Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 109 in total

  1. Maziah M, Rosli N
    Methods Mol Biol, 2009;547:359-69.
    PMID: 19521859 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-60327-287-2_29
    Plant cell culture technology is potentially useful in producing high-valued secondary metabolites. Eurycoma longifolia root extracts are consumed as a health tonic but more popularly used as an aphrodisiac. Studies on the aphrodisiac properties and the possible compounds involved have been widely studied. There are many potentially useful compounds reported from the root extracts of E. longifolia. However, studies on the in vitro production of useful compounds from this plant have not been reported. This chapter will describe methods of callus induction and extraction of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one from E. longifolia Jack explants with emphasis on the tap and fibrous roots. This compound, known to have anti-tumour activity, is present in intact plant parts and in callus tissues of different explants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eurycoma/metabolism*
  2. Ang HH, Lee KL
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2006 Aug;44(8):1245-50.
    PMID: 16567029 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2006.01.014
    The DCA (Drug Control Authority), Malaysia has implemented the phase three registration of traditional medicines on 1 January 1992. As such, a total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation found in Malaysia, containing tongkat Ali hitam, either single or combined preparations, were analyzed for the presence of a heavy toxic metal, mercury, using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after performing a simple random sampling to enable each sample an equal chance of being selected in an unbiased manner. Results showed that 26% of these products possessed 0.53-2.35 ppm of mercury, and therefore, do not comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. The quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia is not exceeding 0.5 ppm for mercury. Out of these 26 products, four products have already registered with the DCA, Malaysia whilst the rest, however, have not registered with the DCA, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eurycoma/chemistry*
  3. Wahab MSA, Abd Hamid NN, Yassen AO, Naim MJ, Ahamad J, Zulkifli NW, et al.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2022 Sep 20;19(19).
    PMID: 36231154 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph191911853
    BACKGROUND: Tongkat Ali (TA) or Eurycoma longifolia is a herbal medicine (HM) plant traditionally used to treat sexual dysfunction and enhance libido in men. Websites containing information about HM are abundant. However, studies have shown that in general the quality of websites containing information on HM is low. The present study aims to assess the quality and risks of websites containing information about TA supplements and to identify the health claims for TA.

    METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study to evaluate the quality and risks of websites discussing TA supplements was conducted. Online marketing websites, research articles, news articles, personal opinions, and those restricted by password were excluded. The quality and risks of websites were assessed using a modified DISCERN tool and a set of risk assessment criteria, respectively. The health claims for TA were identified and analyzed using content analysis.

    RESULTS: Overall, 321 websites met the inclusion criteria and were further evaluated. The overall rating of the quality of the websites was low, with a mean score ± standard deviation of 1.07 ± 0.51. Most websites lacked information that there may be more than one possible treatment choice and did not discuss areas of uncertainty. However, 67.9% (218/321) of the websites received a risk score of zero. A minority of websites (5/321, 1.6%) discouraged the use of conventional medicines. The most common health claims for TA included in the websites related to the enhancement of testosterone level (121/321, 37.7%), treatment of malaria (112/321, 34.9%), and improvement in libido (108/321, 33.6%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Websites containing information about TA supplements generally have a low-quality rating based on a modified DISCERN tool despite having a low-risk score. Government agencies and healthcare professionals (HCPs) must be more proactive in the critique and dissemination of information relating to HM, and in ensuring the safe use of HM among the public and patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Eurycoma*
  4. Ebrahimi F, Ibrahim B, Teh CH, Murugaiyah V, Chan KL
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Apr 22;182:80-9.
    PMID: 26899442 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.02.015
    Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali, TA) roots have been ethnically used as a remedy to boost male sexual desire, libido, energy and fertility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eurycoma
  5. Chua LS, Abdul-Rahman N, Rosidi B, Lee CT
    Nat Prod Res, 2013 Mar;27(4-5):314-8.
