Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 79 in total

  1. Jinap S, Ilya-Nur AR, Tang SC, Hajeb P, Shahrim K, Khairunnisak M
    Appetite, 2010 Oct;55(2):238-44.
    PMID: 20600418 DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2010.06.007
    The shrimp paste called belacan is a traditional umami taste condiment extensively used in Malaysia that is rich in glutamate and 5'-nucleotides. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of glutamate and 5'-nucleotides of various types of foods prepared with belacan and to measure their sensory attributes. The concentration of free glutamic acid found in different brands of belacan was 180-530mg/100g and in local dishes 601-4207mg/100g. The total amount of 5'-nucleotides in belacan samples ranged from 0.85 to 42.25μg/g. A Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) using a list of 17 sensory attributes showed a good correlation between belacan concentration in the final food and a range of positive sensory attributes, except for bitter, sweet, sour taste and astringency. Belacan also contains bitter, sweet and sour compounds that change the positive attributes of belacan at higher concentrations. The highest aroma attributes were linked to nasi goreng belacan (belacan fried rice) while the highest flavour attributes were found in sambal belacan. There was a 32 folds significant increase of umami attributes with the addition of belacan to final foods. The optimum amount of belacan was 0.45% for asam pedas (tamarind flavoured dish with belacan), 18% for sambal belacan (chilli belacan), 1.5-2.5% for kangkong goreng belacan (stir fried water convolous with belacan), and 2% for nasi goreng belacan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glutamic Acid/analysis*
  2. Khairunnisak M, Azizah AH, Jinap S, Nurul Izzah A
    PMID: 19680916 DOI: 10.1080/02652030802596860
    A study to quantify the free glutamic acid content of six processed foods, 44 dishes and 26 condiments available in Malaysia was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FRD). Recovery tests were carried out with spiked samples at levels from 6 to 31 mg g(-1). High recovery in different matrices was achieved ranging from 88% +/- 13% to 102% +/- 5.12%, with an average of 97% +/- 8.92%. Results from the study revealed that the average free glutamic acid content ranged from 0.34 +/- 0.20 to 4.63 +/- 0.41 mg g(-1) in processed foods, while in prepared dishes it was as low as 0.24 +/- 0.15 mg g(-1) in roti canai (puffed bread served with curry or dhal) to 8.16 +/- 1.99 mg g(-1) in dim sum (a small casing of dough, usually filled with minced meat, seafood, and vegetables, either steamed or fried). Relatively, the content of free glutamic acid was found to be higher in condiments at 0.28 +/- 0 mg g(-1) in mayonnaise to 170.90 +/- 6.40 mg g(-1) in chicken stock powder.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glutamic Acid/analysis*
  3. Ab Kadir S, Wan-Mohtar WA, Mohammad R, Abdul Halim Lim S, Sabo Mohammed A, Saari N
    J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2016 Oct;43(10):1387-95.
    PMID: 27541157 DOI: 10.1007/s10295-016-1828-5
    In this study, four selected commercial strains of Aspergillus oryzae were collected from soy sauce koji. These A. oryzae strains designated as NSK, NSZ, NSJ and NST shared similar morphological characteristics with the reference strain (A. oryzae FRR 1675) which confirmed them as A. oryzae species. They were further evaluated for their ability to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by cultivating the spore suspension in a broth medium containing 0.4 % (w/v) of glutamic acid as a substrate for GABA production. The results showed that these strains were capable of producing GABA; however, the concentrations differed significantly (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Glutamic Acid/metabolism
