Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 45 in total

  1. Hew KS, Asis AJ, Tan TB, Yusoff MM, Lai OM, Nehdi IA, et al.
    Food Chem, 2020 Mar 01;307:125545.
    PMID: 31654951 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125545
    Corresponding the high presence of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl esters (GE) in refined palm oil, this paper re-evaluated degumming and bleaching processes of physical palm oil refining to reduce the amount of said contaminants. Separation-free water degumming was incorporated into the process, and this significantly (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Esters/chemistry*
  2. Khayoon MS, Olutoye MA, Hameed BH
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 May;111:175-9.
    PMID: 22405756 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.01.177
    Methyl esters were synthesized from crude karanj oil (CKO) by single step esterification with methanol using sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) and phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) as catalysts in a homogeneous batch process. H(3)PO(4) was less active than H(2)SO(4) during the process as it presented very low ester yields (<20%) for the various molar ratios of fatty acid to alcohol studied. With H(2)SO(4) as catalyst, the yield was as high as 89.8% at 65°C after 5h. The fatty acids profile of the oil (palmitic acid: ≈ 12%; stearic acid: ≈ 8%; oleic acid: ≈ 52% and linolenic acid of 17%) and the different reactivities of the acids were responsible for the observed differences in conversion to methyl esters. The findings attained with this study might contribute to the economic utilization of a non-edible feedstock.
    Matched MeSH terms: Esters/chemistry
  3. Kamil RN, Yusup S
    Bioresour Technol, 2010 Aug;101(15):5877-84.
    PMID: 20304636 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.02.084
    A mathematical model describing chemical kinetics of transesterification of palm-based methyl esters with trimethylolpropane has been developed. The model was developed by utilizing nonlinear regression method, which is an efficient and powerful way to determine rate constants for both forward and reverse reactions. A comparison with previous study which excludes the reverse reactions was made. The model was based on the reverse mechanism of transesterification reactions and describes concentration changes of trimethylolpropane, monoesters and diesters production. The developed model was validated against data from the literature. The reaction rate constants were determined using MATLAB version 7.2 and the ratios of rate constants obtained were well in agreement with those reported in the literature. A good correlation between model simulations and experimental data was observed. It was proven that both methods were able to predict the rate constants with plausible accuracy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Esters/chemistry*
  4. Abd Maurad Z, Abdullah LC, Anuar MS, Abdul Karim Shah NN, Idris Z
    Molecules, 2020 Jun 05;25(11).
    PMID: 32516971 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25112629
    Methyl ester sulphonates (MES) have been considered as an alternative green surfactant for the detergent market. Investigation on the purification of methyl ester sulphonates (MES) with various carbon chains of C12, C14, C16 and C16-18 derived from palm methyl ester is of great interest. These MES powders have been repeatedly crystallized with ethanol and the purity of MES has increased to a maximum of 99% active content and 96% crystallinity index without changing the structure. These crystallized MES with high active content have 1.0% to 2.3% moisture content and retained its di-salt content in the range of 5%. The crystallized MES C16 and C16-18 attained excellent flow characteristics. Morphology, structural and its crystallinity analyses showed that the crystals MES had good solubility properties, stable crystal structure (β polymorphic) and triclinic lateral structure when it is in high active content. The brittleness of MES crystals increased from a β' to a β subcell. Crystal with high brittleness has the potential to ease production of powder, which leads to a reduction in the cost of production and improves efficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Esters/chemistry*
  5. Low SY, Tan JY, Ban ZH, Siwayanan P
    J Oleo Sci, 2021 Aug 05;70(8):1027-1037.
    PMID: 34248098 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess21078
    Liquid detergent has an increasing demand in North America, Western Europe, and Southeast Asia countries owing to its convenience to use and efficiency to clean. Alpha methyl ester sulfonates (α-MES), an anionic surfactant derived from palm oil based methyl ester, was reported to have lower manufacturing cost, good detergency with less dosage, excellent biodegradability, higher tolerance to hard water, and lower eco-toxicity as compared to linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LABS). LABS was known as the workhorse of the detergent industry in the 20th century. Although palm-based α-MES was successfully used as the sole surfactant in powder detergent, there are still some unsettled technical issues related to phase stability and viscosity when using this anionic surfactant in heavy-duty laundry liquid detergent formulations. This paper will review not only the market overview of detergents, the application and performance of green surfactants in laundry detergents but also will highlight the technical issues related to the application of palm-based α-MES in laundry liquid detergent and some of the possible methods to overcome the formulation adversities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Esters/chemistry; Sulfuric Acid Esters/chemistry
  6. Ng SH, Woi PM, Basri M, Ismail Z
    J Nanobiotechnology, 2013;11:27.
