Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

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  1. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A
    Molecules, 2010 Jun 14;15(6):4324-33.
    PMID: 20657444 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15064324
    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a well known and widely used herb, especially in Asia, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from the leaves, stems and rhizomes of two Zingiber officinale varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) were assessed in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of the leaves as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids were higher than those of the rhizomes and stems. On the other hand, the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves. At low concentration the values of the leaves' inhibition activity in both varieties were significantly higher than or comparable to those of the young rhizomes. Halia Bara had higher antioxidant activities as well as total contents of phenolic and flavonoid in comparison with Halia Bentong. This study validated the medicinal potential of the leaves and young rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bara) and the positive relationship between total phenolics content and antioxidant activities in Zingiber officinale.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  2. Juwita T, Melyani Puspitasari I, Levita J
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2018 Jan;21(4):151-165.
    PMID: 30311471 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2018.151.165
    In order to propose a prospective candidate for novel complementary phytopharmaceuticals, one of Zingiberaceae family plant, Etlingeraelatior or torch ginger, was being evaluated. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive literature research focused on the botanical aspects, nutritional quality, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of E. elatior. Researches on this particular plant were conducted in Malaysia (55.5%), Indonesia (33.3%), Thailand (8.3%) and Singapore (2.7%). This review article has revealed that the most prominent pharmacological activities were anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor activities in consistent with the dominated levels of flavonoids, terpenoids and phenols. However, extended and integrated research should be converged towards intensive investigations concerning to isolated phytoconstituents and its bioactivities, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, molecular mechanism of its specific pharmacological activities, safety and efficacy studies for further development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  3. Haque MA, Jantan I
    Curr Pharm Biotechnol, 2017;18(9):696-720.
    PMID: 29141544 DOI: 10.2174/1389201018666171115115458
    BACKGROUND: Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm. (family, Zingiberaceae) is a potent medicinal herb widely known as shampoo ginger and its rhizome is used in numerous ethnomedicinal applications including antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-diarrheal, antidiabetics, carminative, and diuretic. The aim of this review was to bring together all the scientific updates on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of this herb, including their toxicological studies, and critically analyzed the outcomes to provide directions for future research on the herb as potential source of bioactive metabolites for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications.

    METHODS: A structured electronic search on worldwide accepted scientific databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, SciFinder, Wiley Online Library) was carried out to compile the relevant information. Some information was obtained from books and database on medicinal plants used in various countries.

    RESULTS: About 60 metabolites, mainly polyphenols, and terpenoids have been isolated and identified. However, most of the reported pharmacological studies were based on crude extracts, and only a few of those isolated metabolites, particularly zerumbone have been investigated for biological and pharmacological activities. Many of the mechanistic studies to understand the pharmacological effects of the plant are limited by many considerations with regard to design, experimentation and interpretation.

