Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 90 in total

  1. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A, Wahab PE, Halim MR
    Int J Mol Sci, 2010;11(10):3885-97.
    PMID: 21152306 DOI: 10.3390/ijms11103885
    Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m(-2)s(-1)) were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale). TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1) and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 μmol m(-2)s(-1). The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ≤ 0.01) with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1). The ferric reducing (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1) of sun light. This study indicates the ability of different light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/metabolism; Ginger/radiation effects*
  2. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A
    Int J Mol Sci, 2010;11(11):4539-55.
    PMID: 21151455 DOI: 10.3390/ijms11114539
    The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale) varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m(-2)s(-1). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1). The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5%) when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 μmol CO(2) m(-2)s(-1) in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 790 μmol m(-2)s(-1). Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight) was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1) with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight) was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 μmol m(-2)s(-1) with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1). Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/metabolism*
  3. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A
    Molecules, 2010 Jun 14;15(6):4324-33.
    PMID: 20657444 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15064324
    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a well known and widely used herb, especially in Asia, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from the leaves, stems and rhizomes of two Zingiber officinale varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) were assessed in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of the leaves as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids were higher than those of the rhizomes and stems. On the other hand, the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves. At low concentration the values of the leaves' inhibition activity in both varieties were significantly higher than or comparable to those of the young rhizomes. Halia Bara had higher antioxidant activities as well as total contents of phenolic and flavonoid in comparison with Halia Bentong. This study validated the medicinal potential of the leaves and young rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bara) and the positive relationship between total phenolics content and antioxidant activities in Zingiber officinale.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  4. Juwita T, Melyani Puspitasari I, Levita J
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2018 Jan;21(4):151-165.
    PMID: 30311471 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2018.151.165
    In order to propose a prospective candidate for novel complementary phytopharmaceuticals, one of Zingiberaceae family plant, Etlingeraelatior or torch ginger, was being evaluated. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive literature research focused on the botanical aspects, nutritional quality, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of E. elatior. Researches on this particular plant were conducted in Malaysia (55.5%), Indonesia (33.3%), Thailand (8.3%) and Singapore (2.7%). This review article has revealed that the most prominent pharmacological activities were anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor activities in consistent with the dominated levels of flavonoids, terpenoids and phenols. However, extended and integrated research should be converged towards intensive investigations concerning to isolated phytoconstituents and its bioactivities, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, molecular mechanism of its specific pharmacological activities, safety and efficacy studies for further development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  5. Haque MA, Jantan I
    Curr Pharm Biotechnol, 2017;18(9):696-720.
    PMID: 29141544 DOI: 10.2174/1389201018666171115115458
    BACKGROUND: Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm. (family, Zingiberaceae) is a potent medicinal herb widely known as shampoo ginger and its rhizome is used in numerous ethnomedicinal applications including antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-diarrheal, antidiabetics, carminative, and diuretic. The aim of this review was to bring together all the scientific updates on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of this herb, including their toxicological studies, and critically analyzed the outcomes to provide directions for future research on the herb as potential source of bioactive metabolites for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications.

    METHODS: A structured electronic search on worldwide accepted scientific databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, SciFinder, Wiley Online Library) was carried out to compile the relevant information. Some information was obtained from books and database on medicinal plants used in various countries.

    RESULTS: About 60 metabolites, mainly polyphenols, and terpenoids have been isolated and identified. However, most of the reported pharmacological studies were based on crude extracts, and only a few of those isolated metabolites, particularly zerumbone have been investigated for biological and pharmacological activities. Many of the mechanistic studies to understand the pharmacological effects of the plant are limited by many considerations with regard to design, experimentation and interpretation.

    CONCLUSION: The bioactive metabolites should be further investigated on their safety and more elaborate preclinical studies before clinical trials can be undertaken.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  6. Adamu A, Ahmad K, Siddiqui Y, Ismail IS, Asib N, Bashir Kutawa A, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Jun 25;26(13).