    PMID: 22468741 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2012.676552
    A water extraction method has been used to extract plant proteins from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia harvested from Perak and Pahang, Malaysia. On the basis of the spectroscopic Bradford assay, Tongkat Ali Perak and Pahang contained 0.3868 and 0.9573 mg mL(-1) of crude protein, respectively. The crude proteins were separated by one dimensional 15% sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into two (49.8 and 5.5 kD) and four (49.8, 24.7, 21.1 and 5.5 kD) protein spots for Tongkat Ali Perak and Pahang, respectively. Isoleucine was present in the highest concentration significantly. Both plant samples showed differences in the mineral and trace element profiles, but the minerals calcium, magnesium and potassium were present in the highest concentration. The highly concerned toxic metals such as arsenic and lead were not detected.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eurycoma/chemistry*
  6. Zaini NN, Osman R, Juahir H, Saim N
    Molecules, 2016 Apr 30;21(5).
    PMID: 27144555 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21050583
    E. longifolia is attracting interest due to its pharmacological properties and pro-vitality effects. In this study, an online SPE-LC approach using polystyrene divinyl benzene (PSDVB) and C18 columns was developed in obtaining chromatographic fingerprints of E. longifolia. E. longifolia root samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) technique prior to online SPE-LC. The effects of mobile phase compositions and column switching time on the chromatographic fingerprint were optimized. Validation of the developed method was studied based on eurycomanone. Linearity was in the range of 5 to 50 µg∙mL(-1) (r² = 0.997) with 3.2% relative standard deviation of peak area. The developed method was used to analyze 14 E. longifolia root samples and 10 products (capsules). Selected chemometric techniques: cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to the fingerprint datasets of 37 selected peaks to evaluate the ability of the chromatographic fingerprint in classifying quality of E. longifolia. Three groups were obtained using CA. DA yielded 100% correlation coefficient with 19 discriminant compounds. Using PCA, E. longifolia root samples were clearly discriminated from the products. This study showed that the developed online SPE-LC method was able to provide comprehensive evaluation of E. longifolia samples for quality control purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eurycoma/chemistry*
  7. Chua LS, Segaran A, Wong HJ
    J Chromatogr Sci, 2021 Jun 21;59(7):659-669.
    PMID: 33876232 DOI: 10.1093/chromsci/bmab041
    The objective of the study was to fractionate the crude extract of Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia) roots and identify the intense peaks using HPLC-PDA-MS/MS, UPLC-MS/MS and H-NMR. Column chromatography was used to fractionate the crude extract into individual fractions using six solvent systems ranged from ethyl acetate, methanol and water in increasing polarity. Two fractions with nearly pure and intense peaks were selected for compound identification. Chromenone (coumarin) and chromone derivatives were putatively identified, besides several previously reported quassinoid glycosides (eurycomanone derived glycoside, 2,3-dehydro-4α-hydroxylongilactone glucoside, eurycomanol glycoside and eurycomanol trimer) in the fraction 11 of 100% methanol. A newly reported compound, namely hydroxyl glyyunanprosapogenin D (838 g/mol) was proposed to be the compound detected in the fraction 11 of 50% ethyl acetate and 50% methanol. This is also the first study to report the identification of chromenones and chromones in E. longifolia extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eurycoma/chemistry*
  8. Chan KQ, Stewart C, Chester N, Hamzah SH, Yusof A
    Andrologia, 2021 May;53(4):e14001.
