Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 89 in total

  1. Cheong SK, Lim YC, Mok KL
    Malays J Pathol, 1991 Jun;13(1):51-2.
    PMID: 1795563
    Mixed reagents for the Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency fluorescent screening test were freeze-dried in plastic tubes. The reagents were then reconstituted with distilled water and the test was performed in the usual way. Initial testing with the freeze-dried mixed reagents gave consistent positive reaction to 12 normal blood samples and negative reaction to 9 G6PD deficient blood samples. This will enable a laboratory with freeze-drying facilities to prepare reagent tubes in bulk. As these tubes can be kept at 4 degrees C and do not require to be stored at -20 degrees C, a major laboratory can prepare these tubes and supply small laboratories for screening purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freeze Drying*
  2. Mediani A, Abas F, Tan CP, Khatib A
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2014 May 07;3(2):358-70.
    PMID: 26784876 DOI: 10.3390/antiox3020358
    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD), oven (OD) and freeze drying (FD) on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS). Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL) and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g), whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freeze Drying
  3. Rahman NFA, Shamsudin R, Ismail A, Karim Shah NNA
    Food Sci Biotechnol, 2016;25(Suppl 1):85-90.
    PMID: 30263490 DOI: 10.1007/s10068-016-0102-y
    Changes in physicochemical properties of moisture, ash, and fat contents, and color, due to freeze and oven post-drying treatments on flavedo, albedo, and lamella pomelo fruit peels were investigated. Physicochemical properties influence consumer acceptability and only a few studies are known. Pomelo peels were subjected to freeze drying and conventional drying at 60°C. Fresh pomelo peel was used as a control. Post-drying treatment changes in moisture, ash, and fat contents were observed, compared to controls. Minimal color changes were observed for freeze drying, compared with oven drying for flavedo, albedo, and lamella. Useful information for evaluation of drying treatments that can be used on pomelo peels is provided.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freeze Drying
  4. Chang LS, Lau KQ, Tan CP, Yusof YA, Nyam KL, Pui LP
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 2021 11 2;20(4):417-421.
    PMID: 34724366 DOI: 10.17306/J.AFS.0903
    BACKGROUND: ‘Kedondong’ fruit is regarded as an exotic fruit that is gaining popularity due to its deliciousness and pleasant flavour. However, this fruit has a short shelf life, leading to problems with postharvest loss. In order to prevent losses, the fruit could be produced as a value-added product. In this study, the ‘kedondong’ fruit was preserved by drying into powder using different drying methods.

    METHODS: The kedondong powder was dried using five methods: convection oven drying, vacuum drying, spray drying, drum drying and freeze drying. The physical properties, flowability and DPPH radical scavenging ability of dried kedondong powder were examined.

    RESULTS: Spray-dried powder provided the significantly (p ≤ 0.05) highest process yield, which was 54.93%. All the powder produced had a low moisture content (3.03 to 5.66%) and water activity (0.19–0.37). Visually, whitish and fine powders were observed on spray-dried and freeze-dried samples, while convection oven-dried and vacuum-dried powder appeared yellowish and coarse. The pH of the reconstituted powders varied from 2.71 to 2.83, where drum-dried powder was the most acidic. Spray-dried powder showed the highest wettability and shortest dissolution time, which was 172.65 s and 10.55 s, respectively. With the exception of drum-dried powder, all the dried powders were classified as non-caking powders. The bulk and tapped density of the powders ranged from 0.32 to 0.70 g/mL and 0.38 to 0.86 g/mL, respectively. Vacuum-dried powder had very good flowability, convection oven-dried and drum-dried powder had good flowability, while spray-dried and drum-dried powder had fair flowability. Antioxidant assay showed that freeze-dried powder exhibited the highest free radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 701.29 μg/mL).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that spray-dried kedondong powder has great potential in the food industry due to its high process yield and better powder quality. Meanwhile, freeze drying best preserved the antioxidant properties of the powder, which could potentially be used as a functional ingredient as a result. This study is important for the fruit processing industry as it offers an alternative for the farmer to produce kedondong fruit powder because the fruit has a short shelf life. Converting the fruit into powder can diversify the resulting produce into different applications, such as fruit juice, beverages, jam and other food products.

    Matched MeSH terms: Freeze Drying
  5. Maitland HB
    Med J Malaya, 1965 Sep;20(1):8-10.
    PMID: 4221441
    Matched MeSH terms: Freeze Drying*
  6. Yap JY, Hii CL, Ong SP, Lim KH, Abas F, Pin KY
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 May;100(7):2932-2937.
    PMID: 32031257 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10320
    BACKGROUND: Papaya is widely grown in Malaysia and normally only the fruits are consumed. Other parts of the plant such as leaves, roots, bark, peel, seeds and pulp are also known to have medicinal properties and have been used to treat various diseases. Papaya leaves also contain flavonoids, alkaloids phenolic compounds and cynogenetic compounds, and are also reported to be able to treat dengue fever.