    PMID: 34202405 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26133902
    The bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most serious rice diseases, causing huge yield losses worldwide. Several technologies and approaches have been opted to reduce the damage; however, these have had limited success. Recently, scientists have been focusing their efforts on developing efficient and environmentally friendly nanobactericides for controlling bacterial diseases in rice fields. In the present study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) were utilized to investigate the mode of actions of ginger EOs on the cell structure of Xoo. The ginger EOs caused the cells to grow abnormally, resulting in an irregular form with hollow layers, whereas the dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) treatment showed a typical rod shape for the Xoo cell. Ginger EOs restricted the growth and production of biofilms by reducing the number of biofilms generated as indicated by CLSM. Due to the instability, poor solubility, and durability of ginger EOs, a nanoemulsions approach was used, and a glasshouse trial was performed to assess their efficacy on BLB disease control. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the developed nanobactericides was promising at different concentration (50-125 µL/mL) tested. The efficacy was concentration-dependent. There was significant antibacterial activity recorded at higher concentrations. A glasshouse trial revealed that developed nanobactericides managed to suppress BLB disease severity effectively. Treatment at a concentration of 125 μL/mL was the best based on the suppression of disease severity index, AUDPC value, disease reduction (DR), and protection index (PI). Furthermore, findings on plant growth, physiological features, and yield parameters were significantly enhanced compared to the positive control treatment. In conclusion, the results indicated that ginger essential oils loaded-nanoemulsions are a promising alternative to synthetic antibiotics in suppressing Xoo growth, regulating the BLB disease, and enhancing rice yield under a glasshouse trial.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  7. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Karimi E, Ashkani S
    Molecules, 2014 Oct 16;19(10):16693-706.
    PMID: 25325154 DOI: 10.3390/molecules191016693
    The increase of atmospheric CO2 due to global climate change or horticultural practices has direct and indirect effects on food crop quality. One question that needs to be asked, is whether CO2 enrichment affects the nutritional quality of Malaysian young ginger plants. Responses of total carbohydrate, fructose, glucose, sucrose, protein, soluble amino acids and antinutrients to either ambient (400 μmol/mol) and elevated (800 μmol/mol) CO2 treatments were determined in the leaf and rhizome of two ginger varieties namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Increasing of CO2 level from ambient to elevated resulted in increased content of total carbohydrate, sucrose, glucose, and fructose in the leaf and rhizome of ginger varieties. Sucrose was the major sugar followed by glucose and fructose in the leaf and rhizome extract of both varieties. Elevated CO2 resulted in a reduction of total protein content in the leaf (H. Bentong: 38.0%; H. Bara: 35.4%) and rhizome (H. Bentong: 29.0%; H. Bara: 46.2%). In addition, under CO2 enrichment, the concentration of amino acids increased by approximately 14.5% and 98.9% in H. Bentong and 12.0% and 110.3% in H. Bara leaf and rhizome, respectively. The antinutrient contents (cyanide and tannin) except phytic acid were influenced significantly (P ≤ 0.05) by CO2 concentration. Leaf extract of H. Bara exposed to elevated CO2 exhibited highest content of cyanide (336.1 mg HCN/kg DW), while, highest content of tannin (27.5 g/kg DW) and phytic acid (54.1 g/kg DW) were recorded from H.Bara rhizome grown under elevated CO2. These results demonstrate that the CO2 enrichment technique could improve content of some amino acids and antinutrients of ginger as a food crop by enhancing its nutritional and health-promoting properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/growth & development; Ginger/metabolism; Ginger/chemistry*
  8. Yudthavorasit S, Wongravee K, Leepipatpiboon N
    Food Chem, 2014 Sep 1;158:101-11.
    PMID: 24731320 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.02.086
    Chromatographic fingerprints of gingers from five different ginger-producing countries (China, India, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam) were newly established to discriminate the origin of ginger. The pungent bioactive principles of ginger, gingerols and six other gingerol-related compounds were determined and identified. Their variations in HPLC profiles create the characteristic pattern of each origin by employing similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). As results, the ginger profiles tended to be grouped and separated on the basis of the geographical closeness of the countries of origin. An effective mathematical model with high predictive ability was obtained and chemical markers for each origin were also identified as the characteristic active compounds to differentiate the ginger origin. The proposed method is useful for quality control of ginger in case of origin labelling and to assess food authenticity issues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  9. Chan EW, Wong SK
    J Integr Med, 2015 Nov;13(6):368-79.
