This study reviews surgery on acoustic neuromas by the second author using retrosigmoid approach from January 2000 to June 2010 in the state of Sarawak. There was a total of 32 patients in this study. The commonest presenting symptom was hearing loss (81.3%), followed by headache and tinnitus (each 37.5%), ataxia (34.4%) and facial numbness (21.9%). Twenty-seven patients (84.4%) had large tumor (≥ 3cm) while 5 patients (15.6%) had medium size tumor (1.5-2.9cm). The mean tumor size was 3.6 cm. Facial nerve outcome was good to moderate in 93.7% (House and Brackmann Grade I-IV). The most common complications were CSF leak with 3 patients(9.4%) and facial numbness with 2 patients(6.3%). All either resolved with treatment or improved. There was no mortality. Excision of acoustic neuromas using retrosigmoid approach could achieve acceptable facial nerve outcome with a low incidence of morbidity without mortality.
Fine dissection was carried out in 79 facial halves from formalin fixed Malaysian adult cadavers of various races, to trace the extracranial part of the facial nerve and its peripheral branches. The facial nerve trunk, after leaving the stylomastoid foramen was located at a depth of 1 to 2 cm from the skin in the vagino-mastoid angle. It bifurcates at the posterior border of the ramus of the mandible and in 3.8% trifurcation was found. Mean distance of bifurcation from the angle of the mandible was 28.06 mm and 81.0% were within the range of 21 to 35 mm. The branching patterns were classified into six types, and the frequency of occurrence was type I 11.39%, type II 15.9%, type III 34.18%, type IV 18.98%, type V 7.59% and type VI 12.67%. Type I, a classical text book pattern was found to be one of the least common patterns. There is no significant difference in percentage of each type between the present study and that of Koreans, though some differences with Caucasians were noted in three uncommon types. The frontal branch could be outlined between the two diverging lines from the earlobe to the lateral ends of the eyebrow and the highest frontal crease. Posterior to the facial artery, the mandibular branch was seen passing below the inferior border of the mandible in 20%; anterior to the artery, this nerve divides into one to four branches. In almost all the cases, branches to the mentalis and the depressor labii inferioris muscles and infrequently branches to the depressor angular oris were seen below the inferior border of the mandible.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
A 3-year-old child presented with congenital bilateral facial nerve palsy with bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss. High Resolution Computed Tomogram (HRCT) of the temporal bones found bilateral atresia of cochlear nerve canals, incomplete partition of the cochleae and narrow facial nerve canals. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral hypoplasia of facial nerves and aplasia of both vestibulocochlear nerves. There have been no other reported cases with this presentation. The possible aetiology and treatment options for the patient are discussed. We highlighted the review of aplasia/hypoplasia of the facial nerve and hypoplasia of cochlear nerve canal.
Pleomorphic adenoma, otherwise called as benign mixed tumour, is the most common salivary gland tumour which accounts for 60% of all benign salivary gland tumours. The clinical, radiological and histopathological presentations are varied. The tumour occurs in diverse anatomical sites and can consist of epithelial and mesenchymal components. In this case report, the patient reported with an asymptomatic swelling on the face. CT scan with contrast was advised. The clinical, roentgenographic findings and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology were indicative of pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. Treatment included partial superficial parotidectomy under general anaesthesia using the modified Blair's incision. The facial nerve was not involved. Part of the gland along with the tumour was resected completely superficial to the facial nerve with a margin of normal tissue all around. Histopathologic examination of tissue specimen confirmed the lesion as pleomorphic adenoma. The patient was asymptomatic at 6-month follow-up.
A patient with Turner's syndrome presented with a rare anomaly of absent oval window, inferiorly placed facial nerve, and abnormal stapes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this combination of malformations.
Facial nerve tumors constitute about 5% of all facial nerve paralysis. As it is relatively uncommon, it could be misdiagnosed. We encountered an 18-year-old girl who had right facial weakness since the age of four, referred to otorhinolaryngology clinic for further evaluation only when her hearing deteriorated and the facial weakness worsened. Further investigation revealed facial nerve schwannoma. Facial nerve paralysis in the pediatric age group is uncommon and should be examined in detail to rule out other possible etiologies besides Bell's palsy.
Parotid tumours represent one of many groups of tumours in the field of
Otorhinolaryngology. However, a local demographical evaluation of parotid tumours and its annual incidences has never been undertaken. This study intends to review local demography in relation to incidence of parotid tumour seen in Otorhinolaryngology (ORL) clinic, Hospital Tuanku Ja’afar Seremban, Negeri Sembilan from the year 2007 till 2012. Methods: A retrospective demographical study on parotid cases seen in ORL clinic, Hospital Tuanku Ja’afar Seremban between 2007 till 2012 involving 56 cases. Data that was collected include patient details, facial nerve involvement on presentation, type of surgery performed, site of tumour, facial nerve injury post operation and final histopathological diagnosis. Results: An average of 10 cases per year was noted from 2007 to 2012. Male to female ratio was found to be 1.4:1. Age range of sample population were 9 to 79 years old with a mean age of 47 at time of diagnosis. Superficial lobe was found to be the most common tumour site (63%). Majority of cases consists of benign tumours in 51 out of 56 cases with Warthin’s tumour and Pleomorphic Adenoma being the most common histopathological finding. Post operative facial nerve injury were noted in 17 cases in which 13 cases were temporary while 4 others were permanent.
Schwannoma in the head and neck region is very rare. The tumour occurring in the intraparotid facial nerve is even rarer. A patient presenting with a parotid swelling with facial nerve paralysis is not pathognomonic of a facial nerve schwannoma. However it may occur because enlargement of the parotid, by any kind of tumour especially a malignant one can cause facial nerve paralysis. We report a case of an intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma, in a patient who presented with parotid enlargement and facial nerve paralysis.