    PMID: 33559971 DOI: 10.1111/and.14001
    Eurycoma longifolia supplementation increases testosterone levels in humans via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and/or the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis mainly in older adults and nonhealthy populations. This study aimed to assess the impact of Eurycoma longifolia on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes in healthy young males since this might promote functional testosterone prowess. Thirty-two males (24.4 ± 4.7 years; 1.74 ± 0.07 m; 73.7 ± 8.4 kg) in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, matched-paired study received 600 mg/day Eurycoma longifolia or placebo for two weeks. Blood analysis using repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant interaction and time effects for testosterone (F1,30  = 9.04, p = .005), free testosterone (F1,30  = 7.13, p = .012) and estradiol (F1,30  = 8.07, p = .008) levels in favour of the treatment group, while luteinising hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and sexual hormone-binding globulin did not. The lack of changes in luteinising hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels suggests that a lesser role played by Eurycoma longifolia in activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the young adults. The raised testosterone level may be due to a greater rate of hormone production via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia for two weeks demonstrates steroidogenic effects on young men were dose-related. Consequently, the raised testosterone following Eurycoma longifolia supplementations could benefit muscle and strength gain in young adults.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eurycoma*
  9. Cyranoski D
    Nat Med, 2005 Sep;11(9):912.
    PMID: 16145563 DOI: 10.1038/nm0905-912a
    Matched MeSH terms: Eurycoma/chemistry*
  10. Ang HH, Sim MK
    Arch Pharm Res, 1997 Dec;20(6):656-8.
    PMID: 18982276 DOI: 10.1007/BF02975228
    The effects ofEurycoma longifolia Jack were studied on the sexual behaviour of male rats. Sexually normal male rats were treated twice daily with 500 mg kg(-1) of different fractions ofE. longifolia Jack for 10 days prior to test and were then observed for their copulatory behaviour with a receptive female in a copulation cage. Results showed that was a significant increase (p<0.05) in EL-1, EL-2, EL-3 but significant decrease (p<0.05) in both PEI-1 and PEI-2 in treated male rats as compared to the control male rats indicating thatE. longifolia Jack increased the sexual performance of the treated male rats by extending the duration of coitus and decreasing the refractory period between the different series of copulation. Hence, this preliminary work supports the folk use of this plant as having aphrodisiac property.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eurycoma
  11. Sholikhah EN, Wijayanti MA, Nurani LH, Mustofa
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:98-9.
    PMID: 19025003
    In previous study, in vitro antiplasmodial activity fractions isolated from methanol extract of E. longifolia, Jack. have been evaluated. Among 5 isolates evaluated from the study, isolate 4 showed high in vitro antiplasmodial activity. However, which stage specificity of the isolates on P. falciparum cycles has not been evaluated. This study was intended to evaluate the stage specificity of the isolate on P. falciparum cycles. The study was conducted by observing the percentage of each stages of P. falciparum microscopically after 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64, and 72 hours incubation periods with 3 various concentration of isolate 4 compared with control. The result showed that isolate 4 of E. longifolia root methanol soluble fractions most potent at trophozoites stages of P. falciparum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eurycoma/physiology; Eurycoma/chemistry*
  12. Mohd-Fuat AR, Kofi EA, Allan GG
    Trop Biomed, 2007 Dec;24(2):49-59.
    PMID: 18209708 MyJurnal
    Three popular medicinal plants regarded as improving human sexual function in some parts of Southeast Asia were analysed for their mutagenic properties using modified Ames test (fluctuation test). Extract of one of the plants, Tacca integrifolia Ker-Gawl., was found to be mutagenic using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Extract of T. integrifolia, Eurycoma longifolia Jack and Helmintostachys zeylanica (L.) Hook were cytotoxic to human cell lines, Hep2 and HFL1, with IC50 ranging from 11 mug/ml to 55 mug/ml. Extract of E. longifolia was the most cytotoxic with IC50 of 11 mug/ml and 13 mug/ml on Hep2 and HFL1 cell lines respectively. Combined extract of T. integrifolia and H. zeylanica was more cytotoxic than single extract on both Hep2 and HFL1 cell lines while combined extract of E. longifolia and H. zeylanica was more cytotoxic than single extract on Hep2 cell lines. Under the conditions of this study it can be concluded that T. integrifolia is mutagenic and the combined extracts of the medicinal plants was highly cytotoxic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eurycoma/classification; Eurycoma/chemistry*
  13. Osman A, Jordan B, Lessard PA, Muhammad N, Haron MR, Riffin NM, et al.
    Plant Physiol., 2003 Mar;131(3):1294-301.
