientists, and experts working on mitigating the harmful effects of CO on both academic and commercial levels in the research and development sectors.
Epidemiological studies have proven that children mental health can be affected by environmental pollutants which are believed to be visible in the form of psychological disorder later in their childhood. Moreover, the effects of children mental health are evidently clear in the case of phthalates which have been observed to increase psychological disorder, specifically attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Hence, the present study aims to conduct a systematic review and provide an overview of the existing literature on the association between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and ADHD symptoms among children by emphasizing the confounding factors and limitations. Additionally, this review addressed the possible phthalate mechanism insights in human body including its impact on ADHD symptoms. In this case, 16 epidemiological studies (five cross-sectional, nine cohort and two case control studies) that met all the inclusion criteria were selected out of the total of 427 papers screened to show varying quantitative associations between phthalate exposure and ADHD symptoms among children with confounding factors and limitations in the existing studies in regard to the exposure and outcomes. This review also attempted to present possible explanation on phthalate mechanism in children body and its connection on neurodevelopment and ADHD symptom development which remains unclear in most of the studies. Finally, it is highly recommended for further research to carefully design cohort studies from prenatal to later childhood development with a complete sample size in order to understand phthalate impacts on children health.
The catalytic activity of free laccase and a novel sol-gel laccase (SOLAC) in ionic liquids and organic solvents was demonstrated by using 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP) as a substrate. The enhancement of the catalytic activity of the SOLAC was observed and compared to the free laccase in both media. The oxidative biodegradation of o-chlorophenol as a model of phenolic environmental pollutants in organic media shows that the degradation was observed only when using water pre-saturated organic solvents or reverse micelle system. The SOLAC gave higher biodegradation rate in either aqueous or organic solvents, in which the optimum temperature was observed at 40 °C for the reverse micelle system as a reaction medium. All results demonstrated the potential use of the SOLAC for biodegradation of phenolic environmental pollutants in non-conventional media.
In this work we report on the isolation of a local molybdenum-reducing bacterium. The bacterium reduced molybdate or Mo(6+) to molybdenum blue (oxidation states between 5+ to 6+). Electron donors that supported cellular growth were sucrose, maltose, mannitol, fructose, glucose and starch (in decreasing order) with sucrose supporting formation of the highest amount of molybdenum blue at 10 g/l after 24 hours of static incubation. The optimum molybdate and phosphate concentrations that supported molybdate reduction were 20 and 5 mM, respectively. Molybdate reduction was optimal at 37 degrees C. The molybdenum blue produced from cellular reduction exhibited a unique absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. The isolate was tentatively identified as S. marcescens strain Dr.Y9 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GN plates and partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny. No inhibition of molybdenum-reducing activity was seen using electron transport system (ETS) inhibitors such as antimycin A, 1HQNO (Hydroxyquinoline-N-Oxide), sodium azide and cyanide suggesting that the ETS of this bacterium is not the site of molybdate reduction.
In this study, we analyzed hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in urine of both PCB transport workers and PCB researchers. A method to monitor OH-PCB in urine was developed. Urine was solid-phase extracted with 0.1% ammonia/ methanol (v/v) and glucuronic acid/sulfate conjugates and then decomposed using β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase. After alkaline digestion/derivatization, the concentration of OH-PCBs was determined by HRGC/HRMS-SIM. In the first sampling campaign, the worker's OH-PCB levels increased several fold after the PCB waste transportation work, indicating exposure to PCBs. The concentration of OH-PCBs in PCB transport workers' urine (0.55~11 μg/g creatinine (Cre)) was higher than in PCB researchers' urine (
Sonophotocatalysis involves the use of a combination of ultrasonic sound waves, ultraviolet radiation and a semiconductor photocatalyst to enhance a chemical reaction by the formation of free radicals in aqueous systems. Researchers have used sonophotocatalysis in a variety of investigations i.e. from water decontamination to direct pollutant degradation. This degradation process provides an excellent opportunity to reduce reaction time and the amount of reagents used without the need for extreme physical conditions. Given its advantages, the sonophotocatalysis process has a futuristic application from an engineering and fundamental aspect in commercial applications. A detailed search of published reports was done and analyzed in this paper with respect to sonication, photocatalysis and advanced oxidation processes.
