Liquid Biphasic Flotation (LBF) is an advanced recovery method that has been effectively applied for biomolecules extraction. The objective of this investigation is to incorporate the fermentation and extraction process of lipase from Burkholderia cepacia using flotation system. Initial study was conducted to compare the performance of bacteria growth and lipase production using flotation and shaker system. From the results obtained, bacteria shows quicker growth and high lipase yield via flotation system. Integration process for lipase separation was investigated and the result showed high efficiency reaching 92.29% and yield of 95.73%. Upscaling of the flotation system exhibited consistent result with the lab-scale which are 89.53% efficiency and 93.82% yield. The combination of upstream and downstream processes in a single system enables the acceleration of product formation, improves the product yield and facilitates downstream processing. This integration system demonstrated its potential for biomolecules fermentation and separation that possibly open new opportunities for industrial production.
The morphology of Ganoderma lucidum BCCM 31549 mycelium in a repeated-batch fermentation (RBF) was studied for exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. RBF was optimised for time to replace and volume to replace. G. lucidum mycelium showed the ability to self-immobilise and exhibited high stability for repeated use in RBF with engulfed pellets. Furthermore, the ovoid and starburst-like pellet morphology was disposed to EPS production in the shake flask and bioreactor, respectively. Seven RBF could be carried out in 500 mL flasks, and five repeated batches were performed in a 2 L bioreactor. Under RBF conditions, autolysis of pellet core in the shake flask and shaving off of the outer hairy region in the bioreactor were observed at the later stages of RBF (R4 for the shake flask and R6 for the bioreactor). The proposed strategy showed that the morphology of G. lucidum mycelium can withstand extended fermentation cycles.
Food waste is a mixture of organic residues that affect fermentation process. Thus, appropriate parameters should be optimised to ensure high biomethane production. In this research, response surface methodology (RSM) was utilised for building models, evaluating the significance of several independent factors (pH, temperature, substrate concentration and inocula size) and determining optimum conditions for desirable responses (biomethane yield). The RSM and contour plots set the optimum working factors in order to accomplish the desired biomethane yield. Results suggest that biomethane yield can be increased when pH and temperature are increased. Thus, the main effects of parameters are pH and temperature.
Biohydrogen as one of the most appealing energy vector for the future represents attractive avenue in alternative energy research. Recently, variety of biohydrogen production pathways has been suggested to improve the key features of the process. Nevertheless, researches are still needed to overcome remaining barriers to practical applications such as low yields and production rates. Considering practicality aspects, this review emphasized on anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for biological hydrogen production. Recent advances and emerging issues associated with biohydrogen generation in AnMBR technology are critically discussed. Several techniques are highlighted that are aimed at overcoming these barriers. Moreover, environmental and economical potentials along with future research perspectives are addressed to drive biohydrogen technology towards practicality and economical-feasibility.
Fermented foods are gaining popularity due to health-promoting properties with high levels of nutrients, phytochemicals, bioactive compounds, and probiotic microorganisms. Due to its unique fermentation process, Lactococcus lactis plays a key role in the food business, notably in the manufacturing of dairy products. The superior biological activities of L. lactis in these functional foods include anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities. L. lactis boosted growth performance, controlled amino acid profiles, intestinal immunology, and microbiota. Besides that, the administration of L. lactis increased the rate of infection clearance. Innate and acquired immune responses would be upregulated in both local and systemic compartments, resulting in these consequences. L. lactis is often employed in the food sector and is currently being exploited as a delivery vehicle for biological research. These bacteria are being eyed as potential candidates for biotechnological applications. With this in mind, we reviewed the immunomodulatory effects of different L. lactis strains.