    PMID: 12644679 DOI: 10.1104/pp.012492
    Eurycoma longifolia Jack. is a treelet that grows in the forests of Southeast Asia and is widely used throughout the region because of its reported medicinal properties. Widespread harvesting of wild-grown trees has led to rapid thinning of natural populations, causing a potential decrease in genetic diversity among E. longifolia. Suitable genetic markers would be very useful for propagation and breeding programs to support conservation of this species, although no such markers currently exist. To meet this need, we have applied a genome complexity reduction strategy to identify a series of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the genomes of several E. longifolia accessions. We have found that the occurrence of these SNPs reflects the geographic origins of individual plants and can distinguish different natural populations. This work demonstrates the rapid development of molecular genetic markers in species for which little or no genomic sequence information is available. The SNP markers that we have developed in this study will also be useful for identifying genetic fingerprints that correlate with other properties of E. longifolia, such as high regenerability or the appearance of bioactive metabolites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eurycoma/genetics*; Eurycoma/metabolism
  14. Ebrahimi F, Ibrahim B, Teh CH, Murugaiyah V, Lam CK
    Planta Med, 2017 Jan;83(1-02):172-182.
    PMID: 27399233 DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-110857
    Quassinoids, the major secondary metabolites of Eurycoma longifolia roots, improve male fertility. Hence, it is crucial to investigate their quantitative level in E. longifolia extracts. A profile was established to identify the primary metabolites and major quassinoids, and quantify quassinoids using external calibration curves. Furthermore, the metabolic discrimination of E. longifolia roots from different regions was investigated. The (1)H-NMR spectra of the quassinoids, eurycomanone, eurycomanol, 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone, and eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside were obtained. The (1)H-NMR profiles of E. longifolia root aqueous extracts from Perak (n = 30) were obtained and used to identify primary metabolites and the quassinoids. Selangor, Kedah, Terengganu (n = 5 for each), and Perak samples were checked for metabolic discrimination. Hotelling's T(2) plot was used to check for outliers. Orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis was run to reveal the discriminatory metabolites. Perak samples contained formic, succinic, methylsuccinic, fumaric, lactic, acetic and syringic acids as well as choline, alanine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, α-glucose, eurycomanone, eurycomanol, 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone, and eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside. The extracts from other locations contained the same metabolites. The limit of quantification values were 1.96 (eurycomanone), 15.62 (eurycomanol), 3.91 (13,21-dihydroeurycomanone), and 31.25 (eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside) ppm. The Hotelling's T(2) plot revealed no outlier. The orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis model showed that choline, eurycomanol, eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside, and lactic and succinic acid levels were different among regions. Terengganu and Perak samples contained higher amounts of eurycomanol and eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glycopyranoside, respectively. The current approach efficiently detected E. longifolia root metabolites, quantified the quassinoids, and discriminated E. longifolia roots from different locations. These findings could be applicable to future research on E. longifolia where the higher content of quassinoids is required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eurycoma/metabolism*; Eurycoma/chemistry
  15. Rehman SU, Choe K, Yoo HH
    Molecules, 2016 Mar 10;21(3):331.