  4. Fukumoto J, Ismail NI, Kubo M, Kinoshita K, Inoue M, Yuasa K, et al.
    J. Biochem., 2013 Nov;154(5):465-73.
    PMID: 23946505 DOI: 10.1093/jb/mvt077
    Oligopeptidase B (OPB) is a member of the prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) family of serine proteases. OPB in trypanosomes is an important virulence factor and potential pharmaceutical target. Characteristic structural features of POP family members include lack of a propeptide and presence of a β-propeller domain (PD), although the role of the β-PD has yet to be fully understood. In this work, residues Glu(172), Glu(490), Glu(524) and Arg(689) in Trypanosoma brucei OPB (Tb OPB), which are predicted to form inter-domain salt bridges, were substituted for Gln and Ala, respectively. These mutants were evaluated in terms of catalytic properties and stability. A negative effect on kcat/Km was obtained following mutation of Glu(172) or Arg(689). In contrast, the E490Q mutant exhibited markedly decreased thermal stability, although this mutation had less effect on catalytic properties compared to the E172Q and R689A mutants. Trypsin digestion showed that the boundary regions between the β-PD and catalytic domains (CDs) of the E490Q mutant are unfolded with heat treatment. These results indicated that Glu(490) in the CD plays a role in stabilization of Tb OPB, whereas Glu(172) in the β-PD is critical for the catalytic activity of Tb OPB.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glutamic Acid/genetics; Glutamic Acid/metabolism*
  5. Zareian M, Ebrahimpour A, Bakar FA, Mohamed AK, Forghani B, Ab-Kadir MS, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(5):5482-97.
    PMID: 22754309 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13055482
    l-glutamaic acid is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and an important intermediate in metabolism. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (218) were isolated from six different fermented foods as potent sources of glutamic acid producers. The presumptive bacteria were tested for their ability to synthesize glutamic acid. Out of the 35 strains showing this capability, strain MNZ was determined as the highest glutamic-acid producer. Identification tests including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sugar assimilation ability identified the strain MNZ as Lactobacillus plantarum. The characteristics of this microorganism related to its glutamic acid-producing ability, growth rate, glucose consumption and pH profile were studied. Results revealed that glutamic acid was formed inside the cell and excreted into the extracellular medium. Glutamic acid production was found to be growth-associated and glucose significantly enhanced glutamic acid production (1.032 mmol/L) compared to other carbon sources. A concentration of 0.7% ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source effectively enhanced glutamic acid production. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of glutamic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. The results of this study can be further applied for developing functional foods enriched in glutamic acid and subsequently γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) as a bioactive compound.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glutamic Acid/isolation & purification; Glutamic Acid/metabolism*
  6. Ghassem M, Fern SS, Said M, Ali ZM, Ibrahim S, Babji AS
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Mar;51(3):467-75.
    PMID: 24587521 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-011-0526-6
    This study was conducted to evaluate the kinetic characteristics of proteolytic activity of proteases on Channa striatus protein fractions. Degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition and kinetic parameters of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were investigated when incubated with proteinase K and thermolysin, separately. After 30 min incubation with proteases, a decrease in DH of sarcoplasmic protein was observed whereas, hydrolysis of myofibrillar protein with proteases took 2 h with an increase in DH. The major amino acids were glutamic acid (16.6%) in thermolysin- myofibrillar hydrolysate followed by aspartic acid (11.1%) in sarcoplasmic protein fraction with no enzyme treatment and lysine (10%) in thermolysin-myofibrillar hydrolysate. The apparent Michaelis constant of proteinase K was lower than thermolysin for both sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins. However, rate of turnover and enzyme efficiency suggested that sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins are suitable substrates for proteinase K and thermolysin hydrolytic reaction, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glutamic Acid
  7. Isa IM, Ab Ghani S
    Talanta, 2007 Jan 15;71(1):452-5.
    PMID: 19071326 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2006.04.034
    This paper describes the preparation of and experimentation undertaken by heterogeneous chitosan membrane as ion selective electrode for glutamate ion. The linearity response was obtained in the range of 1.0x10(-5) to 1.0x10(-1)M with a detection limit of 1.0x10(-6)M. The performance of the electrode was found in the pH range of 4.0-8.0 at temperature 25+/-3 degrees C. The response time was at 5-35s and was useful for a period of more than 4 months. The selectivity values towards some anions indicates good selectivity over a number of interfering anions. No significant improvement of membrane performance over additional of plasticizers such as 2-NPOE, BEHA and DOPP. The electrodes gave sufficient Nernstian responses with the exception of membrane with 2-NPOE.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glutamic Acid
  8. Hassan UA, Hussein MZ, Alitheen NB, Yahya Ariff SA, Masarudin MJ
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2018;13:5075-5095.