    PMID: 26559362 DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(15)60208-4
    In this review, the phytochemistry and pharmacology of two ornamental gingers, Hedychium coronarium (butterfly ginger) and Alpinia purpurata (red ginger), are updated, and their botany and uses are described. Flowers of H. coronarium are large, showy, white, yellow or white with a yellow centre and highly fragrant. Inflorescences of A. purpurata are erect spikes with attractive red or pink bracts. Phytochemical investigations on the rhizomes of H. coronarium generated research interest globally. This resulted in the isolation of 53 labdane-type diterpenes, with little work done on the leaves and flowers. Pharmacological properties of H. coronarium included antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, chemopreventive, anti-allergic, larvicidal, anthelminthic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-urolithiatic, anti-angiogenic, neuro-pharmacological, fibrinogenolytic, coagulant and hepatoprotective activities. On the contrary, little is known on the phytochemistry of A. purpurata with pharmacological properties of antioxidant, antibacterial, larvicidal, cytotoxic and vasodilator activities reported in the leaves and rhizomes. There is much disparity in terms of research effort within and between these two ornamental gingers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/chemistry*
  10. Ismail NA, Rafii MY, Mahmud TM, Hanafi MM, Miah G
    Mol Biol Rep, 2016 Dec;43(12):1347-1358.
    PMID: 27585572
    Ginger is an economically important and valuable plant around the world. Ginger is used as a food, spice, condiment, medicine and ornament. There is available information on biochemical aspects of ginger, but few studies have been reported on its molecular aspects. The main objective of this review is to accumulate the available molecular marker information and its application in diverse ginger studies. This review article was prepared by combing material from published articles and our own research. Molecular markers allow the identification and characterization of plant genotypes through direct access to hereditary material. In crop species, molecular markers are applied in different aspects and are useful in breeding programs. In ginger, molecular markers are commonly used to identify genetic variation and classify the relatedness among varieties, accessions, and species. Consequently, it provides important input in determining resourceful management strategies for ginger improvement programs. Alternatively, a molecular marker could function as a harmonizing tool for documenting species. This review highlights the application of molecular markers (isozyme, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, ISSR and others such as RFLP, SCAR, NBS and SNP) in genetic diversity studies of ginger species. Some insights on the advantages of the markers are discussed. The detection of genetic variation among promising cultivars of ginger has significance for ginger improvement programs. This update of recent literature will help researchers and students select the appropriate molecular markers for ginger-related research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/genetics*
  11. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Karimi E, Ibrahim MH
    PMID: 23176249 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-229
    The increase in atmospheric CO(2) concentration caused by climate change and agricultural practices is likely to affect biota by producing changes in plant growth, allocation and chemical composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA, at two levels: 0 and 10-3 M) and CO(2) enrichment (at two levels: 400 and 800 μmol·mol-1) on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from two Malaysian ginger varieties, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/growth & development; Ginger/metabolism; Ginger/chemistry*
  12. Tan BC, Tan SK, Wong SM, Ata N, Rahman NA, Khalid N
    PMID: 25883671 DOI: 10.1155/2015/451870
    The distribution patterns of flavonoids and cyclohexenyl chalcone derivatives in conventional propagated (CP) and in vitro-derived (CPA) field-grown plants of an important medicinal ginger, Boesenbergia rotunda, are described. A total of eight compounds were extracted from six organs (rootlet, rhizome, shoot base, maroon stem, stalk, and leaf) of the CP and CPA plants. Five major chromatographic peaks, namely, alpinetin, pinocembrin, pinostrobin, 4-hydroxypanduratin A, and panduratin A, were consistently observed by high performance liquid chromatography. Nonaerial organs had higher levels of flavonoids than the aerial ones for all types of samples. Among the compounds detected, pinostrobin and 4-hydroxypanduratin A were the most abundant flavonoid and cyclohexenyl chalcone derivative, respectively. The distribution and abundance of the bioactive compounds suggested that the shoot base could be more potentially useful for medicinal application than other organs of the plant and may be the site of storage or occurrence of biosynthetic enzymatic activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger
  13. Kalantari K, Moniri M, Boroumand Moghaddam A, Abdul Rahim R, Bin Ariff A, Izadiyan Z, et al.
    Molecules, 2017 Sep 30;22(10).
    PMID: 28974019 DOI: 10.3390/molecules22101645
    Zerumbone (ZER) is a phytochemical isolated from the subtropical Zingiberaceae family and as a natural compound it has different biomedical properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory anti-proliferative activity. ZER also has effects on angiogenesis and acts as an antitumor drug in the treatment of cancer, showing selective toxicity toward various cancer cell lines. Several techniques also have been established for extraction of ZER from the rhizomes of ginger. This review paper is an overview of recent research about different extraction methods and their efficiencies, in vivo and vitro investigations of ZER and also its prominent chemopreventive properties and treatment mechanisms. Most of the studies mentioned in this review paper may be useful use as a knowledge summary to explain ZER extraction and anticancer activities, which will show a way for the development of strategies in the treatment of malignancies using ZER.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger
  14. Liew KY, Hafiz MF, Chong YJ, Harith HH, Israf DA, Tham CL
    PMID: 33193799 DOI: 10.1155/2020/8257817
    Sepsis refers to organ failure due to uncontrolled body immune responses towards infection. The systemic inflammatory response triggered by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria, is accompanied by the release of various proinflammatory mediators that can lead to organ damage. The progression to septic shock is even more life-threatening due to hypotension. Thus, sepsis is a leading cause of death and morbidity globally. However, current therapies are mainly symptomatic treatment and rely on the use of antibiotics. The lack of a specific treatment demands exploration of new drugs. Malaysian herbal plants have a long history of usage for medicinal purposes. A total of 64 Malaysian plants commonly used in the herbal industry have been published in Malaysian Herbal Monograph 2015 and Globinmed website (http://www.globinmed.com/). An extensive bibliographic search in databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus revealed that seven of these plants have antisepsis properties, as evidenced by the therapeutic effect of their extracts or isolated compounds against sepsis-associated inflammatory responses or conditions in in vitro or/and in vivo studies. These include Andrographis paniculata, Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, Momordica charantia, and Centella asiatica. Among these, Z. officinale is the most widely studied plant and seems to have the highest potential for future therapeutic applications in sepsis. Although both extracts as well as active constituents from these herbal plants have demonstrated potential antisepsis activity, the activity might be primarily contributed by the active constituent(s) from each of these plants, which are andrographolide (A. paniculata), 6-gingerol and zingerone (Z. officinale), curcumin (C. longa), piperine and pellitorine (P. nigrum), biflorin (S. aromaticum), and asiaticoside, asiatic acid, and madecassoside (C. asiatica). These active constituents have shown great antisepsis effects, and further investigations into their clinical therapeutic potential may be worthwhile.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger
  15. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A
    Molecules, 2010 Sep;15(9):6231-43.
    PMID: 20877219 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15096231
    Flavonoids make up one of the most pervasive groups of plant phenolics. Due to their importance in plants and human health, it would be useful to have a better understanding of flavonoid concentration and biological activities that could indicate their potentials as therapeutic agents, and also for predicting and controlling the quality of medicinal herbs. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a famous and widely used herb, especially in Asia, that contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, total flavonoids and some flavonoid components including quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol and naringenin were extracted from the leaves and rhizomes of two varieties of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) at three different growth points (8, 12 and 16 weeks after planting), and analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method in order to determine the potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The results showed that Halia Bara had a higher content of flavonoids in the leaves and rhizomes as compared to Halia Bentong. In both varieties, the concentration of flavonoids in the leaves decreased (Halia Bentong, 42.3%; Halia Bara 36.7%), and in the rhizomes it increased (Halia Bentong 59.6%; Halia Bara 60.1%) as the growth period increased. Quercetin was abundant in both varieties. The antioxidant activity determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed high activities (65.7%) in the leaves of Halia Bara at 8 weeks after planting. Results suggested a good flavonoid content and antioxidant activity potential in ginger leaves at 8 weeks after planting. The leaves of these ginger varieties could be useful for both food flavourings and in traditional medicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/growth & development; Ginger/chemistry*
