Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 124 in total

  1. Yusof NS, Ashokkumar M
    Chemphyschem, 2015 Mar 16;16(4):775-81.
    PMID: 25598360 DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201402697
    The sonochemical synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with different shapes and size distributions by using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) operating at 463 kHz is reported. GNP formation proceeds through the reduction of Au(3+) to Au(0) by radicals generated by acoustic cavitation. TEM images reveal that GNPs show irregular shapes at 30 W, are primarily icosahedral at 50 W and form a significant amount of nanorods at 70 W. The size of GNPs decreases with increasing acoustic power with a narrower size distribution. Sonochemiluminescence images help in the understanding of the effect of HIFU in controlling the size and shapes of GNPs. The number of radicals that form and the mechanical forces that are generated control the shape and size of the GNPs. UV/Vis spectra and TEM images are used to propose a possible mechanism for the observed effects. The results presented demonstrate, for the first time, that the HIFU system can be used to synthesise size- and shape-controlled metal nanoparticles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry*
  2. da Silva-Junio AG, Frias IAM, Lima-Neto RG, Migliolo L, E Silva PS, Oliveira MDL, et al.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2022 Jul 15;216:114788.
    PMID: 35525110 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2022.114788
    Bacterial and fungal infections are challenging due to their low susceptibility and resistance to antimicrobial drugs. For this reason, antimicrobial peptides (AMP) emerge as excellent alternatives to overcome these problems. At the same time, their active insertion into the cell wall of microorganisms can be availed for biorecognition applications in biosensing platforms. Temporin-PTA (T-PTA) is an AMP found in the skin secretions of the Malaysian fire frog Hylarana picturata, which presents antibacterial activity against MRSA, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis. In this work, T-PTA was explored as an innovative sensing layer aiming for the electrochemical differentiation of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, and C. tropicalis based on the structural differences of their membranes. The biosensor was analyzed through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). In this approach, the different structural features of each microorganism resulted in different adherence degrees and, therefore, different electrochemical responses. The transducing layer was fabricated by the self-assembling of a 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) monolayer and gold-capped magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@Au) implemented to improve the electrical signal of the biointeraction. We found that each interaction, expressed in variations of electron transfer resistance and anodic peak current, demonstrated a singular response from which the platform can discriminate all different microorganisms. We found expressive sensitivity towards Gram-negative species, especially K. pneumoniae. A detection limit of 101 CFU.mL-1 and a linear range of 101 to 105 CFU.mL-1 were obtained. The T-PTA biosensor platform is a promising and effective tool for microbial identification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry
  3. Khatir NM, Banihashemian SM, Periasamy V, Ritikos R, Abd Majid WH, Abdul Rahman S
    Sensors (Basel), 2012;12(3):3578-86.
    PMID: 22737025 DOI: 10.3390/s120303578
    This work presents an experimental study of gold-DNA-gold structures in the presence and absence of external magnetic fields with strengths less than 1,200.00 mT. The DNA strands, extracted by standard method were used to fabricate a Metal-DNA-Metal (MDM) structure. Its electric behavior when subjected to a magnetic field was studied through its current-voltage (I-V) curve. Acquisition of the I-V curve demonstrated that DNA as a semiconductor exhibits diode behavior in the MDM structure. The current versus magnetic field strength followed a decreasing trend because of a diminished mobility in the presence of a low magnetic field. This made clear that an externally imposed magnetic field would boost resistance of the MDM structure up to 1,000.00 mT and for higher magnetic field strengths we can observe an increase in potential barrier in MDM junction. The magnetic sensitivity indicates the promise of using MDM structures as potential magnetic sensors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry*
  4. Aziz MS, Suwanpayak N, Jalil MA, Jomtarak R, Saktioto T, Ali J, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2012;7:11-7.