    CONCLUSION: The bioactive metabolites should be further investigated on their safety and more elaborate preclinical studies before clinical trials can be undertaken.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  4. Adamu A, Ahmad K, Siddiqui Y, Ismail IS, Asib N, Bashir Kutawa A, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Jun 25;26(13).
    PMID: 34202405 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26133902
    The bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most serious rice diseases, causing huge yield losses worldwide. Several technologies and approaches have been opted to reduce the damage; however, these have had limited success. Recently, scientists have been focusing their efforts on developing efficient and environmentally friendly nanobactericides for controlling bacterial diseases in rice fields. In the present study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) were utilized to investigate the mode of actions of ginger EOs on the cell structure of Xoo. The ginger EOs caused the cells to grow abnormally, resulting in an irregular form with hollow layers, whereas the dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) treatment showed a typical rod shape for the Xoo cell. Ginger EOs restricted the growth and production of biofilms by reducing the number of biofilms generated as indicated by CLSM. Due to the instability, poor solubility, and durability of ginger EOs, a nanoemulsions approach was used, and a glasshouse trial was performed to assess their efficacy on BLB disease control. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the developed nanobactericides was promising at different concentration (50-125 µL/mL) tested. The efficacy was concentration-dependent. There was significant antibacterial activity recorded at higher concentrations. A glasshouse trial revealed that developed nanobactericides managed to suppress BLB disease severity effectively. Treatment at a concentration of 125 μL/mL was the best based on the suppression of disease severity index, AUDPC value, disease reduction (DR), and protection index (PI). Furthermore, findings on plant growth, physiological features, and yield parameters were significantly enhanced compared to the positive control treatment. In conclusion, the results indicated that ginger essential oils loaded-nanoemulsions are a promising alternative to synthetic antibiotics in suppressing Xoo growth, regulating the BLB disease, and enhancing rice yield under a glasshouse trial.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  5. Yudthavorasit S, Wongravee K, Leepipatpiboon N
    Food Chem, 2014 Sep 1;158:101-11.
    PMID: 24731320 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.02.086
    Chromatographic fingerprints of gingers from five different ginger-producing countries (China, India, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam) were newly established to discriminate the origin of ginger. The pungent bioactive principles of ginger, gingerols and six other gingerol-related compounds were determined and identified. Their variations in HPLC profiles create the characteristic pattern of each origin by employing similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). As results, the ginger profiles tended to be grouped and separated on the basis of the geographical closeness of the countries of origin. An effective mathematical model with high predictive ability was obtained and chemical markers for each origin were also identified as the characteristic active compounds to differentiate the ginger origin. The proposed method is useful for quality control of ginger in case of origin labelling and to assess food authenticity issues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  6. Chan EW, Wong SK
    J Integr Med, 2015 Nov;13(6):368-79.
    PMID: 26559362 DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(15)60208-4
    In this review, the phytochemistry and pharmacology of two ornamental gingers, Hedychium coronarium (butterfly ginger) and Alpinia purpurata (red ginger), are updated, and their botany and uses are described. Flowers of H. coronarium are large, showy, white, yellow or white with a yellow centre and highly fragrant. Inflorescences of A. purpurata are erect spikes with attractive red or pink bracts. Phytochemical investigations on the rhizomes of H. coronarium generated research interest globally. This resulted in the isolation of 53 labdane-type diterpenes, with little work done on the leaves and flowers. Pharmacological properties of H. coronarium included antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, chemopreventive, anti-allergic, larvicidal, anthelminthic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-urolithiatic, anti-angiogenic, neuro-pharmacological, fibrinogenolytic, coagulant and hepatoprotective activities. On the contrary, little is known on the phytochemistry of A. purpurata with pharmacological properties of antioxidant, antibacterial, larvicidal, cytotoxic and vasodilator activities reported in the leaves and rhizomes. There is much disparity in terms of research effort within and between these two ornamental gingers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  7. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Karimi E, Ashkani S
    Molecules, 2014 Oct 16;19(10):16693-706.
    PMID: 25325154 DOI: 10.3390/molecules191016693
    The increase of atmospheric CO2 due to global climate change or horticultural practices has direct and indirect effects on food crop quality. One question that needs to be asked, is whether CO2 enrichment affects the nutritional quality of Malaysian young ginger plants. Responses of total carbohydrate, fructose, glucose, sucrose, protein, soluble amino acids and antinutrients to either ambient (400 μmol/mol) and elevated (800 μmol/mol) CO2 treatments were determined in the leaf and rhizome of two ginger varieties namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Increasing of CO2 level from ambient to elevated resulted in increased content of total carbohydrate, sucrose, glucose, and fructose in the leaf and rhizome of ginger varieties. Sucrose was the major sugar followed by glucose and fructose in the leaf and rhizome extract of both varieties. Elevated CO2 resulted in a reduction of total protein content in the leaf (H. Bentong: 38.0%; H. Bara: 35.4%) and rhizome (H. Bentong: 29.0%; H. Bara: 46.2%). In addition, under CO2 enrichment, the concentration of amino acids increased by approximately 14.5% and 98.9% in H. Bentong and 12.0% and 110.3% in H. Bara leaf and rhizome, respectively. The antinutrient contents (cyanide and tannin) except phytic acid were influenced significantly (P ≤ 0.05) by CO2 concentration. Leaf extract of H. Bara exposed to elevated CO2 exhibited highest content of cyanide (336.1 mg HCN/kg DW), while, highest content of tannin (27.5 g/kg DW) and phytic acid (54.1 g/kg DW) were recorded from H.Bara rhizome grown under elevated CO2. These results demonstrate that the CO2 enrichment technique could improve content of some amino acids and antinutrients of ginger as a food crop by enhancing its nutritional and health-promoting properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  8. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A
    Molecules, 2010 Sep;15(9):6231-43.
    PMID: 20877219 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15096231