The intrinsic growth, substrate uptake, and product formation biokinetic parameters were obtained for the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium ljungdahlii, grown on synthesis gas in various pressurized batch bioreactors. A dual-substrate growth kinetic model using Luong for CO and Monod for H2 was used to describe the growth kinetics of the bacterium on these substrates. The maximum specific growth rate (μ(max) = 0.195 h(-1)) and Monod constants for CO (K s,CO = 0.855 atm) and H2 (K(s,H2) = 0.412 atm) were obtained. This model also accommodated the CO inhibitory effects on cell growth at high CO partial pressures, where no growth was apparent at high dissolved CO tensions (P(CO)(∗) > 0.743 atm). The Volterra model, Andrews, and modified Gompertz were, respectively, adopted to describe the cell growth, substrate uptake rate, and product formation. The maximum specific CO uptake rate (q(max) = 34.364 mmol/g cell/h), CO inhibition constant (K(I) = 0.601 atm), and maximum rate of ethanol (R(max) = 0.172 mmol/L/h at P(CO) = 0.598 atm) and acetate (R(max) = 0.096 mmol/L/h at P(CO) = 0.539 atm) production were determined from the applied models.
This review is focused on the production of microbial lipases by high cell density fermentation. Lipases are among the most widely used of the enzyme catalysts. Although lipases are produced by animals and plants, industrial lipases are sourced almost exclusively from microorganisms. Many of the commercial lipases are produced using recombinant species. Microbial lipases are mostly produced by batch and fed-batch fermentation. Lipases are generally secreted by the cell into the extracellular environment. Thus, a crude preparation of lipases can be obtained by removing the microbial cells from the fermentation broth. This crude cell-free broth may be further concentrated and used as is, or lipases may be purified from it to various levels. For many large volume applications, lipases must be produced at extremely low cost. High cell density fermentation is a promising method for low-cost production: it allows a high concentration of the biomass and the enzyme to be attained rapidly and this eases the downstream recovery of the enzyme. High density fermentation enhances enzyme productivity compared with the traditional submerged culture batch fermentation. In production of enzymes, a high cell density is generally achieved through fed-batch operation, not through perfusion culture which is cumbersome. The feeding strategies used in fed-batch fermentations for producing lipases and the implications of these strategies are discussed. Most lipase-producing microbial fermentations require oxygen. Oxygen transfer in such fermentations is discussed.
An N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-degrading bacterial strain, L62, was isolated from a sample of fermentation brine of Chinese soya sauce by using rich medium agar supplemented with soya sauce (10% v/v). L62, a rod-shaped Gram positive bacterium with amylolytic activity, was phylogentically related to Bacillus sonorensis by 16S ribosomal DNA and rpoB sequence analyses. B. sonorensis L62 efficiently degraded N-3-oxohexanoyl homoserine lactone and N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. However, the aiiA homologue, encoding an autoinducer inactivation enzyme catalyzing the degradation of AHLs, was not detected in L62, suggesting the presence of a different AHL-degrading gene in L62. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL-degrading B. sonorensis from soya sauce liquid state fermentation.
In this paper, we report that pressed juice from oil palm frond (OPF) contained renewable sugars such as glucose, sucrose and fructose. By using a simple sugarcane press, 50% (wt/wt) of OPF juice was obtained from fresh OPF. The glucose content in the juice was 53.95±2.86g/l, which accounts for 70% of the total free sugars. We have examined the effect of various OPF juice concentrations on the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), P(3HB) by Cupriavidus necator CCUG 52238(T). The cell dry mass in shake flask experiment reached 8.42g/l, with 32wt.% of P(3HB) at 30% (v/v) of OPF juice, comparable with using technical grade sugars. The biopolymer had a molecular mass, M(w) of 812kDa, with a low polydispersity index of 1.61. This result indicates that OPF juice can be used as an alternative renewable carbon source for P(3HB) production and has potential as a renewable carbon source.
Calcium carbonate was evaluated as a replacement for the base during the fermentation of glycerol by a highly productive strain of 1,3-propanediol (PDO), viz., Clostridium butyricum JKT37. Due to its high specific growth rate (µmax=0.53h(-1)), 40g/L of glycerol was completely converted into 19.6g/L of PDO in merely 7h of batch fermentation, leaving only acetate and butyrate as the by-products. The accumulation of these volatile fatty acids was circumvented with the addition of calcium carbonate as the pH neutraliser before the fermentation was inoculated. An optimal amount of 15g/L of calcium carbonate was statistically determined from screening with various glycerol concentrations (20-120g/L). By substituting potassium hydroxide with calcium carbonate as the pH neutraliser for fermentation in a bioreactor, a similar yield (YPDO/glycerol=0.6mol/mol) with a constant pH was achieved at the end of the fermentation.
