METHODS: The parameters of spray-dried 'cempedak' fruit powder under study include inlet air temperature (140-180°C) and maltodextrin (DE 10) concentrations (5-15% w/w). Response surface methodology involving 14 runs was used to assess the effects of inlet temperature and maltodextrin on the powder flow properties and reconstitution properties of the spray-dried 'cempedak' powder.
RESULTS: Out of the tested responses, only bulk density, change in cake height ratio, and water solubility index had a high coefficient of determination value. Inlet air temperature was found to be the main parameter to affect the bulk density, caking and water solubility index, when compared to maltodextrin concentration. By setting minimization of caking and maximization of water solubility index as the main determinants, the optimal parameters of 160°C inlet temperature and 15% (w/w) maltodextrin DE10 were generated, with a desirability of 0.697.
CONCLUSIONS: The powder produced under optimal conditions (160°C and 15% w/w maltodextrin) had a low bulk density (480.01 kg/m3), low caking properties (0.17 change in cake height ratio), and a high solubility index (88.69). This indicates that the powder is stable to be stored (without caking) and will have good reconstitution when added to water.