  16. Ng TL, Karim R, Tan YS, Teh HF, Danial AD, Ho LS, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(6):e0156714.
    PMID: 27258536 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156714
    Interest in the medicinal properties of secondary metabolites of Boesenbergia rotunda (fingerroot ginger) has led to investigations into tissue culture of this plant. In this study, we profiled its primary and secondary metabolites, as well as hormones of embryogenic and non-embryogenic (dry and watery) callus and shoot base, Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry together with histological characterization. Metabolite profiling showed relatively higher levels of glutamine, arginine and lysine in embryogenic callus than in dry and watery calli, while shoot base tissue showed an intermediate level of primary metabolites. For the five secondary metabolites analyzed (ie. panduratin, pinocembrin, pinostrobin, cardamonin and alpinetin), shoot base had the highest concentrations, followed by watery, dry and embryogenic calli. Furthermore, intracellular auxin levels were found to decrease from dry to watery calli, followed by shoot base and finally embryogenic calli. Our morphological observations showed the presence of fibrils on the cell surface of embryogenic callus while diphenylboric acid 2-aminoethylester staining indicated the presence of flavonoids in both dry and embryogenic calli. Periodic acid-Schiff staining showed that shoot base and dry and embryogenic calli contained starch reserves while none were found in watery callus. This study identified several primary metabolites that could be used as markers of embryogenic cells in B. rotunda, while secondary metabolite analysis indicated that biosynthesis pathways of these important metabolites may not be active in callus and embryogenic tissue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger/embryology*; Ginger/metabolism*
  17. English M, Gillespie G, Goossens B, Ismail S, Ancrenaz M, Linklater W
    PeerJ, 2015;3:e1030.
    PMID: 26290779 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1030
    Plant recovery rates after herbivory are thought to be a key factor driving recursion by herbivores to sites and plants to optimise resource-use but have not been investigated as an explanation for recursion in large herbivores. We investigated the relationship between plant recovery and recursion by elephants (Elephas maximus borneensis) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Sabah. We identified 182 recently eaten food plants, from 30 species, along 14 × 50 m transects and measured their recovery growth each month over nine months or until they were re-browsed by elephants. The monthly growth in leaf and branch or shoot length for each plant was used to calculate the time required (months) for each species to recover to its pre-eaten length. Elephant returned to all but two transects with 10 eaten plants, a further 26 plants died leaving 146 plants that could be re-eaten. Recursion occurred to 58% of all plants and 12 of the 30 species. Seventy-seven percent of the re-eaten plants were grasses. Recovery times to all plants varied from two to twenty months depending on the species. Recursion to all grasses coincided with plant recovery whereas recursion to most browsed plants occurred four to twelve months before they had recovered to their previous length. The small sample size of many browsed plants that received recursion and uneven plant species distribution across transects limits our ability to generalise for most browsed species but a prominent pattern in plant-scale recursion did emerge. Plant recovery time was a good predictor of time to recursion but varied as a function of growth form (grass, ginger, palm, liana and woody) and differences between sites. Time to plant recursion coincided with plant recovery time for the elephant's preferred food, grasses, and perhaps also gingers, but not the other browsed species. Elephants are bulk feeders so it is likely that they time their returns to bulk feed on these grass species when quantities have recovered sufficiently to meet their intake requirements. The implications for habitat and elephant management are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger
  18. Sakai S, Kato M, Inoue T
    Am J Bot, 1999 May;86(5):646-58.