Biohydrogen production from dark fermentation of lignocellulosic materials represents a huge potential in terms of renewable energy exploitation. However, the low hydrogen yield is currently hindering its development on industrial scale. This study reviewed various technologies that have been investigated for enhancing dark fermentative biohydrogen production. The pre-treatment technologies can be classified based on their applications as inoculum or substrates pre-treatment or they can be categorised into physical, chemical, physicochemical and biological based on the techniques used. From the different technologies reviewed, heat and acid pre-treatments are the most commonly studied technologies for both substrates and inoculum pre-treatment. Nevertheless, these two technologies need not necessarily be the most suitable since across different studies, a wide array of other emerging techniques as well as combined technologies have yielded positive findings. To date, there exists no perfect technology for either inoculum or substrate pre-treatment. Although the aim of inoculum pre-treatment is to suppress H2-consumers and enrich H2-producers, many sporulating H2-consumers survive the pre-treatment while some non-spore H2-producers are inhibited. Besides, several inoculum pre-treatment techniques are not effective in the long run and repeated pre-treatment may be required for continuous suppression of H2-consumers and sustained biohydrogen production. Furthermore, many technologies employed for substrates pre-treatment may yield inhibitory compounds that can eventually decrease biohydrogen production. Consequently, much research needs to be done to find out the best technology for both substrates and inoculum pre-treatment while also taking into consideration the energetic, economic and technical feasibility of implementing such a process on an industrial scale.
In Malaysia, the amount of food waste produced is estimated at approximately 70% of total municipal solid waste generated and characterised by high amount of carbohydrate polymers such as starch, cellulose, and sugars. Considering the beneficial organic fraction contained, its utilization as an alternative substrate specifically for bioethanol production has receiving more attention. However, the sustainable production of bioethanol from food waste is linked to the efficient pretreatment needed for higher production of fermentable sugar prior to fermentation. In this work, a modified sequential acid-enzymatic hydrolysis process has been developed to produce high concentration of fermentable sugars; glucose, sucrose, fructose and maltose. The process started with hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreatment by hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) which aim to degrade larger molecules of polysaccharide before accessible for further steps of enzymatic hydrolysis by glucoamylase. A kinetic model is proposed to perform an optimal hydrolysis for obtaining high fermentable sugars. The results suggested that a significant increase in fermentable sugar production (2.04-folds) with conversion efficiency of 86.8% was observed via sequential acid-enzymatic pretreatment as compared to dilute acid pretreatment (∼42.4% conversion efficiency). The bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing fermentable sugar obtained shows ethanol yield of 0.42g/g with conversion efficiency of 85.38% based on the theoretical yield was achieved. The finding indicates that food waste can be considered as a promising substrate for bioethanol production.
Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with delayed yeast extract feeding (DYEF) was conducted in a 2-L bioreactor equipped with in-situ recovery using a gas stripping in order to enhance biobutanol production from lignocellulosic biomass of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). This study showed that 2.88 g/L of biobutanol has been produced from SSF with a similar yield of 0.23 g/g as compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). An increase of 42% of biobutanol concentration was observed when DYEF was introduced in the SSF at 39 h of fermentation operation. Biobutanol production was further enhanced up to 11% with a total improvement of 72% when in-situ recovery using a gas stripping was implemented to reduce the solvents inhibition in the bioreactor. In overall, DYEF and in-situ recovery were able to enhance biobutanol production in SSF.