    PMID: 30233174 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S164843
    Background: Inefficient cellular delivery and poor intracellular accumulation are major drawbacks towards achieving favorable therapeutic responses from many therapeutic drugs and biomolecules. To tackle this issue, nanoparticle-mediated delivery vectors have been aptly explored as a promising delivery strategy capable of enhancing the cellular localization of biomolecules and improve their therapeutic efficacies. However, the dynamics of intracellular biomolecule release and accumulation from such nanoparticle systems has currently remained scarcely studied.

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to utilize a chitosan-based nanoparticle system as the delivery carrier for glutamic acid, a model for encapsulated biomolecules to visualize the in vitro release and accumulation of the encapsulated glutamic acid from chitosan nanoparticle (CNP) systems.

    Methods: CNP was synthesized via ionic gelation routes utilizing tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a cross-linker. In order to track glutamic acid release, the glutamic acid was fluorescently-labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate prior encapsulation into CNP.

    Results: Light Scattering data concluded the successful formation of small-sized and mono-dispersed CNP at a specific volume ratio of chitosan to TPP. Encapsulation of glutamic acid as a model cargo into CNP led to an increase in particle size to >100 nm. The synthesized CNP exhibited spherical shape under Electron Microscopy. The formation of CNP was reflected by the reduction in free amine groups of chitosan following ionic crosslinking reactions. The encapsulation of glutamic acid was further confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis. Cell viability assay showed 70% cell viability at the maximum concentration of 0.5 mg/mL CS and 0.7 mg/mL TPP used, indicating the low inherent toxicity property of this system. In vitro release study using fluorescently-tagged glutamic acids demonstrated the release and accumulation of the encapsulated glutamic acids at 6 hours post treatment. A significant accumulation was observed at 24 hours and 48 hours later. Flow cytometry data demonstrated a gradual increase in intracellular fluorescence signal from 30 minutes to 48 hours post treatment with fluorescently-labeled glutamic acids encapsulated CNP.

    Conclusion: These results therefore suggested the potential of CNP system towards enhancing the intracellular delivery and release of the encapsulated glutamic acids. This CNP system thus may serves as a potential candidate vector capable to improve the therapeutic efficacy for drugs and biomolecules in medical as well as pharmaceutical applications through the enhanced intracellular release and accumulation of the encapsulated cargo.

    Matched MeSH terms: Glutamic Acid/administration & dosage*; Glutamic Acid/pharmacokinetics; Glutamic Acid/chemistry
  9. Noor Zuhartini Md Muslim, Musa Ahmad, Lee YH, Bahruddin Saad
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:707-713.
    An optical fiber chemical sensor for the determination of free glutamate in food samples was fabricated based on the
    immobilization of 0.1 M copper(II) nitrate trihydrate onto sol-gel glass powder which was then mixed with methyl cellulose
    to form a pellet. A distinctive colour change from light blue to dark blue was observed in the presence of glutamate in
    less than 1 min. The colour change was measured by reflectance spectrophotometer at 691 nm. A linear relationship
    between the reflectance intensity and glutamate concentration was observed in the range of 12.5 to 500 mM with a limit
    of detection of 10.6 mM. This method is also reproducible with a relative standard deviation of less than 5%, no effect on
    pH of the glutamate solution and a good recovery of above 80%. The sensor was used for the determination of glutamate
    in common food items such as soups and flavor enhancers. The results obtained from the fabricated sensor were found
    to be comparable with HPLC method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glutamic Acid
  10. Wan-Mohtar WAAQI, Ab Kadir S, Halim-Lim SA, Ilham Z, Hajar-Azhari S, Saari N
    Food Sci Biotechnol, 2019 Dec;28(6):1747-1757.