    PMID: 10330067
    The pollinators of 29 ginger species representing 11 genera in relation to certain floral morphological characteristics in a mixed-dipterocarp forest in Borneo were investigated. Among the 29 species studied, eight were pollinated by spiderhunters (Nectariniidae), 11 by medium-sized Amegilla bees (Anthophoridae), and ten by small halictid bees. These pollination guilds found in gingers in Sarawak are comparable to the pollination guilds of neotropical Zingiberales, i.e., hummingbird-, and euglossine-bee-pollinated guilds. Canonical discriminant analysis revealed that there were significant correlations between floral morphology and pollination guilds and suggests the importance of plant-pollinator interactions in the evolution of floral morphology. Most species in the three guilds were separated on the plot by the first and second canonical variables. Spiderhunter-pollinated flowers had longer floral tubes, while Amegilla-pollinated flowers had wider lips than the others, which function as a platform for the pollinators. Pistils and stamens of halictid-pollinated flowers were smaller than the others. The fact that gingers with diverse morphologies in a forest with high species diversity were grouped into only three pollination guilds and that the pollinators themselves showed low species diversity suggests that many species of rare understory plants have evolved without segregating pollinators in each pollination guild.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger
  19. Yan, S.W., Asmah, R.
    Synthetic antioxidants are added to food in the powdered form to preserve it. However these compounds posed serious health concern since they have been associated with causing cancer. Thus using fresh herbs with antioxidant activities would be good alternative. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of both powdered and fresh forms of turmeric leaf, pandan leaf and torch ginger flower. Total phenolic content (TPC) was assayed based on the redox reaction between Folin-Ciocalteu with phenolics in the sample extracts. Antioxidant activity (AA) was assayed using the ß-carotene linoleate model system and the percentage of antioxidant activity was calculated from the values of degradation rate. Scavenging activity (SA) was assayed using the DPPH radical scavenging model system whereby EC50 value was determined from the plotted graph of scavenging activity against the concentration of sample extracts. Analyses revealed that powdered forms of turmeric leaf, pandan leaf and torch ginger flower had higher TPC (2013.09 ± 5.13, 1784.25 ± 7.59 and 1937.42 ± 6.61 mg GAE/100g, respectively) than their respective fresh forms (348.75 ± 1.26, 356.42 ± 1.32 and 211.59 ± 6.29 mg GAE/100g, respectively). Similarly, powdered forms of turmeric leaf, pandan leaf and torch ginger flower possessed better AA (64.31 ± 0.99, 65.09 ± 0.74 and 11.80 ± 0.40 %, respectively) than their respective fresh forms (24.93 ± 0.71, 16.91 ± 0.70 and 1.45 ± 0.10 %, respectively). Powdered forms of turmeric leaf, pandan leaf and torch ginger flower were also better radical scavenger as compared to their respective fresh forms. In conclusion, all samples in their powdered forms have high total phenolic contents, antioxidant and scavenging activities than their respective fresh forms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger
  20. Nor Yusliza Kamaruddin, Shamsiah Abdullah
    This study looked at mutagenic effectiveness of gamma rays d on two varieties of Zingiber officinale Roscoe: Bentong and Tanjung Sepat. The rhizomes were exposed to different doses (0, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 Gy) using Caesium-137 as source of the gamma rays. The effect of different gamma doses on the crude fibre composition of irradiated ginger was studied and genetic variability was assessed using molecular marker technique, RAPD. Findings showed different doses of gamma rays could induce variability in these two ginger varieties and the effect was found to be variety-dependent. Bentong variety irradiated with 9 Gy recorded 8.53% of crude fibre composition while Tanjung Sepat irradiated ginger with 5 Gy recorded 8.70% of crude fibre which gave the lowest composition compared with other irradiated ginger. A total of nine different arbitrary decamers were used as primers to amplify DNA from mutant plant material to assess their polymorphism level of ginger mutant lines. Polymorphism of all mutant lines was 97.62% indicating that there were significant changes in genetic sequences in irradiated ginger genotypes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ginger
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