    PMID: 24059593 DOI: 10.1186/1477-3155-11-27
    Palm oil esters (POEs) are esters derived from palm oil and oleyl alcohol have great potential in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries due to the excellent wetting behavior of the esters without the oily feel. The role of oil-in-water nanoemulsions loaded with tocotrienol sedimentation behavior was studied. LUMiFuge® 116 particle separation analyzer was used to investigate the sedimentation behavior of POEs/tocotrienol/xanthan gum nanoemulsion system during centrifugation. Analyzing the sedimentation kinetics of dispersions in a centrifugal field also yields information about the rheological behavior and structural stability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Esters/chemistry*
  7. Zulkurnain M, Lai OM, Latip RA, Nehdi IA, Ling TC, Tan CP
    Food Chem, 2012 Nov 15;135(2):799-805.
    PMID: 22868161 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.04.144
    The formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters in refined palm oil during deodorisation is attributed to the intrinsic composition of crude palm oil. Utilising D-optimal design, the effects of the degumming and bleaching processes on the reduction in 3-MCPD ester formation in refined palm oil from poor-quality crude palm oil were studied relative to the palm oil minor components that are likely to be their precursors. Water degumming remarkably reduced 3-MCPD ester formation by up to 84%, from 9.79 mg/kg to 1.55 mg/kg. Bleaching with synthetic magnesium silicate caused a further 10% reduction, to 0.487 mg/kg. The reduction in 3-MCPD ester formation could be due to the removal of related precursors prior to the deodorisation step. The phosphorus content of bleached palm oil showed a significant correlation with 3-MCPD ester formation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Esters/chemistry*
  8. Tay BY
    Int J Cosmet Sci, 2013 Feb;35(1):57-63.
    PMID: 22994145 DOI: 10.1111/ics.12004
    A simple and rapid gas chromatography (GC) method with flame ionization detector was developed for detection of isopropyl para-toluenesulphonate (IPTS) in palm-based isopropyl palmitate (IPP) and isopropyl myristate (IPM). The method involved spiking the IPP/IPM samples with IPTS and directly injecting the spiked samples into GC without undergoing clean-up steps. The calibration curves for IPTS showed good linearity with coefficient correlation of 0.9999 for six-point calibration from 0.5 to 50 μg mL(-1) and 0.9996 for six-point calibration from 0.5 to 200 μg mL(-1) . IPTS recoveries from IPP were 98.6-103.5% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.40-2.80%, whereas recoveries from IPM were 97.0-107.2% with RSD of 0.42-4.21%. The identity of IPTS recovered from the isopropyl esters was confirmed by a GC-mass spectrometer detector. The method was successfully applied to the analyses of IPTS in commercial samples. It was found that there were IPTS in the range of 34.8-1303.0 μg g(-1) in the palm-based esters for some of the samples analysed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Esters/chemistry*
  9. Al-Mulla EA, Yunus WM, Ibrahim NA, Rahman MZ
    J Oleo Sci, 2010;59(3):157-60.
    PMID: 20124758
    In this study, difatty acyl urea has been successfully synthesized from corn oil using sodium ethoxide as a catalyst. Ethyl fatty ester and glycerol were produced as by-products. In this reaction, corn oil was refluxed with urea in ethanol. The highest conversion percentage (78%) was obtained when the process was carried out for 8 hours using urea to corn oil ratio of 5.6: 1.0 at 78 degrees C. Both difatty acyl urea and ethyl fatty ester have been characterized using elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique.