    PMID: 26978330 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21030331
    Eurycoma longifolia Jack (known as tongkat ali), a popular traditional herbal medicine, is a flowering plant of the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and also Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. E. longifolia, is one of the well-known folk medicines for aphrodisiac effects as well as intermittent fever (malaria) in Asia. Decoctions of E. longifolia leaves are used for washing itches, while its fruits are used in curing dysentery. Its bark is mostly used as a vermifuge, while the taproots are used to treat high blood pressure, and the root bark is used for the treatment of diarrhea and fever. Mostly, the roots extract of E. longifolia are used as folk medicine for sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. The plant is reported to be rich in various classes of bioactive compounds such as quassinoids, canthin-6-one alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, triterpene tirucallane type, squalene derivatives and biphenyl neolignan, eurycolactone, laurycolactone, and eurycomalactone, and bioactive steroids. Among these phytoconstituents, quassinoids account for a major portion of the E. longifolia root phytochemicals. An acute toxicity study has found that the oral Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of the alcoholic extract of E. longifolia in mice is between 1500-2000 mg/kg, while the oral LD50 of the aqueous extract form is more than 3000 mg/kg. Liver and renal function tests showed no adverse changes at normal daily dose and chronic use of E. longifolia. Based on established literature on health benefits of E. longifolia, it is important to focus attention on its more active constituents and the constituents' identification, determination, further development and most importantly, the standardization. Besides the available data, more evidence is required regarding its therapeutic efficacy and safety, so it can be considered a rich herbal source of new drug candidates. It is very important to conserve this valuable medicinal plant for the health benefit of future generations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eurycoma/classification; Eurycoma/chemistry*
  16. Chua LS, Amin NA, Neo JC, Lee TH, Lee CT, Sarmidi MR, et al.
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci, 2011 Dec 15;879(32):3909-19.
    PMID: 22119436 DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2011.11.002
    A number of three LC-MS/MS hybrid systems (QTof, TripleTof and QTrap) has been used to profile small metabolites (m/z 100-1000) and to detect the targeted metabolites such as quassinoids, alkaloids, triterpene and biphenylneolignans from the aqueous extracts of Eurycoma longifolia. The metabolite profiles of small molecules showed four significant clusters in the principle component analysis for the aqueous extracts of E. longifolia, which had been collected from different geographical terrains (Perak and Pahang) and processed at different extraction temperatures (35°C and 100°C). A small peptide of leucine (m/z 679) and a new hydroxyl methyl β-carboline propionic acid have been identified to differentiate E. longifolia extracts that prepared at 35°C and 100°C, respectively. From the targeted metabolites identification, it was found that 3,4ɛ-dihydroeurycomanone (quassinoids) and eurylene (squalene-type triterpene) could only be detected in the Pahang extract, whereas canthin-6-one-3N-oxide could only be detected in the Perak extract. Overall, quassinoids were present in the highest concentration, particularly eurycomanone and its derivatives compared to the other groups of metabolites. However, the concentration of canthin-6-one and β-carboline alkaloids was significantly increased when the roots of the plant samples were extracted at 100°C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eurycoma/metabolism; Eurycoma/chemistry*
  17. Lulu T, Park SY, Ibrahim R, Paek KY
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2015 Jun;119(6):712-7.
    PMID: 25511788 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2014.11.010
    The present study aimed to optimize the conditions for the production of adventitious roots from Eurycoma longifolia Jack, an important medicinal woody plant, in bioreactor culture. The effects of the type and concentration of auxin on root growth were studied, as well as the effects of the NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio on adventitious root growth and the production of phenolics and flavonoids. Approximately 5 g L(-1) fresh weight of adventitious roots was inoculated into a 3 L balloon-type bubble bioreactor, which contained 2 L 3/4 MS medium supplemented with 30 g L(-1) sucrose and cultures were maintained in the dark for 7 weeks at 24 ± 1°C. Higher concentrations of IBA (7.0 and 9.0 mg L(-1)) and NAA (5.0 mg L(-1)) enhanced the biomass and accumulation of total phenolics and flavonoids. The adventitious roots were thin, numerous, and elongated in 3/4 MS medium supplemented with 5.0 and 7.0 mg L(-1) IBA, whereas the lateral roots were shorter and thicker with 5.0 mg L(-1) NAA compared with IBA treatment. The optimum biomasses of 50.22 g L(-1) fresh weight and 4.60 g L(-1) dry weight were obtained with an NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio of 15:30. High phenolic and flavonoid productions (38.59 and 11.27 mg L(-1) medium, respectively) were also obtained with a ratio of 15:30. Analysis of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity indicated higher antioxidant activity with an NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio of 30:15. These results suggest that balloon-type bubble bioreactor cultures are suitable for the large-scale commercial production of E. longifolia adventitious roots which contain high yield of bioactive compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eurycoma/drug effects; Eurycoma/growth & development*; Eurycoma/metabolism