The East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia faces the South China Sea and is vulnerable to oil pollution because of intense petroleum production activities in the area. The South China Sea is also a favored route for supertankers carrying crude oil to the Far East. Consequently, oil spills can occur, causing pollution and contamination in the surrounding areas. Residual oil spills stranded on coastal beaches usually end up as tar-balls. Elucidating the sources of tar-balls using a molecular marker approach is essential in assessing environmental impacts and perhaps settling legal liabilities for affected parties. This study utilizes a multimodal molecular marker approach through the use of diagnostic ratios of alkanes, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to determine the source, distribution and weathering of tar-balls. Hopane ratios (e.g., C29/C30, and summation C31-C35/C30 ratios) were used to identify the sources of tar-balls. The weathering effects were distinguished by using alkanes, namely the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) and low molecular weight/high molecular weight (L/H) ratios. Similarly, PAHs were also used for the determination of weathering processes undergone by the tar-balls. This multimodal molecular marker gave a very strong indication of the sources of tar-balls in this study. For example, 16 out of 17 samples originated from South East Asian Crude Oil (SEACO) with one sample from Merang, Terengganu originating from North Sea Oil (Troll). The TRME-2 sample may have come from a supertanker's ballast water discharge. The second possibility is that the tar-ball may have been transported via oceanographic currents. All 'weathered' sample characterizations were based on the presence of UCM and other ratios. The multimodal molecular marker approach applied in this study has enabled us to partially understand the transport behavior of tar-balls in the marine environment and has revealed insights into the weathering process of tar-balls.
This study investigated the effect of different supporting electrolyte (Na2SO4, MgSO4, NaCl) in degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and generation of electricity. Zinc oxide (ZnO) was immobilized onto carbon felt acted as photoanode, while Pt-coated carbon paper as photocathode was placed in a single chamber photocatalytic fuel cell, which then irradiated by UV lamp for 24 h. The degradation and mineralization of RB5 with 0.1 M NaCl rapidly decreased after 24-h irradiation time, followed by MgSO4, Na2SO4 and without electrolyte. The voltage outputs for Na2SO4, MgSO4 and NaCl were 908, 628 and 523 mV, respectively, after 24-h irradiation time; meanwhile, their short-circuit current density, J SC, was 1.3, 1.2 and 1.05 mA cm(-2), respectively. The power densities for Na2SO4, MgSO4 and NaCl were 0.335, 0.256 and 0.245 mW cm(-2), respectively. On the other hand, for without supporting electrolyte, the voltage output and short-circuit current density was 271.6 mV and 0.055 mA cm(-2), respectively. The supporting electrolyte NaCl showed greater performance in degradation of RB5 and generation of electricity due to the formation of superoxide radical anions which enhance the degradation of dye. The mineralization of RB5 with different supporting electrolyte was measured through spectrum analysis and reduction in COD concentration.
Studies on marine debris have gained worldwide attention since many types of debris have found their way into the food chain of higher organisms. Thus, it is crucial that more focus is given to this area in order to curb contaminations in sea food. This study was conducted to quantify plastic debris buried in sand at selected beaches in Malaysia. Marine debris was identified according to size range and distribution, and this information was related to preventive actions to improve marine waste issues. For the purpose of this study, comparison of plastic waste abundance between a recreational beach and fish-landing beaches was also carried out, since the different beach types represent different activities that produce debris. Six beaches along the Malaysian coastline were selected for this study. The plastic types in this study were related to the functions of the beach. While recreational beaches have abundant quantities of plastic film, foamed plastic including polystyrene, and plastic fragment, fish-landing beaches accumulated line and foamed plastic. A total of 2542 pieces (265.30 g m(-2)) of small plastic debris were collected from all six beaches, with the highest number from Kuala Terengganu, at 879 items m(-2) on Seberang Takir Beach, followed by Batu Burok Beach with 780 items m(-2). Findings from studies of Malaysian beaches have provided a clearer understanding of the distribution of plastic debris. This demonstrates that commitments and actions, such as practices of the 'reduce, reuse, recycle' (3R) approach, supporting public awareness programmes and beach clean-up activities, are essential in order to reduce and prevent plastic debris pollution.