    PMID: 22275818 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S27417
    A new optical trapping design to transport gold nanoparticles using a PANDA ring resonator system is proposed. Intense optical fields in the form of dark solitons controlled by Gaussian pulses are used to trap and transport nanoscopic volumes of matter to the desired destination via an optical waveguide. Theoretically, the gradient and scattering forces are responsible for this trapping phenomenon, where in practice such systems can be fabricated and a thin-film device formed on the specific artificial medical materials, for instance, an artificial bone. The dynamic behavior of the tweezers can be tuned by controlling the optical pulse input power and parameters of the ring resonator system. Different trap sizes can be generated to trap different gold nanoparticles sizes, which is useful for gold nanoparticle therapy. In this paper, we have shown the utility of gold nanoparticle trapping and delivery for therapy, which may be useful for cosmetic therapy and related applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry*
  5. Yeo CI, Ooi KK, Tiekink ERT
    Molecules, 2018 Jun 11;23(6).
    PMID: 29891764 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23061410
    A new era of metal-based drugs started in the 1960s, heralded by the discovery of potent platinum-based complexes, commencing with cisplatin [(H₃N)₂PtCl₂], which are effective anti-cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. While clinical applications of gold-based drugs largely relate to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, attention has turned to the investigation of the efficacy of gold(I) and gold(III) compounds for anti-cancer applications. This review article provides an account of the latest research conducted during the last decade or so on the development of gold compounds and their potential activities against several cancers as well as a summary of possible mechanisms of action/biological targets. The promising activities and increasing knowledge of gold-based drug metabolism ensures that continued efforts will be made to develop gold-based anti-cancer agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry*
  6. Mohamad Nor N, Ramli NH, Poobalan H, Qi Tan K, Abdul Razak K
    Crit Rev Anal Chem, 2023;53(2):253-288.
    PMID: 34565248 DOI: 10.1080/10408347.2021.1950521
    Heavy metal pollution has gained global attention due to its high toxicity and non-biodegradability, even at a low level of exposure. Therefore, the development of a disposable electrode that is sensitive, simple, portable, rapid, and cost-effective as the sensor platform in electrochemical heavy metal detection is vital. Disposable electrodes have been modified with nanomaterials so that excellent electrochemical properties can be obtained. This review highlights the recent progress in the development of numerous types of disposable electrodes modified with nanomaterials for electrochemical heavy metal detection. The disposable electrodes made from carbon-based, glass-based, and paper-based electrodes are reviewed. In particular, the analytical performance, fabrication technique, and integration design of disposable electrodes modified with metal (such as gold, tin and bismuth), carbon (such as carbon nanotube and graphene), and metal oxide (such as iron oxide and zinc oxide) nanomaterials are summarized. In addition, the role of the nanomaterials in improving the electrochemical performance of the modified disposable electrodes is discussed. Finally, the current challenges and future prospect of the disposable electrode modified with nanomaterials are summarized.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry
  7. Perumal V, Hashim U, Gopinath SC, Haarindraprasad R, Liu WW, Poopalan P, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(12):e0144964.
    PMID: 26694656 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144964
    The creation of an appropriate thin film is important for the development of novel sensing surfaces, which will ultimately enhance the properties and output of high-performance sensors. In this study, we have fabricated and characterized zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on silicon substrates, which were hybridized with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain ZnO-Aux (x = 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nm) hybrid structures with different thicknesses. Nanoscale imaging by field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed increasing film uniformity and coverage with the Au deposition thickness. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the AuNPs exhibit an increasing average diameter (5-10 nm). The face center cubic Au were found to co-exist with wurtzite ZnO nanostructure. Atomic force microscopy observations revealed that as the Au content increased, the overall crystallite size increased, which was supported by X-ray diffraction measurements. The structural characterizations indicated that the Au on the ZnO crystal lattice exists without any impurities in a preferred orientation (002). When the ZnO thickness increased from 10 to 40 nm, transmittance and an optical bandgap value decreased. Interestingly, with 50 nm thickness, the band gap value was increased, which might be due to the Burstein-Moss effect. Photoluminescence studies revealed that the overall structural defect (green emission) improved significantly as the Au deposition increased. The impedance measurements shows a decreasing value of impedance arc with increasing Au thicknesses (0 to 40 nm). In contrast, the 50 nm AuNP impedance arc shows an increased value compared to lower sputtering thicknesses, which indicated the presence of larger sized AuNPs that form a continuous film, and its ohmic characteristics changed to rectifying characteristics. This improved hybrid thin film (ZnO/Au) is suitable for a wide range of sensing applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry*
  8. Mohd Sultan N, Johan MR
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:184604.