    RESULTS: Studies were carried out on drying of papaya leaves using hot air (60, 70 and 80 °C), shade and freeze drying. Effective diffusivities were estimated ranging from 2.09 × 10-12 to 2.18 × 10-12 m2 s-1 from hot air drying, which are within the order of magnitudes reported for most agricultural and food products. The activation energy to initiate drying showed a relatively low value (2.11 kJ mol-1 ) as a result of the thin leave layer that eased moisture diffusion. In terms of total polyphenols content and antioxidant activities, freeze-dried sample showed a significantly higher (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Freeze Drying/methods*
  7. Shaharuddin S, Husen R, Othman A
    J Food Sci Technol, 2021 Jun;58(6):2360-2367.
    PMID: 33967332 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-020-04748-0
    Baccaurea pubera is a blood red coloured fruit found exclusively in Borneo. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of superheated steam treatment on its antioxidant properties and mineral content as well as to determine nutritional values of the fruit. The fruits were treated with superheated steam at 170 °C for 15 min prior to extraction and freeze drying. The results showed that, in comparison to the control, superheated steam treatment enhanced the total phenolic content by 147.8% (287.16 mg GAE/100 g vs. 115.87 mg GAE/100 g) and DPPH radical scavenging activity by 23.7% (66.94% vs. 54.13%). However, there were reductions, as compared to the control treatments, in total flavonoid content by 16.5% (8.29 mg QE/100 g vs. 9.93 mg QE/100 g), lycopene content by 28.6% (0.020 μg/100 g vs. 0.028 μg/100 g) and ferric reducing antioxidant power by 22.2% (844.41 mg TE/100 g vs. 1085.15 mg TE/100 g). The superheated steam treatment was also observed to reduce the mineral content of the fruit, from as little as 3.6% to as high as 52% depending upon the specific mineral.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freeze Drying
  8. Kang, O.L., Yong, P.F., Ma’aruf, A.G., Osman, H., Nazaruddin, R.
    In this work, oven-dried, freeze-dried and spray-dried agaro-oligosaccharide powders were characterized to investigate their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. Agaro-oligosaccharide powders were shown to exhibit high water solubility index (88.73 – 95.88%), water absorption capacity (0.96 – 2.57 g/g) and oil absorption capacity (0.40 – 0.45 g/g). Agaro-oligosaccharide powders were shown to possess moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity (10.65 – 14.59%), ABTS radical scavenging activity (44 .47 – 65.61%) and ferric reducing antioxidant activity (0.165 – 0.353). Agaro-oligosaccharide powders were further characterized with respect to thermal and pH stability. Agaro-oligosaccharide powders were shown to exhibit high temperature resistance (≤ 100oC) and acid/alkaline resistance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freeze Drying
  9. Ahmad Razi Othman, Intan Safinar Ismail, Norhani Abdullah, Syahida Ahmad
    Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose plant that has been suggested as a possible cure to
    inflammation. It can be used as a source of animal feed, live fence, biodiesel and in traditional
    medicine. Practitioners have used various extraction techniques to extract the active components
    of the plant. This article compares the efficiency of three methods of drying technique for the
    extraction of the total phenolic content from the plant. The freeze-drying method was the best
    method compared to oven dry and air dry. The freeze-drying method dries J. curcas root sample
    faster and preserve the total phenolic content better than the other methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freeze Drying
  10. Rabeta MS, Lin S
    Sains Malaysiana, 2015;44:275-280.
    This study aimed to assess the effects of fresh, thermal drying method (vacuum oven drying), and nonthermal drying method (freeze drying) on the antioxidant activities of leaves and berries of Cayratia trifolia using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) assays. The total phenolic content (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) of the leaves and berries of C. trifolia were also measured. Based on the results obtained, the TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activities of the leaves and berries were arranged in the following order: freeze-dried sample with methanol extraction > vacuum-dried sample with methanol extraction > freeze-dried sample with water extraction > vacuum-dried sample with water extraction > fresh sample with methanol extraction > fresh sample with water extraction. The results showed a significant difference (p<0.05) between the fresh and dried samples. In conclusion, freeze drying was found to be a good method for maintaining TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activities by FRAP and DPPH methods in the leaves and berries of C. trifolia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freeze Drying
  11. Sang SY, Jamharee F, Prasad KN, Azlan A, Maliki N
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 May;51(5):988-93.
    PMID: 24803709 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-011-0596-5
    This study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant capacities of four common forage legume leaves namely, Arachis pintoi (Pintoi), Calapogonium mucunoides (Calapo), Centrosema pubescens (Centro), and Stylosanthes guanensis (Stylo). Two different drying methods (oven-drying and freeze-drying) were employed and antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and β-carotene bleaching assays. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Freeze-dried extract showed the highest antioxidant activities by DPPH (EC50 values 1.17-2.13 mg/ml), FRAP (147.08-246.42 μM of Fe(2+)/g), and β-carotene bleaching (57.11-78.60%) compared to oven drying. Hence, freeze drying treatment could be considered useful in retention of antioxidant activity and phenolic content.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freeze Drying
  12. Mirhosseini H, Amid BT
    Chem Cent J, 2013 Jan 04;7(1):1.
    PMID: 23289739 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-7-1
    BACKGROUND: A natural carbohydrate biopolymer was extracted from the agricultural biomass waste (durian seed). Subsequently, the crude biopolymer was purified by using the saturated barium hydroxide to minimize the impurities. Finally, the effect of different drying techniques on the flow characteristics and functional properties of the purified biopolymer was investigated. The present study elucidated the main functional characteristics such as flow characteristics, water- and oil-holding capacity, solubility, and foaming capacity.