Current ecological risk assessment (ERA) schemes focus mainly on bioaccumulation and toxicity of pollutants in individual organisms. Ecological models are tools mainly used to assess ecological risks of pollutants to ecosystems, communities, and populations. Their main advantage is the relatively direct integration of the species sensitivity to organic pollutants, the fate and mechanism of action in the environment of toxicants, and life-history features of the individual organism of concern. To promote scientific consensus on ERA schemes, this review is intended to provide a guideline on short-term ERA involving dioxin chemicals and to identify key findings for exposure assessment based on policies of different agencies. It also presents possible adverse effects of dioxins on ecosystems, toxicity equivalence methodology, environmental fate and transport modeling, and development of stressor-response profiles for dioxin-like chemicals.
Leaf samples of tropical trees, i.e. Dryobalanops lanceolata (Kapur paji), Dipterocarpaceae and Macaranga spp. (Mahang), Euphorbiaceae were analyzed for 21 chemical elements. The pioneer Macaranga spp. exhibited higher concentrations for the majority of elements compared to the emergent species of Dryobalanops lanceolata, which was attributed to the higher physiological activity of the fast growing pioneer species compared to emergent trees. Lead showed rather high concentrations in several samples from the Bakam re-forestation site. This is suggested to be caused by emissions through brick manufacturing and related activities in the vicinity. A comparison of Dryobalanops lanceolata samples collected in 1993, 1995 and 1997 in the Lambir Hills National Park revealed that certain heavy metals, i.e. Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Ti showed higher values in 1997 compared to the previous years, which could indicate an atmospheric input from the haze caused by the extensive forest fires raging in Borneo and other parts of Southeast Asia.
In this study, bisphenol A (BPA) removal by sonophotocatalysis coupled with commercially available titanium dioxide (TiO2, P25) was assessed in batch tests using energy-based advanced oxidation combining ultrasound (US) and ultraviolet (UV). The kinetics of BPA removal were systematically evaluated by changing operational parameters, such as US frequency and power, mechanical stirring speed, and temperature, but also comparison of single and coupled systems under the optimum US conditions (35 kHz, 50 W, 300 rpm stirring speed, and 20 °C). The combination of US/UV/P25 exhibited the highest BPA removal rate (28.0 × 10-3 min-1). In terms of the synergy index, the synergistic effect of sonophotocatalysis was found to be 2.2. This indicated that sonophotocatalysis has a considerably higher removal efficiency than sonocatalysis or photocatalysis. The removal of BPA was further investigated to identify BPA byproducts and intermediates using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Five main intermediates were formed during sonophotocatalytic degradation, and complete removal of BPA and its intermediates was obtained after 3 h of operation. The degradation pathway of BPA by sonophotocatalysis was also elucidated.
Palm oil mill effluent (POME) has high chemical oxygen demand (COD), thus requires effective treatments to environmentally benign levels before discharge. In this study, immobilized microalgae cells are used for removing pollutants in treated palm oil mill effluent (TPOME). Different ratios of microalgae beads to TPOME concentration were examined at 1:2.5, 1:5, and 1:10. The biomass concentration and COD removal were measured through a standard method. The color of the cultivated microalgae beads changed from light green to darker green after the POME treatment for 9 days, hence demonstrating that microalgae cells were successfully grown inside the beads with pH up to 9.84. The immobilized cells cultivated in the POME at 1:10 achieved a higher biomass concentration of 1.268 g/L and a COD removal percentage of 72% than other treatment ratios. The increment of the ratio of microalgae cells beads to POME concentration did not cause any improvement in COD removal efficiency. This was due to the inhibitory effect of self-shading resulting in the slow growth rate of microalgae cells which responsible for low COD removal. Therefore, this system could be a viable technology for simultaneous biomass production and POME treatment. This will contribute to research efforts toward the development of new and improved technologies in treating POME.