    PMID: 25215315 DOI: 10.1155/2014/184604
    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been synthesized with various molarities and weights of reducing agent, monosodium glutamate (MSG), and stabilizer chitosan, respectively. The significance of chitosan as stabilizer was distinguished through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and UV-Vis absorption spectra in which the interparticles distance increases whilst retaining the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) characteristics peak. The most stable AuNPs occurred for composition with the lowest (1 g) weight of chitosan. AuNPs capped with chitosan size stayed small after 1 month aging compared to bare AuNPs. The ability of chitosan capped AuNPs to uptake analyte was studied by employing amorphous carbon nanotubes (α-CNT), copper oxide (Cu2O), and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) as the target material. The absorption spectra showed dramatic intensity increased and red shifted once the analyte was added to the chitosan capped AuNPs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry*
  9. Al-Ta'ii HM, Periasamy V, Amin YM
    PLoS One, 2016;11(1):e0145423.
    PMID: 26799703 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145423
    Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA molecules expressed as double-stranded (DSS) negatively charged polymer plays a significant role in electronic states of metal/silicon semiconductor structures. Electrical parameters of an Au/DNA/ITO device prepared using self-assembly method was studied by using current-voltage (I-V) characteristic measurements under alpha bombardment at room temperature. The results were analyzed using conventional thermionic emission model, Cheung and Cheung's method and Norde's technique to estimate the barrier height, ideality factor, series resistance and Richardson constant of the Au/DNA/ITO structure. Besides demonstrating a strongly rectifying (diode) characteristic, it was also observed that orderly fluctuations occur in various electrical parameters of the Schottky structure. Increasing alpha radiation effectively influences the series resistance, while the barrier height, ideality factor and interface state density parameters respond linearly. Barrier height determined from I-V measurements were calculated at 0.7284 eV for non-radiated, increasing to about 0.7883 eV in 0.036 Gy showing an increase for all doses. We also demonstrate the hypersensitivity phenomena effect by studying the relationship between the series resistance for the three methods, the ideality factor and low-dose radiation. Based on the results, sensitive alpha particle detectors can be realized using Au/DNA/ITO Schottky junction sensor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry*
  10. Choi JR, Hu J, Tang R, Gong Y, Feng S, Ren H, et al.
    Lab Chip, 2016 Feb 7;16(3):611-21.
    PMID: 26759062 DOI: 10.1039/c5lc01388g
    With advances in point-of-care testing (POCT), lateral flow assays (LFAs) have been explored for nucleic acid detection. However, biological samples generally contain complex compositions and low amounts of target nucleic acids, and currently require laborious off-chip nucleic acid extraction and amplification processes (e.g., tube-based extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)) prior to detection. To the best of our knowledge, even though the integration of DNA extraction and amplification into a paper-based biosensor has been reported, a combination of LFA with the aforementioned steps for simple colorimetric readout has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we demonstrate for the first time an integrated paper-based biosensor incorporating nucleic acid extraction, amplification and visual detection or quantification using a smartphone. A handheld battery-powered heating device was specially developed for nucleic acid amplification in POC settings, which is coupled with this simple assay for rapid target detection. The biosensor can successfully detect Escherichia coli (as a model analyte) in spiked drinking water, milk, blood, and spinach with a detection limit of as low as 10-1000 CFU mL(-1), and Streptococcus pneumonia in clinical blood samples, highlighting its potential use in medical diagnostics, food safety analysis and environmental monitoring. As compared to the lengthy conventional assay, which requires more than 5 hours for the entire sample-to-answer process, it takes about 1 hour for our integrated biosensor. The integrated biosensor holds great potential for detection of various target analytes for wide applications in the near future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry
  11. Perumal V, Hashim U, Gopinath SC, Haarindraprasad R, Foo KL, Balakrishnan SR, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2015 Jul 16;5:12231.
