Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 34 in total

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  1. Radu S, Abdul Mutalib S, Rusul G, Ahmad Z, Morigaki T, Asai N, et al.
    Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1998 Mar;64(3):1153-6.
    PMID: 9501454
    Twelve strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were isolated from 9 of 25 beef samples purchased from retail stores in Malaysia. These strains produced Shiga toxin 2 with or without Shiga toxin 1 and had the eae gene and a 60-MDa plasmid. The antibiograms and the profiles of the arbitrarily primed PCR of the strains were diverse, suggesting that the strains may have originated from diverse sources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli O157/isolation & purification*; Escherichia coli O157/pathogenicity
  2. Abakpa GO, Umoh VJ, Kamaruzaman S, Ibekwe M
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2018 Jan;98(1):80-86.
    PMID: 28543177 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8441
    BACKGROUND: Some routes of transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to fresh produce include contaminated irrigation water and manure polluted soils. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic relationships of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from some produce growing region in Nigeria using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) DNA fingerprinting analysis. A total of 440 samples comprising leafy greens, irrigation water, manure and soil were obtained from vegetable producing regions in Kano and Plateau States, Nigeria. Genes coding for the quinolone resistance-determinant (gyrA) and plasmid (pCT) coding for multidrug resistance (MDR) were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 16 isolates that showed MDR.

    RESULTS: Cluster analysis of the ERIC-PCR profiles based on band sizes revealed six main clusters from the sixteen isolates analysed. The largest cluster (cluster 3) grouped isolates from vegetables and manure at a similarity coefficient of 0.72.

    CONCLUSION: The present study provides data that support the potential transmission of resistant strains of E. coli O157:H7 from vegetables and environmental sources to humans with potential public health implications, especially in developing countries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli O157/classification; Escherichia coli O157/drug effects; Escherichia coli O157/genetics; Escherichia coli O157/isolation & purification*
  3. Ten ST, Hashim U, Gopinath SC, Liu WW, Foo KL, Sam ST, et al.
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2017 Jul 15;93:146-154.
    PMID: 27660016 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2016.09.035
    Surface acoustic wave mediated transductions have been widely used in the sensors and actuators applications. In this study, a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SHSAW) was used for the detection of food pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E.coli O157:H7), a dangerous strain among 225 E. coli unique serotypes. A few cells of this bacterium are able to cause young children to be most vulnerable to serious complications. Presence of higher than 1cfu E.coli O157:H7 in 25g of food has been considered as a dangerous level. The SHSAW biosensor was fabricated on 64° YX LiNbO3 substrate. Its sensitivity was enhanced by depositing 130.5nm thin layer of SiO2 nanostructures with particle size lesser than 70nm. The nanostructures act both as a waveguide as well as a physical surface modification of the sensor prior to biomolecular immobilization. A specific DNA sequence from E. coli O157:H7 having 22 mers as an amine-terminated probe ssDNA was immobilized on the thin film sensing area through chemical functionalization [(CHO-(CH2)3-CHO) and APTES; NH2-(CH2)3-Si(OC2H5)3]. The high-performance of sensor was shown with the specific oligonucleotide target and attained the sensitivity of 0.6439nM/0.1kHz and detection limit was down to 1.8femto-molar (1.8×10(-15)M). Further evidence was provided by specificity analysis using single mismatched and complementary oligonucleotide sequences.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli O157/isolation & purification*; Escherichia coli O157/pathogenicity
  4. Kadum Yakob H, Manaf Uyub A, Fariza Sulaiman S
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2015 Aug 22;172:30-7.
    PMID: 26091966 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.006
    Ludwigia octovalvis is an aquatic plant widely distributed throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions. It is commonly consumed as a health drink and traditionally used for treating various ailments such as dysentery, diarrhea, diabetes, nephritisn and headache. No information is available on its in vivo antibacterial activity against an important foodborne pathogen, Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli O157/drug effects*; Escherichia coli O157/immunology; Escherichia coli O157/metabolism