    Matched MeSH terms: Esters/chemistry
  10. Lakshmanan S, Yung YL
    PMID: 33596165 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2020.1842516
    Chloride reduction in crude palm oil (CPO) of greater than 80% was achieved with water washing conducted at 90°C. Inorganic chloride content in CPO was largely removed through washing, with no significant reduction in the organic chloride. Phosphorous content of CPO reduced by 20%, while trace elements such as calcium, magnesium and iron were also reduced in the washing operation. The 3-MCPDE formed in the refined, bleached and deodorised palm oil displayed (RBDPO) a linear relationship with the chloride level in washed CPO, which could be represented by the equation y = 0.91x, where y is 3-MCPDE and x represents the chloride in RBDPO refined from washed CPO. In plant scale trials using 5% water at 90°C, mild acidification of the wash water at 0.05% reduced chloride by average 76% in washed CPO. Utilising selected bleaching earths, controlled wash water temperature and wash water volume produced low chloride levels in RBDPO. Chloride content less than 1.4 mg kg-1 in plant RBDPO production was achieved, through physical refining of washed CPO containing less than 2 mg kg-1 chloride and would correspond to 3-MCPDE levels of 1.25 mg kg-1 in RBDPO. The 3-MCPDE reduced further to 1.1 mg kg-1 as the chloride level of washed CPO decreased below 1.8 mg kg-1. Chloride has been shown to facilitate the 3-MCPDE formation and its removal in lab scale washing study has yielded lower 3-MCPDE levels formed in RBDPO. In actual plant operations using washed CPO, 3-MCPDE levels below 1.25 mg kg-1 were achieved consistently in RBDPO.
    Matched MeSH terms: Esters/chemistry*
  11. Saik AY, Lim YY, Stanslas J, Choo WS
    Biotechnol Lett, 2017 Feb;39(2):297-304.
    PMID: 27812823 DOI: 10.1007/s10529-016-2246-5
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the lipase-catalyzed acylation of quercetin with oleic acid using Candida antarctica lipase B.

    RESULTS: Three acylated analogues were produced: quercetin 4'-oleate (C33H42O8), quercetin 3',4'-dioleate (C51H74O9) and quercetin 7,3',4'-trioleate (C69H106O10). Their identities were confirmed with UPLC-ESI-MS and (1)H NMR analyses. The effects of temperature, duration and molar ratio of substrates on the bioconversion yields varied across conditions. The regioselectivity of the acylated quercetin analogues was affected by the molar ratio of substrates. TLC showed the acylated analogues had higher lipophilicity (152% increase) compared to quercetin. Partition coefficient (log P) of quercetin 4'-oleate was higher than those of quercetin and oleic acid. Quercetin 4'-oleate was also stable over 28 days of storage.

    CONCLUSIONS: Quercetin oleate esters with enhanced lipophilicity can be produced via lipase-catalyzed reaction using C. antarctica lipase B to be used in topical applications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Esters/chemistry
  12. Tiong SH, Nair A, Abd Wahid SA, Saparin N, Ab Karim NA, Ahmad Sabri MP, et al.
    PMID: 34407744 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2021.1960430
    Chlorinated compounds such as sphingolipid-based organochlorine compounds are precursors for the formation of 3-monochlororopanediol (3-MCPD) esters in palm oil. This study evaluates the effects of several factors within the palm oil supply chain on the levels of sphingolipid-based organochlorine, which in turn may influence the formation of 3-MCPD esters during refining. These factors include application of inorganic chlorinated fertiliser in the oil palm plantation, bruising and degradation of oil palm fruits after harvest, recycling of steriliser condensate as water for dilution of crude oil during oil palm milling, water washing of palm oil and different refining conditions. It was observed that bruised and degraded oil palm fruits showed higher content of sphingolipid-based organochlorine than control. In addition, recycling steriliser condensate during milling resulted in elevated content of sphingolipid-based organochlorine in palm oil. However, the content of sphingolipid-based organochlorine compounds was reduced by neutralisation, degumming and bleaching steps during refining. Although water washing of crude palm oils (CPO) prior to refining did not reduce the content of sphingolipid-based organochlorine, it did reduce the formation of 3-MCPD esters through the removal of water-soluble chlorinated compounds. It was found that the use of inorganic chlorinated fertiliser in plantations did not increase the content of chlorinated compounds in oil palm fruits and extracted oil, and hence chlorinated fertiliser does not seem to play a role in the formation of 3-MCPD esters in palm oil. Overall, this study concluded that lack of freshness and damage to the fruits during transport to mills, combined with water and oil recycling in mills are the major contributors of chlorinated precursor for 3-MCPD esters formation in palm oil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Esters/chemistry*
  13. Bin Sintang MD, Danthine S, Patel AR, Rimaux T, Van De Walle D, Dewettinck K
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2017 Oct 15;504:387-396.