  18. Rodrigues, K. F., Tam, H. K.
    This paper describes the first reported attempt to isolate DNA sequences containing repeat motifs in Eurycoma longifolia and Orthosiphon stamineus. A library enriched for genomic repeat motifs was developed using novel oligonucleotides designed with inosine residues incorporated at predetermined positions. A total of eight and twelve specific molecular markers were developed for O. stamineus and E. longifolia respectively. These markers have a potential application in estimating population diversity levels and QTL mapping in these two medicinal plants, which are widely used in the Malaysian herbal industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eurycoma
  19. Nor Nasriah Zaini, Mardiana Saaid, Hafizan Juahir, Rozita Osman
    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) is one of the most popular tropical herbal plants as it is believed to enhance virility and sexual prowess. This study looked examined chromatographic fingerprint of Tongkat Ali roots and its products generated using online solid phase-extraction liquid chromatography (SPE-LC) combined with chemometric approaches. The aim was to determine its quality. Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) technique was used prior to online SPE-LC using polystyrene divinyl benzene (PSDVB) and C18 columns. Seventeen Tongkat Ali roots and 10 products (capsules) were analysed. Chromatographic dataset was subjected to chemometric techniques, namely cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA) and principal component analysis (PCA) using 37 selected peaks. The samples were grouped into three clusters based on their quality. The PCA resulted in 11 latent factors describing 90.8% of the whole variance. Pattern matching analysis showed no significant difference (p>0.05) between the roots and products within the same CA grouping. The findings showed the combination of chromatographic fingerprint and chemometric techniques provided comprehensive evaluation for efficient quality control of Tongkat Ali formulation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eurycoma
  20. Ezzat SM, Okba MM, Ezzat MI, Aborehab NM, Mohamed SO
    PMID: 31223329 DOI: 10.1155/2019/4341592
    Background. Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Fam.: Simaroubaceae), known as Tongkat Ali (TA), has been known as a symbol of virility and sexual power. The aim of the study was to screen E. longifolia aqueous extract (AE) and isolates for ROCK-II inhibition. Results. The AE (1-10 μg/ml) showed a significant inhibition for ROCK-II activity (62.8-81%) at P < 0.001 with an IC50 (651.1 ± 32.9 ng/ml) compared to Y-27632 ([(+)-(R)-trans-4-(1-aminoethyl)-N-(4-pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide dihydrochloride]) (68.15-89.9 %) at same concentrations with an IC50 (192 ± 8.37 ng/ml). Chromatographic purification of the aqueous extract (AE) allowed the isolation of eight compounds; stigmasterol T1, trans-coniferyl aldehyde T2, scopoletin T3, eurycomalactone T4, 6α- hydroxyeurycomalactone T5, eurycomanone T6, eurycomanol T7, and eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside T8. This is the first report for the isolation of T1 and T3 from E. longifolia and for the isolation of T2 from genus Eurycoma. The isolates (at 10 μg/ml) exhibited maximum inhibition % of ROCK-II 82.1 ± 0.63 (T2), 78.3 ± 0.38 (T6), 77.1 ± 0.11 (T3), 76.2 ± 3.53 (T4), 74.5 ± 1.27 (T5), 74.1 ± 2.97 (T7), 71.4 ± 2.54 (T8), and 60.3 ± 0.14 (T1), where the newly isolated compound trans-coniferyl aldehyde T2 showed the highest inhibitory activity among the tested isolated compounds and even higher than the total extract AE. The standard Y-27632 (10 μg/ml) showed 89.9 ± 0.42 % inhibition for ROCK-II activity when compared to control at P < 0.0001. Conclusion. The traditional use of E. longifolia as aphrodisiac and for male sexual disorders might be in part due to the ROCK-II inhibitory potential.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eurycoma
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