  5. Jeshveen, S.S., Chai, L.C., Pui, C.F., Son, R.
    MyJurnal
    The main source of E. coli 0157:H7 is cattle, but recent studies showed high percentage of outbreaks
    contributed by contaminated water. The occurrence of E. coli O157:H7 in environmental water samples poses a potential threat to human health. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol for the detection of the pathogen E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli virulence genes (eaeA, rfbE, hly, stx1, and stx2) in a multiplex PCR protocol using six specific primer pairs. The target genes produced species-specific amplicons at 625 bp, 397 bp, 296 bp, 166 bp, 210 bp and 484 bp for E. coli O157:H7 (fliCh7 gene) and virulence genes (eaeA, rfbE, hly, stx1, and stx2) respectively. The results obtained show that the established PCR protocol is suitable for a rapid and specific analysis of the pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 in environmental water samples for the assessment of microbiological risks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli O157
  6. Loo, Y. Y., Puspanadan, S., Goh, S. G., Kuan, C. H., Chang, W. S., Lye, Y. L., et al.
    MyJurnal
    Foodborne diseases are mainly caused by bacterial contamination which can lead to severe diarrhea. This study aimed to detect the presence of Shiga toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157, Escherichia coli non-O157 and virulence gene in raw vegetables. The samples were purchased from wet market and hypermarket in Selangor. The detections were carried out by using the combination methods of Most Probable Number-Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPNPCR). A total of 37(18.5%) samples were found to be contaminated by STEC. Out of these 37 isolates, four (10.8%) of the isolates were E. coli O157 while 33(89.2%) were E. coli nonO157. However, there was no E. coli O157:H7 detected in all the samples. The occurrence of Shiga toxin-Producing E. coli in edible raw vegetables samples suggests the importance of this pathogen in vegetables. Therefore, more studies are required to remove this pathogen from vegetables.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli O157
  7. Kim YB, Okuda J, Matsumoto C, Morigaki T, Asai N, Watanabe H, et al.
    FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 1998 Sep 01;166(1):43-8.
    PMID: 9741083
    Escherichia coli strains isolated from patients with diarrhea or hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) at Pusan University Hospital, South Korea, between 1990 and 1996 were examined for traits of the O157:H7 serogroup. One strain isolated from a patient with HUS belonged to the O157:H7 serotype, possessed a 60-MDa plasmid, the eae gene, and ability to produce Shiga toxin 1 but not Shiga toxin 2. Arbitrarily primed PCR analysis suggested that this strain is genetically very close to a O157:H7 strain isolated in Japan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli O157/genetics; Escherichia coli O157/isolation & purification*; Escherichia coli O157/metabolism*
  8. Ling, S., Noramirah, R., Abidatul, A.A., Nurfarhanah, N.M.J., Noor-Azira, A.M., Jambari, N.N., et al.
    Food Research, 2018;2(3):240-246.
    MyJurnal
    Foodborne illness is a global burden that impacts a country politically, economically and
    socio-economically. The severity of the burden can be unmeasurable as foodborne illness
    is often an underestimated problem. In order to enlighten the burden, appropriate food
    safety control measures should be taken. This study aimed to optimize a multiplex
    Polymerase Chain Reaction (mPCR) detection method to identify foodborne pathogens
    simultaneously. Six foodborne pathogens namely, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157,
    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter
    spp., were targeted in the mPCR detection method. Each mPCR parameter was tested and
    the outcome was analysed to obtain a successful mPCR protocol to detect the targeted
    foodborne pathogens. The amplified PCR products showed that the optimized mPCR
    protocol will be a potential rapid diagnostic tool in foodborne pathogen detection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli O157
  9. Ismet Berber, Cumhur Avsar
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:1835-1842.
    The presence of coliforms bacteria is one of the most prevalent problems in terms of public health in marine ecosystems over the world. In this study were investigated the physico-chemical properties of seawater and the numbers of total aerobic, total coliform, fecal coliform, E. coli O157:H7 and fecal streptococci in seawater and mussel samples collected from Sinop environs between May and October 2011. The microbiological analysis of seawater samples showed that the difference between total coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococci numbers (p<0.05) was significant for each station. However, the difference among total aerobic bacteria numbers for each stations (p>0.05) were not found significant. The difference between whole counting results for mussel samples taken from different sampling sites was not significant (p>0.05), too. Furthermore, the results of the screening assay for the presence of E. coli O157:H7 showed that the strain was not detected in neither seawater nor mussel samples. In conclusion, it was determined that fecal coliform and fecal streptococci counts in the seawater and mussel samples were higher than legal (Turkish Bathing Water and Quality of Fishery Products Regulation) limit values for some stations in Sinop coastal areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli O157
  10. Kiang WS, Bhat R, Rosma A, Cheng LH
    Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 2013 Apr;56(4):251-7.
