METHODS: A structured electronic search on worldwide accepted scientific databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, SciFinder, Wiley Online Library) was carried out to compile the relevant information. Some information was obtained from books and database on medicinal plants used in various countries.
RESULTS: About 60 metabolites, mainly polyphenols, and terpenoids have been isolated and identified. However, most of the reported pharmacological studies were based on crude extracts, and only a few of those isolated metabolites, particularly zerumbone have been investigated for biological and pharmacological activities. Many of the mechanistic studies to understand the pharmacological effects of the plant are limited by many considerations with regard to design, experimentation and interpretation.
CONCLUSION: The bioactive metabolites should be further investigated on their safety and more elaborate preclinical studies before clinical trials can be undertaken.
METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of 6-shogaol was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The neuritogenic activity was assessed by neurite outgrowth stimulation assay while the concentration of extracellular NGF in cell culture supernatant was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Involvement of cellular signaling pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (MEK/ERK1/2) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) in 6-shogaol-stimulated neuritogenesis were examined by using specific pharmacological inhibitors.
RESULTS: 6-Shogaol (500 ng/ml) induced neuritogenesis that was comparable to NGF (50 ng/ml) and was not cytotoxic towards PC-12 cells. 6-Shogaol induced low level of NGF biosynthesis in PC-12 cells, showing that 6-shogaol stimulated neuritogenesis possibly by inducing NGF biosynthesis, and also acting as a substitute for NGF (NGF mimic) in PC-12 cells. The inhibitors of Trk receptor (K252a), MEK/ERK1/2 (U0126 and PD98059) and PI3K/AKT (LY294002) attenuated the neuritogenic activity of both NGF and 6-shogaol, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings demonstrated that 6-shogaol induced neuritogenic activity in PC-12 cells via the activation MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. This study suggests that 6-shogaol could act as an NGF mimic, which may be beneficial for preventive and therapeutic uses in neurodegenerative diseases.
METHODS: Extracts of ZOVR were subjected to in-vivo antihypertensive screening using noninvasive blood pressures in SHRs. The most potent extract, ZOVR petroleum ether extract (ZOP) was then fractionated using n-hexane, chloroform and water. Isolated thoracic aortic rings were harvested and subjected to vascular relaxation studies of n-hexane fraction of ZOP (HFZOP) with incubation of different antagonists such as Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 µmol/L), indomethacin (10 µmol/L), methylene blue (10 µmol/L), atropine (1 µmol/L), glibenclamide (10 µmol/L), prazosin (0.01 µmol/L), and propranolol (1 µmol/L).
RESULTS: During the screening of various ZOVR extracts, ZOP produced the most reduction in blood pressures of SHRs and so did HFZOP. HFZOP significantly decreased phenylephrine-induced contraction and enhanced acetylcholine-induced relaxation. L-NAME, indomethacin, methylene blue, atropine, and glibenclamide significantly potentiated the vasorelaxant effects of HFZOP. Propranolol and prazosin did not alter the vasorelaxant effects of HFZOP. HFZOP significantly suppressed the Ca2+-dependent contraction and influenced the ratio of the responses to phenylephrine in Ca2+-free medium.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that ZOP may exert an antihypertensive effect in the SHR model. Its possible vascular relaxation mechanisms involve nitric oxide and prostacyclin release, activation of cGMP-KATP channels, stimulation of muscarinic receptors, and transmembrane calcium channel or Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Possible active compounds that contribute to the vasorelaxant effects are 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol and 6-shogaol.
METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups based on diet: i) control (given normal rat chow), ii) olive oil, iii) ginger extract (100mg/kg body weight), iv) choline-deficient diet + 0.1% ethionine to induce liver cancer and v) choline-deficient diet + ginger extract (100mg/kg body weight). Tissue samples obtained at eight weeks were fixed with formalin and embedded in paraffin wax, followed by immunohistochemistry staining for NFkappaB and TNF-alpha.
RESULTS: The expression of NFkappaB was detected in the choline-deficient diet group, with 88.3 +/- 1.83% of samples showing positive staining, while in the choline-deficient diet supplemented with ginger group, the expression of NFkappaB was significantly reduced, to 32.35 +/- 1.34% (p<0.05). In the choline-deficient diet group, 83.3 +/- 4.52% of samples showed positive staining of TNF-alpha, which was significantly reduced to 7.94 +/- 1.32% (p<0.05) when treated with ginger. There was a significant correlation demonstrated between NFkappaB and TNF-alpha in the choline-deficient diet group but not in the choline-deficient diet treated with ginger extract group.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, ginger extract significantly reduced the elevated expression of NFkappaB and TNF-alpha in rats with liver cancer. Ginger may act as an anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent by inactivating NFkappaB through the suppression of the pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha.
METHODS AND RESULTS: The crude extracts of E. pubescens were obtained through methanol extraction, and evaluated for antimicrobial activities. From this extract, 1,7-bis(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)heptan-3-yl acetate (etlingerin) was isolated. When compared to curcumin (a compound with a similar chemical structure), etlingerin showed twofold lower minimum inhibitory concentration values while also being bactericidal. Through time kill assay, etlingerin showed rapid killing effects (as fast as 60 min) against the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 8188). Further assessment revealed that etlingerin caused leakage of intracellular materials, therefore suggesting alteration in membrane permeability as its antimicrobial mechanism. Cytotoxicity study demonstrated that etlingerin exhibited approximately 5- to 12-fold higher IC50 values against several cell lines, as compared to curcumin.
CONCLUSIONS: Etlingerin isolated from E. pubescens showed better antibacterial and cytotoxic activities when compared to curcumin. Etlingerin could be safe for human use, though further cytotoxicity study using animal models is needed.
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Etlingerin has a potential to be used in treating bacterial infections due to its good antimicrobial activity, while having potentially low cytotoxicity.