    RESULTS: In most cases except for oven drying, the bulk density decreased, thus increasing the porosity. This might be attributed to the increase in the inter-particle voids of smaller sized particles with larger contact surface areas per unit volume. The current study revealed that oven-dried gum and freeze-dried gum had the highest and lowest compressibility index, thus indicating the weakest and strongest flowability among all samples. In the present work, the freeze-dried gum showed the lowest angle of repose, bulk, tapped and true density. This indicates the highest porosity degree of freeze dried gum among dried seed gums. It also exhibited the highest solubility, and foaming capacity thus providing the most desirable functional properties and flow characteristics among all drying techniques.

    CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that freeze drying among all drying techniques provided the most desirable functional properties and flow characteristics for durian seed gum.

    Matched MeSH terms: Freeze Drying
  13. Michelle Wong Tzeling J, Yean Yean C
    Analyst, 2016 Feb 21;141(4):1246-9.
    PMID: 26783560 DOI: 10.1039/c5an01741f
    A shelf-stable loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reagent for Burkholderia pseudomallei detection is described. The coupling of LAMP reagents with the indirect colorimetric indicator and consequently its lyophilization enable the simple evaluation of results without the need for any advance laboratory instruments. The reagents were found to have a stable shelf life of at least 30 days with well-maintained sensitivity and specificity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freeze Drying
  14. Chua LYW, Chua BL, Figiel A, Chong CH, Wojdyło A, Szumny A, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 04 09;24(7).
    PMID: 30970652 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24071397
    The preservation of active constituents in fresh herbs is affected by drying methods. An effective drying method for Strobilanthes crispus which is increasingly marketed as an important herbal tea remains to be reported. This study evaluated the effects of conventional and new drying technologies, namely vacuum microwave drying methods, on the antioxidant activity and yield of essential oil volatiles and phytosterols. These drying methods included convective drying (CD) at 40 °C, 50 °C, and 60 °C; vacuum microwave drying (VMD) at 6, 9, and 12 W/g; convective pre-drying and vacuum microwave finish drying (CPD-VMFD) at 50 °C and 9 W/g; and freeze-drying (FD). GC–MS revealed 33 volatiles, and 2-hexen-1-ol, 2-hexenal, 1-octen-3-ol, linalool, and benzaldehyde were major constituents. The compounds β-sitosterol and α-linolenic acid were the most abundant phytosterol and fatty acid, respectively, in fresh S. crispus. The highest phenolic content was achieved with CD at 60 °C. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained with CD at 40 °C and VMD at 9 W/g. On the contrary, the highest total volatiles and phytosterols were detected with CD at 50 °C and VMD at 9 W/g, respectively. This study showed that CD and VMD were effective in producing highly bioactive S. crispus. A suitable drying parameter level, irrespective of the drying method used, was an important influencing factor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freeze Drying
  15. Tan NH, Tan CS
    Toxicon, 1987;25(11):1249-53.
    PMID: 3433296
    The enzymatic activities of four samples of Malayan cobra venom were investigated. There was significant variation in the contents of L-amino acid oxidase, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, acetylcholinesterase, phospholipase A, 5'-nucleotidase and hyaluronidase. The phosphodiesterase content was, however, constant. Storage of the lyophilized venom powder at 25 degrees C for 1 month did not affect the enzymatic activities. The venom enzymatic activities were generally also stable at 4 degrees C in 0.85% saline solution. After incubation at 37 degrees C for 39 days in 0.85% saline solution, the venom still retained considerable amounts of enzymatic activities. SP-Sephadex C-25 ion-exchange chromatography of the venom showed that the phospholipase A, L-amino acid oxidase, 5'-nucleotidase, phosphodiesterase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase exist in multiple forms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freeze Drying
  16. Rabeta, M.S., Lai, S.Y.
    Antioxidant capacity of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. or ‘ruku’ were determined in this study. Fresh
    leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum was subjected to freeze drying, vacuum drying and processed
    into fermented and unfermented tea. The samples were extracted using distilled water and the
    total phenolics, total flavonoids, condensed tannin content, anthocyanins and total antioxidant
    capacity (TAC) were assessed, measured with ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)