    PMID: 23278854 DOI: 10.1111/lam.12042
    In this study, the effects of thermosonication and thermal treatment on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis in mango juice were investigated at 50 and 60°C. Besides, nonlethal injury of Salm. Enteritidis after both treatments was also examined. The highest inactivation was attained with thermosonication at 60°C. The inactivation rate was different for both pathogens, and Salm. Enteritidis was found to be more sensitive to thermosonication than E. coli O157:H7. Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered in all treated samples, except those subjected to more than 5-min thermosonication at 60°C. It was found that the introduction of high-intensity ultrasound enhanced the inactivation of pathogens compared to thermal treatment alone. On the other hand, Salm. Enteritidis was detected in a number of samples following incubation in universal pre-enrichment broth, but no growth was detected after incubation in mango juice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli O157/physiology*
  11. Radu S, Rusul G, Ling OW, Purwati E, Mustakim M, Lihan S
    PMID: 11023069
    This study has evaluated the use of a commercially available Rainbow agar O157 and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of Shiga-like toxin producing Escherichia coli and to serotype E. coli O157:H7 from raw meat. The Rainbow agar O157 was found to be selective and sensitive for the screening of the E. coli O157 from artificially and naturally contaminated meat samples. Shiga-like toxin producing E. coli were identified with two primer pairs that amplified fragments of the SLT-I (384 bp) and SLT-II (584 bp). E. coli O157:H7 was serotyped with a primer pair specified for the H7 flagellar gene, which amplify specific DNA fragments (625 bp) from all E. coli O157:H7 strains. The use of Rainbow agar O157 described allows for the presumptive isolation of E. coli O157 in 24 hours. Identification and confirmation of the presumptive isolates as E. coli O157:H7 by PCR assays require additional 6-8 hours. The above-mentioned screening and identification procedures should prove to be a very useful method since it allows for the specific detection of E. coli O157:H7.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli O157/isolation & purification*
  12. Nadzirah Sh, Azizah N, Hashim U, Gopinath SC, Kashif M
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(10):e0139766.
    PMID: 26445455 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139766
    Nanoparticle-mediated bio-sensing promoted the development of novel sensors in the front of medical diagnosis. In the present study, we have generated and examined the potential of titanium dioxide (TiO2) crystalline nanoparticles with aluminium interdigitated electrode biosensor to specifically detect single-stranded E.coli O157:H7 DNA. The performance of this novel DNA biosensor was measured the electrical current response using a picoammeter. The sensor surface was chemically functionalized with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) to provide contact between the organic and inorganic surfaces of a single-stranded DNA probe and TiO2 nanoparticles while maintaining the sensing system's physical characteristics. The complement of the target DNA of E. coli O157:H7 to the carboxylate-probe DNA could be translated into electrical signals and confirmed by the increased conductivity in the current-to-voltage curves. The specificity experiments indicate that the biosensor can discriminate between the complementary sequences from the base-mismatched and the non-complementary sequences. After duplex formation, the complementary target sequence can be quantified over a wide range with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10(-13)M. With target DNA from the lysed E. coli O157:H7, we could attain similar sensitivity. Stability of DNA immobilized surface was calculated with the relative standard deviation (4.6%), displayed the retaining with 99% of its original response current until 6 months. This high-performance interdigitated DNA biosensor with high sensitivity, stability and non-fouling on a novel sensing platform is suitable for a wide range of biomolecular interactive analyses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli O157/genetics*; Escherichia coli O157/isolation & purification*
  13. Radu S, Ling OW, Rusul G, Karim MI, Nishibuchi M
    J. Microbiol. Methods, 2001 Aug;46(2):131-9.
    PMID: 11412923
    Twenty-five and three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were identified from 25 tenderloin beef and three chicken meat burger samples, respectively. The bacteria were recovered using the immunomagnetic separation procedure followed by selective plating on sorbitol MacConkey agar and were identified as E. coli serotype O157:H7 with three primer pairs that amplified fragments of the SLT-I, SLT-II and H7 genes in PCR assays. Susceptibility testing to 14 antibiotics showed that all were resistant to two or more antibiotics tested. Although all 28 strains contained plasmid, there was very little variation in the plasmid sizes observed. The most common plasmid of 60 MDa was detected in all strains. We used DNA fingerprinting by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to compare the 28 E. coli O157:H7 strains. At a similarity level of 90%, the results of PFGE after restriction with XbaI separated the E. coli O157:H7 strains into 28 single isolates, whereas RAPD using a single 10-mer oligonucleotides separated the E. coli O157:H7 strains into two clusters and 22 single isolates. These typing methods should aid in the epidemiological clarification of the E. coli O157:H7 in the study area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli O157/classification*; Escherichia coli O157/isolation & purification*
