Objectives: The objective of this study was to utilize a chitosan-based nanoparticle system as the delivery carrier for glutamic acid, a model for encapsulated biomolecules to visualize the in vitro release and accumulation of the encapsulated glutamic acid from chitosan nanoparticle (CNP) systems.
Methods: CNP was synthesized via ionic gelation routes utilizing tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a cross-linker. In order to track glutamic acid release, the glutamic acid was fluorescently-labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate prior encapsulation into CNP.
Results: Light Scattering data concluded the successful formation of small-sized and mono-dispersed CNP at a specific volume ratio of chitosan to TPP. Encapsulation of glutamic acid as a model cargo into CNP led to an increase in particle size to >100 nm. The synthesized CNP exhibited spherical shape under Electron Microscopy. The formation of CNP was reflected by the reduction in free amine groups of chitosan following ionic crosslinking reactions. The encapsulation of glutamic acid was further confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis. Cell viability assay showed 70% cell viability at the maximum concentration of 0.5 mg/mL CS and 0.7 mg/mL TPP used, indicating the low inherent toxicity property of this system. In vitro release study using fluorescently-tagged glutamic acids demonstrated the release and accumulation of the encapsulated glutamic acids at 6 hours post treatment. A significant accumulation was observed at 24 hours and 48 hours later. Flow cytometry data demonstrated a gradual increase in intracellular fluorescence signal from 30 minutes to 48 hours post treatment with fluorescently-labeled glutamic acids encapsulated CNP.
Conclusion: These results therefore suggested the potential of CNP system towards enhancing the intracellular delivery and release of the encapsulated glutamic acids. This CNP system thus may serves as a potential candidate vector capable to improve the therapeutic efficacy for drugs and biomolecules in medical as well as pharmaceutical applications through the enhanced intracellular release and accumulation of the encapsulated cargo.
AIMS: In this updated comprehensive review, we discuss the emerging implication of mutations in neurotransmitter-mediated receptors and ion channels. We aim to provide critical findings of the current literature about the role of neurotransmitters in epilepsy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify and critically evaluate studies analyzing the possible relationship between epilepsy and neurotransmitters. The PubMed database was searched for related research articles.
KEY FINDINGS: Glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the main neurotransmitters playing a critical role in the pathophysiology of this balance, and irreversible neuronal damage may occur as a result of abnormal changes in these molecules. Acetylcholine (ACh), the main stimulant of the autonomic nervous system, mediates signal transmission through cholinergic and nicotinic receptors. Accumulating evidence indicates that dysfunction of nicotinic ACh receptors, which are widely expressed in hippocampal and cortical neurons, may be significantly implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. The dopamine-norepinephrine-epinephrine cycle activates hormonal and neuronal pathways; serotonin, norepinephrine, histamine, and melatonin can act as both hormones and neurotransmitters. Recent reports have demonstrated that nitric oxide mediates cognitive and memory-related functions via stimulating neuronal transmission.
SIGNIFICANCE: The elucidation of the role of the main mediators and receptors in epilepsy is crucial for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.