    PMID: 28586736 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2017.05.114
    In order to modify the self-assembly of sucrose esters (SEs) in sunflower oil, we added sunflower lecithin (SFL) as co-surfactant. It is hypothesized that SFL modifies the self-assembly of SEs by interrupting the extensive hydrogen bonding between SEs monomers. The addition of SFL into SEs induced gelation of the mixed surfactant system oleogels at all studied ratios. The 7:3 SEs:SFL combination showed enhanced rheological properties compared to the other studied ratios, which suggests better molecular ordering induced by SFL. The modifications might have been caused by interference in the hydrogen bonding, connecting the polar heads of SEs molecules in the presence of SFL. This effect was confirmed by thermal behavior and small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD) analysis. From the crystallization and melting analyses, it was shown that the peak temperature, shape and enthalpy decreased as the SFL ratio increases. Meanwhile, the bi-component oleogels exhibited new peaks in the SAXD profile, which imply a self-assembly modification. The microscopic study through polarized and electrons revealed a change in the structure. Therefore, it can be concluded that a synergistic effect between SEs and SFL, more particularly at 7:3 ratio, towards sunflower oil structuring could be obtained. These findings shed light for greater applications of SEs as structuring and carrier agent in foods and pharmaceutical.
    Matched MeSH terms: Esters/chemistry
  14. Chidan Kumar CS, Loh WS, Chandraju S, Win YF, Tan WK, Quah CK, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(3):e0119440.
    PMID: 25742494 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119440
    A series of N-ethyl phthalimide esters 4(a-n) were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic studies. Further, the molecular structure of majority of compounds were analysed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The X-ray analysis revealed the importance of substituents on the crystal stability and molecular packing. All the synthesized compounds were tested for in vitro antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging, FRAP and CUPRAC methods. Few of them have shown good antioxidant activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Esters/chemistry
  15. Najjar A, Abdullah N, Saad WZ, Ahmad S, Oskoueian E, Abas F, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(2):2274-88.
    PMID: 24504029 DOI: 10.3390/ijms15022274
    The presence of phorbol esters (PEs) with toxic properties limits the use of Jatropha curcas kernel in the animal feed industry. Therefore, suitable methods to detoxify PEs have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. In the present study, the biological treatment of the extracted PEs-rich fraction with non-pathogenic fungi (Trichoderma harzianum JQ350879.1, T. harzianum JQ517493.1, Paecilomyces sinensis JQ350881.1, Cladosporium cladosporioides JQ517491.1, Fusarium chlamydosporum JQ350882.1, F. chlamydosporum JQ517492.1 and F. chlamydosporum JQ350880.1) was conducted by fermentation in broth cultures. The PEs were detected by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESIMS) and quantitatively monitored by HPLC using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate as the standard. At day 30 of incubation, two T. harzianum spp., P. sinensis and C. cladosporioides significantly (p < 0.05) removed PEs with percentage losses of 96.9%-99.7%, while F. chlamydosporum strains showed percentage losses of 88.9%-92.2%. All fungal strains could utilize the PEs-rich fraction for growth. In the cytotoxicity assay, cell viabilities of Chang liver and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines were less than 1% with the untreated PEs-rich fraction, but 84.3%-96.5% with the fungal treated PEs-rich fraction. There was no inhibition on cell viability for normal fungal growth supernatants. To conclude, Trichoderma spp., Paecilomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. are potential microbes for the detoxification of PEs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phorbol Esters/chemistry*
  16. Soon CF, Youseffi M, Berends RF, Blagden N, Denyer MC
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2013 Jan 15;39(1):14-20.
    PMID: 22809522 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2012.06.032
    Keratinocyte traction forces play a crucial role in wound healing. The aim of this study was to develop a novel cell traction force (CTF) transducer system based on cholesteryl ester liquid crystals (LC). Keratinocytes cultured on LC induced linear and isolated deformation lines in the LC surface. As suggested by the fluorescence staining, the deformation lines appeared to correlate with the forces generated by the contraction of circumferential actin filaments which were transmitted to the LC surface via the focal adhesions. Due to the linear viscoelastic behavior of the LC, Hooke's equation was used to quantify the CTFs by associating Young's modulus of LC to the cell induced stresses and biaxial strain in forming the LC deformation. Young's modulus of the LC was profiled by using spherical indentation and determined at approximately 87.1±17.2kPa. A new technique involving cytochalasin-B treatment was used to disrupt the intracellular force generating actin fibers, and consequently the biaxial strain in the LC induced by the cells was determined. Due to the improved sensitivity and spatial resolution (∼1μm) of the LC based CTF transducer, a wide range of CTFs was determined (10-120nN). These were found to be linearly proportional to the length of the deformations. The linear relationship of CTF-deformations was then applied in a bespoke CTF mapping software to estimate CTFs and to map CTF fields. The generated CTF map highlighted distinct distributions and different magnitude of CTFs were revealed for polarized and non-polarized keratinocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol Esters/chemistry*
  17. Karjiban RA, Basri M, Rahman MB, Salleh AB
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(8):9572-83.