    Flavonoids make up one of the most pervasive groups of plant phenolics. Due to their importance in plants and human health, it would be useful to have a better understanding of flavonoid concentration and biological activities that could indicate their potentials as therapeutic agents, and also for predicting and controlling the quality of medicinal herbs. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a famous and widely used herb, especially in Asia, that contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, total flavonoids and some flavonoid components including quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol and naringenin were extracted from the leaves and rhizomes of two varieties of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) at three different growth points (8, 12 and 16 weeks after planting), and analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method in order to determine the potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The results showed that Halia Bara had a higher content of flavonoids in the leaves and rhizomes as compared to Halia Bentong. In both varieties, the concentration of flavonoids in the leaves decreased (Halia Bentong, 42.3%; Halia Bara 36.7%), and in the rhizomes it increased (Halia Bentong 59.6%; Halia Bara 60.1%) as the growth period increased. Quercetin was abundant in both varieties. The antioxidant activity determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed high activities (65.7%) in the leaves of Halia Bara at 8 weeks after planting. Results suggested a good flavonoid content and antioxidant activity potential in ginger leaves at 8 weeks after planting. The leaves of these ginger varieties could be useful for both food flavourings and in traditional medicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  9. Feroz SR, Mohamad SB, Lee GS, Malek SN, Tayyab S
    Phytomedicine, 2015 Jun 1;22(6):621-30.
    PMID: 26055127 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2015.03.016
    6-Shogaol, one of the main bioactive constituents of Zingiber officinale has been shown to possess various therapeutic properties. Interaction of a therapeutic compound with plasma proteins greatly affects its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  10. Sani NF, Belani LK, Sin CP, Rahman SN, Das S, Chi TZ, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:160695.
    PMID: 24822178 DOI: 10.1155/2014/160695
    Diabetic complications occur as a result of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to long term hyperglycaemia. Honey and ginger have been shown to exhibit antioxidant activity which can scavenge ROS. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of gelam honey, ginger, and their combination. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 major groups which consisted of diabetic and nondiabetic rats. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin intramuscularly (55 mg/kg body weight). Each group was further divided into 4 smaller groups according to the supplements administered: distilled water, honey (2 g/kg body weight), ginger (60 mg/kg body weight), and honey + ginger. Body weight and glucose levels were recorded weekly, while blood from the orbital sinus was obtained after 3 weeks of supplementation for the estimation of metabolic profile: glucose, triglyceride (TG), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH): oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and malondialdehyde (MDA). The combination of gelam honey and ginger did not show hypoglycaemic potential; however, the combination treatment reduced significantly (P < 0.05) SOD and CAT activities as well as MDA level, while GSH level and GSH/GSSG ratio were significantly elevated (P < 0.05) in STZ-induced diabetic rats compared to diabetic control rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  11. Zakaria ZA, Mohamad AS, Chear CT, Wong YY, Israf DA, Sulaiman MR
    Med Princ Pract, 2010;19(4):287-94.
    PMID: 20516705 DOI: 10.1159/000312715
    The present study was carried out to determine the antiinflammatory and antinociceptive activities of a methanol extract of Zingiber zerumbet rhizomes (MEZZ) using various experimental model systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  12. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Karimi E, Ibrahim MH
    PMID: 23176249 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-229
    The increase in atmospheric CO(2) concentration caused by climate change and agricultural practices is likely to affect biota by producing changes in plant growth, allocation and chemical composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA, at two levels: 0 and 10-3 M) and CO(2) enrichment (at two levels: 400 and 800 μmol·mol-1) on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from two Malaysian ginger varieties, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  13. Xing M, Akowuah GA, Gautam V, Gaurav A
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2017 Oct;35(13):2910-2924.
    PMID: 27608741 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2016.1234417
    Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) has been established as a drug target for inflammatory diseases of respiratory tract like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The selective inhibitors of PDE4B, a subtype of PDE4, are devoid of adverse effects like nausea and vomiting commonly associated with non-selective PDE4B inhibitors. This makes the development of PDE4B subtype selective inhibitors a desirable research goal. Thus, in the present study, molecular docking, molecular dynamic simulations and binding free energy were performed to explore potential selective PDE4B inhibitors based on ginger phenolic compounds. The results of docking studies indicate that some of the ginger phenolic compounds demonstrate higher selective PDE4B inhibition than existing selective PDE4B inhibitors. Additionally, 6-gingerol showed the highest PDE4B inhibitory activity as well as selectivity. The comparison of binding mode of PDE4B/6-gingerol and PDE4D/6-gingerol complexes revealed that 6-gingerol formed additional hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions with active site and control region 3 (CR3) residues in PDE4B, which were primarily responsible for its PDE4B selectivity. The results of binding free energy demonstrated that electrostatic energy is the primary factor in elucidating the mechanism of PDE4B inhibition by 6-gingerol. Dynamic cross-correlation studies also supported the results of docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Finally, a small library of molecules were designed based on the identified structural features, majority of designed molecules showed higher PDE4B selectivity than 6-gingerol. These results provide important structural features for designing new selective PDE4B inhibitors as anti-inflammatory drugs and promising candidates for synthesis and pre-clinical pharmacological investigations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  14. Seow SLS, Hong SL, Lee GS, Malek SNA, Sabaratnam V
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Jun 24;17(1):334.
    PMID: 28646880 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1837-6
    BACKGROUND: Ginger is a popular spice and food preservative. The rhizomes of the common ginger have been used as traditional medicine to treat various ailments. 6-Shogaol, a pungent compound isolated from the rhizomes of jahe gajah (Zingiber officinale var officinale) has shown numerous pharmacological activities, including neuroprotective and anti-neuroinflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of 6-shogaol to mimic the neuritogenic activity of nerve growth factor (NGF) in rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells.

    METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of 6-shogaol was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The neuritogenic activity was assessed by neurite outgrowth stimulation assay while the concentration of extracellular NGF in cell culture supernatant was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Involvement of cellular signaling pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (MEK/ERK1/2) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) in 6-shogaol-stimulated neuritogenesis were examined by using specific pharmacological inhibitors.

    RESULTS: 6-Shogaol (500 ng/ml) induced neuritogenesis that was comparable to NGF (50 ng/ml) and was not cytotoxic towards PC-12 cells. 6-Shogaol induced low level of NGF biosynthesis in PC-12 cells, showing that 6-shogaol stimulated neuritogenesis possibly by inducing NGF biosynthesis, and also acting as a substitute for NGF (NGF mimic) in PC-12 cells. The inhibitors of Trk receptor (K252a), MEK/ERK1/2 (U0126 and PD98059) and PI3K/AKT (LY294002) attenuated the neuritogenic activity of both NGF and 6-shogaol, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present findings demonstrated that 6-shogaol induced neuritogenic activity in PC-12 cells via the activation MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. This study suggests that 6-shogaol could act as an NGF mimic, which may be beneficial for preventive and therapeutic uses in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  15. Razali N, Dewa A, Asmawi MZ, Mohamed N, Manshor NM
    J Integr Med, 2020 Jan;18(1):46-58.
    PMID: 31882255 DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2019.12.003
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate vasorelaxant and vasoconstriction effects of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum (ZOVR) on live rats and isolated aortic rings of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).