A four years review from June 1998 to June 2002 of traumatic facial nerve paralysis from temporal bone fractures that required surgical intervention is presented. The aim of this clinical presentation was to determine the current pattern of cases with traumatic facial paralysis which required surgical intervention at our center. There were six cases, of which four (66%) were longitudinal fractures, one each (17%) had transverse fracture and fracture over the lateral wall of mastoid. Hearing loss (83%) was the commonest associated clinical symptom. All cases underwent decompression via the transmastoid surgical approach. Intraoperative findings revealed oedema of facial nerve involving vertical segment and horizontal segment in three cases each respectively. Two cases had concomitant bony impingement. The facial nerve functions in four cases (66%) and one case recovered to House Brackmann grade 2 and 4, 12 months and 3 months respectively postsurgery. The case with transverse fracture remained as House Brackmann grade 5 after two years.
Facial nerve schwannomas are rare benign tumors. The tumor can arise anywhere along the course of the facial nerve. The most common presentation for this tumor is a slowly progressive facial nerve paralysis. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and tinnitus are later symptoms. The symptoms and signs depend on the site of tumor along the nerve. We report three cases of facial nerve schwannomas with different clinical presentations. Appropriate management of a facial nerve schwannoma should be based on the site and extent of the tumor and status of the nerve function.
We report an extremely rare case of duplication of the internal auditory canal associated with dysfunction of both the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves. We also review the literature regarding the integrity of the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves in such cases.
Over the past decade, the discovery of disease-specific aquaporin-4 antibodies has led to a better understanding of the diverse spectrum of disorders that are associated with neuromyelitis optica. Brainstem manifestations have been increasingly recognized in this disease. However, multiple cranial nerve palsies as an initial presentation of neuromyelitis optica are uncommon. We report a rare case of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica that presented with unilateral abducens and facial nerve palsies. Notably, this case did not involve the optic nerve or the spinal cord. Diagnosing neuromyelitis optica that presents as an isolated acute brainstem syndrome is challenging, but the outcome may be devastating if the diagnosis is delayed.
Benign parotid neoplasm and inflammatory processes of the parotid resulting in facial paralysis are extremely rare. We report a 72-year-old Malay female with poorly-controlled diabetes mellitus who presented with a painful right parotid swelling associated with right facial nerve palsy. The paralysis (Grade VI, House and Brackmann classification) remained after six months.
Schwannomas are benign slow growing lesions arising from the Schwann cells that ensheath the axons of the peripheral, cranial and autonomic nervous systems. Intracranial schwannomas develop from the facial nerve much more rarely than from the vestibular or trigeminal nerves. Ancient schwannoma is an unusual histological variant of this rare disease. A 48 years old man who had recurrent facial nerve paralysis and right external auditory mass is presented in this case report.
A 48 years old Malay lady with a case of painless soft fluctuant swelling of left parotid gland is reported. The lesion was found to be a cystic lesion through the pre operative examinations and investigations. The cyst was completely excised, taking care not to injure the lower division of the facial nerve. Post recovery was uneventful with no defect of the facial nerve functions. The histologic picture confirmed that the cyst was lymphoepithelial cyst which is so called “branchial cyst”. Through the literature reviews of parotid lymphoepitelial cyst the discussions on prevalence, origin, diagnosis, histological finding, investigation and the modes of treatment are made. The ultra sound was found to be valuable in the pre operative evaluation of the parotid swelling furthermore it is non-invasive, harmless, painless and relatively quick.
Facial nerve schwannoma is a rare slow growing benign tumour which arises from the Schwann cell of the neurilemma. A retrospective review of 6 patients who had been diagnosed with facial nerve schwannoma between 1998 and 2008 was conducted. There was equal distribution of male and female patients. The mean age was 42 years (range 19 to 66 years). The tumour originated in the internal auditory canal (2 patients), intra-temporal (3 patients) and intraparotid (1 patient) segments of the facial nerve. All tumours were successfully removed and facial nerve continuity was pre-served in 2 cases. The presenting symptoms of facial nerve schwannoma are non specific and dependent on the site of tumour origin. It is a great mimicker of other lesions that can present at the same location. The surgeon should have a high index of suspicion when patients present with progressive facial nerve palsy. Patients should always be counselled regarding risk of facial paralysis because the diagnosis of facial nerve schwannoma is often confirmed intra-operatively.
Parotid gland surgery can be challenging due to intricate relationship between the gland and facial nerve. Besides complete removal of the lesion, the main focus of surgery is centered on the facial nerve. Surgery can be technically demanding especially when the tumor is large or involves the deep lobe. We report a patient with a 30-year history of gigantic parotid mass, which initial fine-needle aspiration cytology reported as pleomorphic adenoma. The tumor, weighing 1.3 kg, was successfully resected with facial nerve preservation. Histopathological examination of the excised mass confirmed as carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CaExPA) of adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified type. We describe the specific surgical and reconstruction techniques for successful removal of large parotid tumors with facial nerve preservation. To our knowledge, this is the heaviest CaExPA of the parotid gland in South-East Asian region.
The facial nerve divides within the parotid gland into upper temporozygomatic and lower cervicofacial branches. The two branches further subdivide and emerge from the parotid gland as five main branches. We observed a rare anomalous branching pattern of the facial nerve along with double parotid duct on the right side of a 50-year-old male cadaver. The two parotid ducts emerged at the level of the anterior border of parotid gland then united to form one single duct thereby opened into the oral cavity. The first duct (D1) emerged from the upper one third of the anterior border of the parotid gland and traversed horizontally for 9 mm to join the second duct. Knowledge of anomalous branching pattern of facial nerve and double parotid ducts may be beneficial for maxillofacial surgeons.