  14. Maizura M, Fazilah A, Norziah MH, Karim AA
    J. Food Sci., 2007 Aug;72(6):C324-30.
    PMID: 17995673
    Edible films were prepared from a mixture of partially hydrolyzed sago starch and alginate (SA). Lemongrass oil (0.1% to 0.4%, v/w) and glycerol (0% and 20%, w/w) were incorporated in the films to act as natural antimicrobial agent and plasticizer, respectively. The films were characterized for antimicrobial activity, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength (TS), percent elongation at break (%E), and water solubility (WS). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was conducted to determine functional group interactions between the matrix and lemongrass oil. The zone of inhibition was increased significantly (P < 0.05) by addition of lemongrass oil at all levels in the presence and the absence of glycerol. This indicates that the film containing lemongrass oil was effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 at all levels. In the absence of glycerol, the tensile strength of film decreased as the oil content increased, but there was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in percent elongation. The percent elongation at break and WVP values for film with 20% glycerol was found to be increased significantly (P < 0.05) with an increase in lemongrass oil content. Addition of lemongrass oil did not have any interaction with the functional groups of films as measured by FTIR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli O157/drug effects*; Escherichia coli O157/growth & development
  15. Saad SM, Abdullah J, Rashid SA, Fen YW, Salam F, Yih LH
    Mikrochim Acta, 2019 11 19;186(12):804.
    PMID: 31745737 DOI: 10.1007/s00604-019-3913-8
    A fluorometric assay is described for highly sensitive quantification of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Reporter oligos were immobilized on graphene quantum dots (GQDs), and quencher oligos were immobilized on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Target DNA was co-hybridized with reporter oligos on the GQDs and quencher oligos on AuNPs. This triggers quenching of fluorescence (with excitation/emission peaks at 400 nm/530 nm). On introducing target into the system, fluorescence is quenched by up to 95% by 100 nM concentrations of target oligos having 20 bp. The response to the fliC gene of E. coli O157:H7 increases with the logarithm of the concentration in the range from 0.1 nM to 150 nM. The limit of detection is 1.1 ± 0.6 nM for n = 3. The selectivity and specificity of the assay was confirmed by evaluating the various oligos sequences and PCR product (fliC gene) amplified from genomic DNA of the food samples spiked with E. coli O157:H7. Graphical abstractSchematic representation of fluorometric assay for highly sensitive quantification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 based on fluorescence quenching gene assay for fliC gene of E. coli O157:H7.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli O157/genetics; Escherichia coli O157/isolation & purification*
  16. Koitabashi T, Vuddhakul V, Radu S, Morigaki T, Asai N, Nakaguchi Y, et al.
    Microbiol. Immunol., 2006;50(2):135-48.
    PMID: 16490932
    Nine Escherichia coli O157: H7/- strains isolated primarily from non-clinical sources in Thailand and Japan carried the stx(2) gene but did not produce Stx2 toxin in a reversed passive latex agglutination (RPLA) assay. A strain (EDL933) bearing a stx(2) phage (933W) was compared to a strain (Thai-12) that was Stx2-negative but contained the stx(2) gene. To study the lack of Stx2 production, the Thai-12 stx(2) gene and its upstream nucleotide sequence were analyzed. The Thai-12 stx(2) coding region was intact and Stx2 was expressed from a cloned stx(2) gene using a plasmid vector and detected using RPLA. A lacZ fusion analysis found the Thai-12 stx(2) promoter non-functional. Because the stx(2) gene is downstream of the late promoter in the stx(2) phage genome, the antitermination activity of Q protein is essential for strong stx(2) transcription. Thai-12 had the q gene highly homologous to that of Phi21 phage but not to the 933W phage. High-level expression of exogenous q genes demonstrated Q antitermination activity was weak in Thai-12. Replication of stx(2) phage was not observed in Stx2-negative strains. The q-stx(2) gene sequence of Thai-12 was well conserved in all Stx2-negative strains. A PCR assay to detect the Thai-12 q-stx(2) sequence demonstrated that 30% of O157 strains from marketed Malaysian beef carried this sequence and they produced little or no Stx2. These results suggest that stx(2)-positive O157 strains that produce little or no Stx2 may be widely distributed in the Asian environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli O157/genetics*; Escherichia coli O157/metabolism*
  17. Goulter RM, Taran E, Gentle IR, Gobius KS, Dykes GA
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2014 Jul 1;119:90-8.