    PMID: 22949816 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13089572
    Palm oil-based esters (POEs) are unsaturated and non-ionic esters with a great potential to act as chemical penetration enhancers and drug carriers for transdermal drug nano-delivery. A ratio of palmitate ester and nonionic Tween80 with and without diclofenac acid was chosen from an experimentally determined phase diagram. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed for selected compositions over a period of 15 ns. Both micelles showed a prolate-like shape, while adding the drug produced a more compact micellar structure. Our results proposed that the drug could behave as a co-surfactant in our simulated model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Esters/chemistry*
  18. Olutoye MA, Hameed BH
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Feb;102(4):3819-26.
    PMID: 21183335 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.11.100
    Fatty acid methyl ester was produced from used vegetable cooking oil using Mg(1-)(x) Zn(1+)(x)O(2) solid catalyst and the performance monitored in terms of ester content obtained. Used vegetable cooking oil was employed to reduce operation cost of biodiesel. The significant operating parameters which affect the overall yield of the process were studied. The highest ester content, 80%, was achieved with the catalyst during 4h 15 min reaction at 188°C with methanol to oil ratio of 9:1 and catalyst loading of 2.55 wt% oil. Also, transesterification of virgin oil gave higher yield with the heterogeneous catalyst and showed high selectivity towards ester production. The used vegetable cooking oil did not require any rigorous pretreatment. Catalyst stability was examined and there was no leaching of the active components, and its performance was as good at the fourth as at the first cycle.
    Matched MeSH terms: Esters/chemistry*
  19. Cheong JN, Mirhosseini H, Tan CP
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2010 Jun;61(4):417-24.
    PMID: 20151850 DOI: 10.3109/09637481003591574
    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of polyoxyethylene sorbitan esters and sodium caseinate on physicochemical properties of palm-based functional lipid nanodispersions prepared by the emulsification-evaporation technique. The results indicated that the average droplet size increased significantly (P < 0.05) by increasing the chain length of fatty acids and also by increasing the hydrophile-lipophile balance value. Among the prepared nanodispersions, the nanoemulsion containing Polysorbate 20 showed the smallest average droplet size (202 nm) and narrowest size distribution for tocopherol-tocotrienol nanodispersions, while sodium caseinate-stabilized nanodispersions containing carotenoids had the largest average droplet size (386 nm), thus indicating a greater emulsifying role for Polysorbate 20 compared with sodium caseinate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Esters/chemistry
  20. Ashari SE, Mohamad R, Ariff A, Basri M, Salleh AB
    J Oleo Sci, 2009;58(10):503-10.
    PMID: 19745577
    Kojic acid monooleate is a fatty acid derivative of kojic acid which can be widely used as a skin whitening agent in a cosmetic applications. In avoiding any possible harmful effects from chemically synthesized product, the enzymatic synthesis appears to be the best way to satisfy the consumer demand nowadays. The ability of immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor meihei (lipozyme RMIM) to catalyze the direct esterification of kojic acid and oleic acid was investigated. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and 5-level-4-factor central composite rotatable were employed to evaluate the effects of synthesis parameters such as enzyme amount (0.1-0.4 g), temperature (30-60 degrees C), substrate molar ratio (1-4 mmol, kojic acid:oleic acid) and reaction time (24-48 h) on percentage molar conversion to kojic acid monooleate. Analysis of the product using TLC, GC and FTIR showed the presence of kojic acid monooleate. The optimal conditions for the enzymatic reaction were obtained after analysis with backward elimination using 0.17 g of enzyme and 4 mmol of substrate at 52.50 degrees C for 42 h. Under these conditions the esterification percentage was 37.21%. The results demonstrated that response surface methodology can be applied effectively to optimize the lipase-catalysed synthesis of kojic acid monooleate. The optimum conditions can be used to scale up the process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Esters/chemistry
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