    and 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) assays. The results
    showed that drying the fresh leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum and processing them into tea leaves
    significantly increase (P < 0.05) the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, total flavonoid
    content, and condensed tannin content. However, anthocyanins content showed reduction
    after drying. In the present study, it can be concluded that the vacuum drying method seem
    to produce a product with higher quality of antioxidant properties than freeze drying. Hence,
    vacuum drying can be used to replace freeze drying as it is also cheaper than freeze drying.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freeze Drying
  17. Baharuddin, N.A., Kamin, S., Samsuddin, A.R.
    Ann Dent, 2005;12(1):-.
    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of demineralized freeze-dried bone xenograft (DFDBBX) in minimizing post-surgical recession in moderate to advanced adult periodontitis in patients. Nine patients with a total of eighteen intrabony defects were matched for the tooth type, location of defects and periodontal pocket depth (5 to 7mm). Following an initial nonsurgical treatment, recession at defects indicated for surgery was measured pre-operatively. Surgical treatment was carried out by split mouth design, where the test sites were assigned DFDBBX and the control sites were subjected to debridement without the use of DFDBBX. Recessions were measured at 3 months, 6 months and 9 months post-operatively. The results showed no statistically significant difference in mean recession at 3, 6 and 9 months post-operatively compared to baseline for both test and control groups. Thus, DFDBBX was ineffective in minimizing recession on patients with moderate to severe periodontitis, as compared to surgical debridement alone.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freeze Drying
  18. Baharuddin, N.A., Kamin, S., Samsuddin, A.R.
    Ann Dent, 2003;10(1):-.
    This study evaluated the effectiveness of demineralized freeze-dried bone xenograft in reducing post-surgical pocket depth in moderate to advanced adult periodontitis in patients. Nine patients with a total of eighteen intrabony defects were selected for this study. The bony defects were matched for tooth type, location and pocket depth. Following an initial non-surgical treatment, only pockets of 5 to 7 mm deep were indicated for surgery. Periodontal pockets were measured pre-operatively and at 3, 6 and 9 months post-surgically. The study protocol included a split mouth design, where surgical treatment was carried out at both test and control sites. The test sites were assigned demineralized freeze-dried bone xenograft and the control sites were subjected to debridement alone without the use of demineralized freeze-dried bone xenograft. The results from this study showed a statistically significant difference in the mean pocket depth at 6 and 9 months post-operatively for both test and control groups, but there was no statistically significant difference at 3 months. In conclusion, demineralized freeze-dried bone xenograft was ineffective in reducing periodontal pocket depth in patients with moderate to severe periodontitis, as compared to surgical debridement alone.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freeze Drying
  19. Muhamad Haikal Zainal, Khairul Baqir Alkhair Khairul Amin, Oskar Hasdinor Hassan, Sharifah Aminah Syed Mohamad, Abd Malik Marwan Ali, Fathiah Abdullah, et al.
    Many kinds of substrates have been used to investigate bioelectricity production with Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC). Dry algae biomass has the highest maximum power density compared to other substrates due to high carbon sources from its lipid. However, the bacterial digestion of algae biomass is not simple because of the complexity and strength of the algal cell wall structure. An algae biomass extraction is needed to break the cell wall structure and facilitate digestion. Spray drying method is commonly used in highvalue products but may degrade some algal components which are crucial for microbial degradation in MFC, while the freeze-drying method is able to preserve algal cell constituents. The MFC was fed with freeze dried and spray dried algae biomass to produce energy and determine the degradation efficiency. Results showed the average voltage generated was 739 mV and 740 mV from freeze dried and spray dried algae biomass, respectively. The maximum power density of freeze dried algae biomass is 159.9 mW/m2 and spray dried algae biomass is 152.3 mW/m2. Freeze dried algae biomass has 54.2% of COD removal and 28.4% of Coulombic Efficiency while spray dried algae biomass has 50.1% of COD removal and 24.9% of Coulombic Efficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freeze Drying
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