Malaysia is the second largest palm oil producer in the world and this industry generates more than 80 million tonnes of biomass every year. When considering the potential of this biomass to be used as a fermentation feedstock, many studies have been conducted to develop a complete process for sugar production. One of the essential processes is the pre-treatment to modify the lignocellulosic components by altering the structural arrangement and/or removing lignin component to expose the internal structure of cellulose and hemicellulose for cellulases to digest it into sugars. Each of the pre-treatment processes that were developed has their own advantages and disadvantages, which are reviewed in this study.
Enterobacter cloacae is a highly pathogenic Gram-negative proteobacterium which is responsible for a wide array of infections. In the present study, the fermentation culture of E. cloacae has yielded one new oxolane compound, Rimboxo (1) in addition to three known compounds, i.e. Maculosine (2), phenylacetic acid (3) and methyl myristate (4). These compounds were isolated and characterised using extensive chromatographic and spectroscopic methods, and were subjected to cytotoxicity evaluations.
Fermenting feed has gained a lot of popularity in recent years owing to its renowned benefits to the livestock and feed quality. In the current study, Lentinus squarrosulus mushroom mycelium was tested for its potential as a fermenting agent and source of natural antioxidant in the feed.
Acetic and lactic acid bacteria on fermented cocoa beans were maximally 2.0×10(6) and 1.9×10(6) c.f.u./g wet wt, respectively. Acetic and lactic acids were detected on the second and fourth days of fermentation and were maximally 140 and 45 mg/10 g beans, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the sizes of the relevant microbial populations and the amounts of acids produced during fermentation.
Two-stage anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a promising method for converting the waste from the largest agricultural industry in Southeast Asia into a clean and sustainable energy. This study investigates the degradation of acid-rich effluent from the dark fermentation stage for the production of biomethane (BioCH4) in a 30-L continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR). The continuous methanogenic process was operated with varied HRTs (10 - 1 day) and OLRs (4.6-40.6 gCOD/L.d-1) under thermophilic conditions. Methanothermobacter sp. was the dominant thermophilic archaea that was responsible for the production rate of 4.3 LCH4/LPOME.d-1 and methane yield of 256.77 LCH4kgCOD at HRT of 2 d, which is the lowest HRT reported in the literature. The process was able to digest 85% and 64% of the initial POME's COD and TSS, respectively. The formation of methane producing granules (MPG) played a pivotal role in sustaining the efficient and productive anaerobic system. We report herein that the anaerobic digestion was not only beneficial in reducing the contaminants in the liquid effluent, but generating BioCH4 gas with a positive net energy gain of 7.6 kJ/gCOD.
In this study, the potential of oil palm trunk (OPT) sap as a sole substrate for succinic acid (SA) production was evaluated using Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. After OPT sap was characterised, the effects of adding carbonate, yeast extract (YE) and minerals to this medium were investigated in an attempt to develop a low-cost fermentation medium. The OPT sap alone, gave comparable SA yield and productivity (0.54 g/g and 0.35 g/L/h) to those supplemented with YE (0.50 g/g and 0.36 g/L/h) and minerals (0.55 g/g and 0.40 g/L/h). The findings showed that OPT sap has sufficient amount of nutrients for SA biosynthesis by A. succinogenes 130Z and could potentially reduce cost without requiring expensive nutrients supplementation.
Managing plastic waste remains an urgent environmental concern and switching to biodegradable plastics can reduce the dependence on depleting fossil fuels. This study emphasises the efficacy of macroalgae wastes, Eucheuma denticulatum residues (EDRs), as potential alternate feedstock to produce l-lactic acid (l-LA), the monomer of polylactic acid, through fermentation. An innovative environmental friendly strategy was explored in this study to develop a glucose platform from EDRs: pretreatment with microwave-assisted autohydrolysis (MAA) applied to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of EDRs. The results indicate that MAA pretreatment significantly increased the digestibility of EDRs during the enzymatic hydrolysis process. The optimum pretreatment conditions were 120 °C and 50 min, resulting in 96.5% of enzymatic digestibility after 48 h. The high l-LA yield of 98.6% was obtained using pretreated EDRs and supplemented with yeast extract. The energy analysis implies that MAA pretreatment could further improve the overall energy efficiency of the process.