    PMID: 31807347 DOI: 10.1007/s10068-019-00602-y
    In submerged-liquid fermentation, seven key parameters were assessed using one-factor-at-a-time to obtain the highest GABA yield using an industrial soy sauce koji Aspergillus oryzae strain NSK (AOSNSK). AOSNSK generated maximum GABA at 30 °C (194 mg/L) and initial pH 5 (231 mg/L), thus was able to utilize sucrose (327 mg/L of GABA) for carbon source. Sucrose at 100 g/L, improved GABA production at 646 mg/L. Single nitrogen sources failed to improve GABA production, however a combination of yeast extract (YE) and glutamic acid (GA) improved GABA at 646.78 mg/L. Carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C8:N3) produced the highest cell (24.01 g/L) and GABA at a minimal time of 216 h. The key parameters of 30 °C, initial pH 5, 100 g/L of sucrose, combination YE and GA, and C8:N3 generated the highest GABA (3278.31 mg/L) in a koji fermentation. AOSNSK promisingly showed for the development of a new GABA-rich soy sauce.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glutamic Acid
  11. Sani MH, Taher M, Susanti D, Kek TL, Salleh MZ, Zakaria ZA
    Biol Res Nurs, 2015 Jan;17(1):68-77.
    PMID: 25504952 DOI: 10.1177/1099800414529648
    Elucidate the antinociceptive mechanisms of α-mangostin isolated from Garcinia malaccensis Linn.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glutamic Acid/administration & dosage
  12. Aljuboori AH, Uemura Y, Osman NB, Yusup S
    Bioresour Technol, 2014 Nov;171:66-70.
    PMID: 25189510 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.08.038
    This study evaluated the potential of bioflocculant production from Aspergillus niger using palm oil mill effluent (POME) as carbon source. The bioflocculant named PM-5 produced by A. niger showed a good flocculating capability and flocculating rate of 76.8% to kaolin suspension could be achieved at 60 h of culture time. Glutamic acid was the most favorable nitrogen source for A. niger in bioflocculant production at pH 6 and temperature 35 °C. The chemical composition of purified PM-5 was mainly carbohydrate and protein with 66.8% and 31.4%, respectively. Results showed the novel bioflocculant (PM-5) had high potential to treat river water from colloids and 63% of turbidity removal with the present of Ca(2+) ion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glutamic Acid/metabolism
  13. Kiew LV, Cheah HY, Voon SH, Gallon E, Movellan J, Ng KH, et al.
    Nanomedicine, 2017 05;13(4):1447-1458.
    PMID: 28214608 DOI: 10.1016/j.nano.2017.02.002
    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), the low absorptivity of photosensitizers in an aqueous environment reduces singlet oxygen generation efficiency and thereby decreases photosensitizing efficacy in biological conditions. To circumvent this problem, we designed a phthalocyanine-poly-L-glutamic acid conjugate (1-PG) made from a new phthalocyanine (Pc 1) monofunctionalized to allow adequate conjugation to PGA. The resulting 1-PG conjugate retained high absorptivity in the near-infrared (NIR) region at its λmax675nm in an aqueous environment. The 1-PG conjugate demonstrated good singlet oxygen generation efficiency, increased uptake by 4 T1 breast cancer cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and enhanced photocytotoxic efficacy. The conjugate also displayed a high light-dark toxicity ratio, approximately 1.5-fold greater than zinc phthalocyanine at higher concentration (10 μM), an important feature for the reduction of dark toxicity and unwanted side effects. These results suggest that the 1-PG conjugate could be a useful alternative for deep tissue treatment with enhanced anti-cancer (PDT) efficacy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glutamic Acid/chemistry*
  14. Akyuz E, Polat AK, Eroglu E, Kullu I, Angelopoulou E, Paudel YN
    Life Sci, 2021 Jan 15;265:118826.