    PMID: 24880987 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.04.003
    The role of Escherichia coli H antigens in hydrophobicity and attachment to glass, Teflon and stainless steel (SS) surfaces was investigated through construction of fliC knockout mutants in E. coli O157:H7, O1:H7 and O157:H12. Loss of FliC(H12) in E. coli O157:H12 decreased attachment to glass, Teflon and stainless steel surfaces (p<0.05). Complementing E. coli O157:H12 ΔfliC(H12) with cloned wildtype (wt) fliC(H12) restored attachment to wt levels. The loss of FliCH7 in E. coli O157:H7 and O1:H7 did not always alter attachment (p>0.05), but complementation with cloned fliC(H12), as opposed to cloned fliCH7, significantly increased attachment for both strains compared with wt counterparts (p<0.05). Hydrophobicity determined using bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons and contact angle measurements differed with fliC expression but was not correlated to the attachment to materials included in this study. Purified FliC was used to functionalise silicone nitride atomic force microscopy probes, which were used to measure adhesion forces between FliC and substrates. Although no significant difference in adhesion force was observed between FliC(H12) and FliCH7 probes, differences in force curves suggest different mechanism of attachment for FliC(H12) compared with FliCH7. These results indicate that E. coli strains expressing flagellar H12 antigens have an increased ability to attach to certain abiotic surfaces compared with E. coli strains expressing H7 antigens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli O157/genetics; Escherichia coli O157/metabolism; Escherichia coli O157/chemistry*
  18. Henie, E.F.P., Zaiton, H., Suhaila, M.
    MyJurnal
    The mode of action and activities of guava leaf extracts against various food pathogens were studied. The killing kinetics, viability and cell leakage of Kocuria rhizophila, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7, measured after exposure to guava methanolic extracts (GME) revealed a significantly higher (p≤0.05) release of bacterial nucleic acids, K+ ions and protein than that of untreated microbes, indicating disruption of the bacterial membrane. GME caused a significantly higher (p≤0.05) release of RNA in gramnegatives compared to gram-positives. GME caused a relatively small but significant release of pyrines and pyrimidines in all organisms investigated. GME probably disrupted the integrity of the Gram-negative microorganism lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer. Unlike all the other microorganisms tested, E. coli O157:H7, demonstrated the lowest protein leakage, the highest K+ leakage, the highest pyrines and pyrimidines leakage within the first 10 min of extract exposure, but the lowest after 30 minutes, which may indicate their good homeostasis ability or adaptability. Understanding the mode of action of this flavonoid rich guava leaf extract, would help develop it as an alternative biodegradable and safe, antimicrobial for food and medicine, and as a by-product of the guava industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli O157
  19. Lye, Y.L., Afsah-Hejri, L., Chang, W.S., Loo, Y.Y., Puspanadan, S., Kuan, C.H., et al.
    MyJurnal
    E. coli O157:H7 is associated with life threatening diseases such as hemorrhagic colitis (HC), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Raw milk is considered a high risk food as it is highly nutritious and serves as an ideal medium for bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in raw cow, goat and buffalo milk samples. MPN-PCR method targeting the major virulence rfbE gene and fliCH7gene of E. coli O157:H7 was used. Total of 177 raw milk samples were collected from local dairy farms in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The highest prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was found in raw cow milk (18.75%). E. coli O157:H7 was detected in 7.32% and 3.57% of raw goat and buffalo milk, respectively. The estimated quantity of E. coli O157:H7 in raw cow, goat and buffalo milk ranged from
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli O157
  20. Suria, M.S., Mohd Afendy, A.T, Noor Azlina, M., Zamri, I.
    MyJurnal
    The use of polyclonal antibody (IgG) has recently been applied to the detection of bacteria. We developed a lateral flow assay (LFA) strip using a specific IgG in combination with colloidal gold on a nitrocellulose membrane. A conjugate, gold-anti Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 IgG was developed in this study for the detection of E. coli O157:H7 in food. The 40 nm in size of colloidal gold nanoparticles was used to conjugate the anti-E. coli O157:H7 IgG. The optimal concentration, 12.0 µg/ml of the anti-E. coli O157:H7 IgG was determined by standard curve generated in titration method. The serially diluted of E. coli O157:H7 was detected and clearly visualized on the LFA strip as low as 106 CFU/ml (result not shown). The IgG raised in rabbit have shown specific binding capacity against E. coli O157:H7. No other genus of bacteria, including Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni reacted to the IgG. The LFA strip could also detect E. coli O157:H7 in different food samples matrices after 18 h-enrichment and this result were in accordance with the results of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and colony count.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli O157
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