    METHODS: Extracts of ZOVR were subjected to in-vivo antihypertensive screening using noninvasive blood pressures in SHRs. The most potent extract, ZOVR petroleum ether extract (ZOP) was then fractionated using n-hexane, chloroform and water. Isolated thoracic aortic rings were harvested and subjected to vascular relaxation studies of n-hexane fraction of ZOP (HFZOP) with incubation of different antagonists such as Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 µmol/L), indomethacin (10 µmol/L), methylene blue (10 µmol/L), atropine (1 µmol/L), glibenclamide (10 µmol/L), prazosin (0.01 µmol/L), and propranolol (1 µmol/L).

    RESULTS: During the screening of various ZOVR extracts, ZOP produced the most reduction in blood pressures of SHRs and so did HFZOP. HFZOP significantly decreased phenylephrine-induced contraction and enhanced acetylcholine-induced relaxation. L-NAME, indomethacin, methylene blue, atropine, and glibenclamide significantly potentiated the vasorelaxant effects of HFZOP. Propranolol and prazosin did not alter the vasorelaxant effects of HFZOP. HFZOP significantly suppressed the Ca2+-dependent contraction and influenced the ratio of the responses to phenylephrine in Ca2+-free medium.

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that ZOP may exert an antihypertensive effect in the SHR model. Its possible vascular relaxation mechanisms involve nitric oxide and prostacyclin release, activation of cGMP-KATP channels, stimulation of muscarinic receptors, and transmembrane calcium channel or Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Possible active compounds that contribute to the vasorelaxant effects are 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol and 6-shogaol.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  16. Abdulaziz Bardi D, Halabi MF, Abdullah NA, Rouhollahi E, Hajrezaie M, Abdulla MA
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:918460.
    PMID: 24396831 DOI: 10.1155/2013/918460
    Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO) against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline while groups 2-5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p.) for induction of liver cirrhosis, thrice weekly for eight weeks. Group 3 received 50 mg/kg of silymarin. The rats in groups 4 and 5 received 250 and 500 mg/kg of ERZO (dissolved in 10% Tween), respectively. Hepatic damage was assessed grossly and microscopically for all of the groups. Results confirmed the induction of liver cirrhosis in group 2 whilst administration of silymarin or ERZO significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide toxicity. These groups decreased fibrosis of the liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry assessment against proliferating cell nuclear antigen did not show remarkable proliferation in the ERZO-treated rats when compared with group 2. Moreover, factions of the ERZO extract were tested on Hep-G2 cells and showed antiproliferative activity (IC50 38-60 μ g/mL). This study showed hepatoprotective effect of ERZO.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  17. Al-Zubairi AS, Abdul AB, Syam MM
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2010 Apr;24(3):707-12.
    PMID: 20123012 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2010.01.011
    The chromosomal aberrations (CA) assay and micronucleus (MN) test were employed to investigate the effect in vitro of zerumbone (ZER) on human chromosomes. ZER is a sesquiterpene compound isolated from the rhizomes of wild ginger, Zingiber zerumbet Smith. The rhizomes of the plant are employed as a traditional medicine for some ailments and as condiments. ZER has been shown to have anti-cancer and apoptosis-inducing properties against various human tumour cells. It has also been shown to be active in vivo against a number of induced malignancies. Studies on ZER genotoxicity in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) have not been reported so far. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the ability of ZER to induce chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei formation in human lymphocytes in vitro. Human blood samples were obtained from four healthy, non-smoking males aged 25-35years. Cultures were exposed to the drug for 48h at four final concentrations: 10, 20, 40 and 80 microM. Mitomycin C (MMC) was used as a positive control. The results of chromosomal aberrations assay showed that ZER was not clastogenic, when compared to untreated control, meanwhile MN test results showed a dose-dependent increase in MN formation. The overall clastogenic effect of ZER on human PBL was statistically not significant. In conclusion, ZER is a cytotoxic but not a clastogenic substance in human PBL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry
  18. Habib SH, Makpol S, Abdul Hamid NA, Das S, Ngah WZ, Yusof YA
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2008 Dec;63(6):807-13.
    PMID: 19061005
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ginger extract on the expression of NFkappaB and TNF-alpha in liver cancer-induced rats.

    METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups based on diet: i) control (given normal rat chow), ii) olive oil, iii) ginger extract (100mg/kg body weight), iv) choline-deficient diet + 0.1% ethionine to induce liver cancer and v) choline-deficient diet + ginger extract (100mg/kg body weight). Tissue samples obtained at eight weeks were fixed with formalin and embedded in paraffin wax, followed by immunohistochemistry staining for NFkappaB and TNF-alpha.

    RESULTS: The expression of NFkappaB was detected in the choline-deficient diet group, with 88.3 +/- 1.83% of samples showing positive staining, while in the choline-deficient diet supplemented with ginger group, the expression of NFkappaB was significantly reduced, to 32.35 +/- 1.34% (p<0.05). In the choline-deficient diet group, 83.3 +/- 4.52% of samples showed positive staining of TNF-alpha, which was significantly reduced to 7.94 +/- 1.32% (p<0.05) when treated with ginger. There was a significant correlation demonstrated between NFkappaB and TNF-alpha in the choline-deficient diet group but not in the choline-deficient diet treated with ginger extract group.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, ginger extract significantly reduced the elevated expression of NFkappaB and TNF-alpha in rats with liver cancer. Ginger may act as an anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent by inactivating NFkappaB through the suppression of the pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  19. Kalantari K, Afifi AM, Moniri M, Moghaddam AB, Kalantari A, Izadiyan Z
    IET Nanobiotechnol, 2019 May;13(3):262-268.
    PMID: 31053688 DOI: 10.1049/iet-nbt.2018.5066
    In this study, the authors synthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using autoclave as a simple, unique and eco-friendly approach. The effect of Zingiber officinale extract was evaluated as a reducing and stabiliser agent. According to transmission electron microscopy results, the AgNPs were in the spherical shape with a particle size of ∼17 nm. The biomedical properties of AgNPs as antibacterial agents and free radical scavenging activity were estimated. Synthesised AgNPs showed significant 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical scavenging. Strong bactericidal activity was shown by the AgNPs on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A maximum inhibition zone of ∼14 mm was obtained for epidermidis at a concentration of 60 μg/ml for sample fabricated at 24 h. The AgNPs also showed a significant cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with an half maximal inhibitory concentration value of 62 μg/ml in 24 h by the MTT assay. It could be concluded that Z. officinale extract can be used effectively in the production of potential antioxidant and antimicrobial AgNPs for commercial application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  20. Daniel-Jambun D, Ong KS, Lim YY, Tan JBL, Yap SW, Lee SM
    J Appl Microbiol, 2019 Jul;127(1):59-67.
    PMID: 31006174 DOI: 10.1111/jam.14287
    AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activities of Etlingera pubescens, and to isolate and identify the antimicrobial compound.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: The crude extracts of E. pubescens were obtained through methanol extraction, and evaluated for antimicrobial activities. From this extract, 1,7-bis(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)heptan-3-yl acetate (etlingerin) was isolated. When compared to curcumin (a compound with a similar chemical structure), etlingerin showed twofold lower minimum inhibitory concentration values while also being bactericidal. Through time kill assay, etlingerin showed rapid killing effects (as fast as 60 min) against the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 8188). Further assessment revealed that etlingerin caused leakage of intracellular materials, therefore suggesting alteration in membrane permeability as its antimicrobial mechanism. Cytotoxicity study demonstrated that etlingerin exhibited approximately 5- to 12-fold higher IC50 values against several cell lines, as compared to curcumin.

    CONCLUSIONS: Etlingerin isolated from E. pubescens showed better antibacterial and cytotoxic activities when compared to curcumin. Etlingerin could be safe for human use, though further cytotoxicity study using animal models is needed.

    SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Etlingerin has a potential to be used in treating bacterial infections due to its good antimicrobial activity, while having potentially low cytotoxicity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
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