    PMID: 33259863 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118826
    Epilepsy is a neurologicaldisorder characterized by persistent predisposition to recurrent seizurescaused by abnormal neuronal activity in the brain. Epileptic seizures maydevelop due to a relative imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Expressional alterations of receptors and ion channelsactivated by neurotransmitters can lead to epilepsy pathogenesis.

    AIMS: In this updated comprehensive review, we discuss the emerging implication of mutations in neurotransmitter-mediated receptors and ion channels. We aim to provide critical findings of the current literature about the role of neurotransmitters in epilepsy.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify and critically evaluate studies analyzing the possible relationship between epilepsy and neurotransmitters. The PubMed database was searched for related research articles.

    KEY FINDINGS: Glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the main neurotransmitters playing a critical role in the pathophysiology of this balance, and irreversible neuronal damage may occur as a result of abnormal changes in these molecules. Acetylcholine (ACh), the main stimulant of the autonomic nervous system, mediates signal transmission through cholinergic and nicotinic receptors. Accumulating evidence indicates that dysfunction of nicotinic ACh receptors, which are widely expressed in hippocampal and cortical neurons, may be significantly implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. The dopamine-norepinephrine-epinephrine cycle activates hormonal and neuronal pathways; serotonin, norepinephrine, histamine, and melatonin can act as both hormones and neurotransmitters. Recent reports have demonstrated that nitric oxide mediates cognitive and memory-related functions via stimulating neuronal transmission.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The elucidation of the role of the main mediators and receptors in epilepsy is crucial for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

    Matched MeSH terms: Glutamic Acid/metabolism
  15. Sancheti JS, Shaikh MF, Khatwani PF, Kulkarni SR, Sathaye S
    Indian J Pharm Sci, 2013 Nov;75(6):716-21.
    PMID: 24591747
    A new robust, simple and economic high performance thin layer chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous estimation of L-glutamic acid and γ-amino butyric acid in brain homogenate. The high performance thin layer chromatographic separation of these amino acid was achieved using n-butanol:glacial acetic acid:water (22:3:5 v/v/v) as mobile phase and ninhydrin as a derivatising agent. Quantitation of the method was achieved by densitometric method at 550 nm over the concentration range of 10-100 ng/spot. This method showed good separation of amino acids in the brain homogenate with Rf value of L-glutamic acid and γ-amino butyric acid as 21.67±0.58 and 33.67±0.58, respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for L-glutamic acid was found to be 10 and 20 ng and for γ-amino butyric acid it was 4 and 10 ng, respectively. The method was also validated in terms of accuracy, precision and repeatability. The developed method was found to be precise and accurate with good reproducibility and shows promising applicability for studying pathological status of disease and therapeutic significance of drug treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glutamic Acid
  16. Sani MH, Zakaria ZA, Balan T, Teh LK, Salleh MZ
    PMID: 22611437 DOI: 10.1155/2012/890361
    Muntingia calabura L. (family Elaeocarpaceae) has been traditionally used to relieve various pain-related ailments. The present study aimed to determine the antinociceptive activity of methanol extract of M. calabura leaves (MEMC) and to elucidate the possible mechanism of antinociception involved. The in vivo chemicals (acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-, capsaicin-, glutamate-, serotonin-induced paw licking test) and thermal (hot plate test) models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. The extract (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) was administered orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that MEMC produced significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive response in all the chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models, which was reversed after pretreatment with 5 mg/kg naloxone, a non-selective opioid antagonist. Furthermore, pretreatment with L-arginine (a nitric oxide (NO) donor), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS)), methylene blue (MB; an inhibitor of cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway), or their combination also caused significant (P < 0.05) change in the intensity of the MEMC antinociception. In conclusion, the MEMC antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms, and modulation via, partly, the opioid receptors and NO/cGMP pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glutamic Acid
  17. Ng S, Lasekan O, Muhammad KS, Hussain N, Sulaiman R
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Oct;52(10):6623-30.
    PMID: 26396409 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-015-1737-z
    The seeds of Terminalia catappa from Malaysia were analyzed for their physicochemical properties. The following values were obtained: moisture 6.23 ± 0.09 %, ash 3.78 ± 0.04 %, lipid 54.68 ± 0.14 %, protein 17.66 ± 0.13 %, total dietary fibre 9.97 ± 0.08 %, carbohydrate 7.68 ± 0.06 %, reducing sugar 1.36 ± 0.16 %, starch 1.22 ± 0.15 %, caloric value 593.48 ± 0.24 %. Studies were also conducted on amino acid profile and free fatty acid composition of the seed oil. Results revealed that glutamic acid was the major essential amino acid while methionine and lysine were the limiting amino acids. The major saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid, while the main unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid followed by linoleic acid. In addition, the seed was rich in sucrose and had trace amount of glucose and fructose. Briefly, the seed was high in proteins and lipids which are beneficial to human.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glutamic Acid
  18. Guilhon CC, Abdul Wahab IR, Boylan F, Fernandes PD
    PMID: 26273315 DOI: 10.1155/2015/915927
    Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) is a plant commonly used in popular medicine in Malaysia. In this work, we evaluate the antinociceptive effect of P. bleo leaf extracts and isolated compounds in central antinociceptive model. Ethanol extract (E), hexane (H), ethyl acetate (EA), or butanol (B) fractions (30, 50, or 100 mg/kg, p.o.), sitosterol (from hexane) and vitexin (from ethyl acetate), were administered to mice. Antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate and capsaicin- or glutamate-induced licking models. Morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as reference drug. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p.), atropine (1 mg/kg, i.p.), and L-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 3 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 30 min earlier (100 mg/kg, p.o.) in order to evaluate the mechanism of the antinociceptive action. Higher dose of B developed an effect significantly superior to morphine-treated group. Naloxone prevented the antinociceptive effect of all fractions. L-NAME demonstrated effect against E, EA, and B. In all fractions, sitosterol and vitexin reduced the licking time after capsaicin injection. Glutamate-induced licking response was blocked by H, EA, and B. Our results indicate that Pereskia bleo fractions, sitosterol and vitexin, possessed a central antinociceptive effect. Part of this effect is mediated by opioid receptors and nitrergic pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glutamic Acid
  19. MyJurnal
    Rubber seed as a waste product from rubber plantations contains nutritive values that can be harnessed
    as food for human, feed for animals or biofuel for energy. Proximate analysis showed moisture content of
    3.99%, protein content of 17.41 g/100g, fat content of 68.53 ± 0.04 g/100g and ash content of 3.08 ± 0.01
    g/100g. Amino acid in rubber seed is high in Glutamic acid (16.13%) and low in Cysteine (0.78%). Despite its potential as a source of protein, fresh rubber seeds contain a toxic factor, cyanogenetic glucoside (186 mg/kg). FAME analysis indicated that rubber seed oil is high in oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid. The fuel potential of rubber seed (585.41 kJ/kg) is in reasonable agreement with ASTM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glutamic Acid
  20. Amiza, M.A., Ow, Y.W., Faazaz, A.L.
    The physicochemical properties of silver catfish frame hydrolysate powder at three different degree of hydrolysis, DH43%, DH 55% and DH 68% were studied. The hydrolysates powder were obtained by hydrolysis using Alcalase®, centrifugation and spray drying of the supernatant. The study found that preparation of these hydrolysates affected the protein, ash and fat content as well as amino acid composition. As for essential amino acids, their values were generally considered as adequate as compared to the suggested essential amino acids profile of FAO/WHO. The results showed that SFHs were rich in lysine and glutamate. Hydrolysate at DH 68% exhibited better peptide solubility and water holding capacity. As degree of hydrolysis increased, emulsifying capacity and foaming capacity of the hydrolysate decreased. It was also found that the lightness in hydrolysate powder decreased with increase in degree of hydrolysis. This study shows that silver catfish frame hydrolysate has good solubility, good foaming properties and light colour profile, thus having high potential as food ingredient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glutamic Acid
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