    PMID: 26178973 DOI: 10.1038/srep12231
    Hybrid gold nanostructures seeded into nanotextured zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers (NFs) were created for novel biosensing applications. The selected 'spotted NFs' had a 30-nm-thick gold nanoparticle (AuNP) layer, chosen from a range of AuNP thicknesses, sputtered onto the surface. The generated nanohybrids, characterized by morphological, physical and structural analyses, were uniformly AuNP-seeded onto the ZnO NFs with an average length of 2-3 μm. Selective capture of molecular probes onto the seeded AuNPs was evidence for the specific interaction with DNA from pathogenic Leptospirosis-causing strains via hybridization and mis-match analyses. The attained detection limit was 100 fM as determined via impedance spectroscopy. High levels of stability, reproducibility and regeneration of the sensor were obtained. Selective DNA immobilization and hybridization were confirmed by nitrogen and phosphorus peaks in an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The created nanostructure hybrids illuminate the mechanism of generating multiple-target, high-performance detection on a single NF platform, which opens a new avenue for array-based medical diagnostics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry*
  12. Anniebell S, Gopinath SCB
    Curr Med Chem, 2018;25(12):1433-1445.
    PMID: 28093984 DOI: 10.2174/0929867324666170116123633
    BACKGROUND: Research interest on the properties of polymer conjugated gold nanoparticle (GNP) in biomedicine is rapidly rising because of the extensive evidences for their unique properties. In the field of biomedicine, GNPs have been widely used because of their inertness and low levels of cytotoxicity. Therefore, when exposed to cells, they are less prone to exert damaging effects. GNPs are capable of being functionalized as desired and are ideal as they do not encourage undesired side reactions that might counter react with the intention of the functionalization. Biofouling is an occurrence that takes place at cellular and biological molecular level, binds non-specifically on the detection surface and forms a wrong output. This undesired incidence can be avoided by conjugating the surface of biomolecules with polymers. Densely packed repeating chains of polymers such as polyethylene glycol are capable of decreasing non-specific reactions. Applications of polymer conjugated GNPs in the field of biomedicine are as biosensors, delivery and therapeutic agents.

    CONCLUSION: Therefore, the properties and applications of polymer conjugated GNPs are studied widely as overviewed here.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry*
  13. Huang Y, Zhang L, Li Z, Gopinath SCB, Chen Y, Xiao Y
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 2021 Aug;68(4):881-888.
    PMID: 33245588 DOI: 10.1002/bab.2008
    17β-Estradiol-E2 (17β-E2) is a steroid hormone that plays a major role in the reproductive endocrine system and is involved in various processes, such as pregnancy, fertility, and menopause. In this study, the performance of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 17β-E2 quantification was enhanced by using a gold nanoparticle (GNP)-conjugated aptamer. An anti-17β-E2-aptamer-GNP antibody was immobilized on an amine-modified ELISA surface. Then, 17β-E2 was allowed to interact with and be sandwiched by antibodies. Aptamer-GNP conjugation was confirmed by colorimetric assays via the naked eye and UV-visible light spectroscopy. The detection limit based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3 was estimated to be 1.5 nM (400 pg/mL), and the linear range was 1.5-50 nM. Control experiments (without 17β-E2/with a complementary aptamer sequence/with a nonimmune antibody) confirmed the specific detection of 17β-E2. Moreover, 17β-E2 spiking of human serum did not interrupt the interaction between 17β-E2 and its antibody and aptamer. Thus, the developed ELISA can be used as an alternate assay for quantification of 17β-E2 and assessment of endocrine-related gynecological problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry*
  14. Alim S, Vejayan J, Yusoff MM, Kafi AKM
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2018 Dec 15;121:125-136.
    PMID: 30205246 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2018.08.051
    The innovation of nanoparticles assumes a critical part of encouraging and giving open doors and conceivable outcomes to the headway of new era devices utilized as a part of biosensing. The focused on the quick and legitimate detecting of specific biomolecules using functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has turned into a noteworthy research enthusiasm for the most recent decade. Sensors created with gold nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes or in some cases by utilizing both are relied upon to change the very establishments of detecting and distinguishing various analytes. In this review, we will examine the current utilization of functionalized AuNPs and CNTs with other synthetic mixes for the creation of biosensor prompting to the location of particular analytes with low discovery cutoff and quick reaction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry*
  15. Said FA, Menon PS, Rajendran V, Shaari S, Majlis BY
    IET Nanobiotechnol, 2017 Dec;11(8):981-986.
    PMID: 29155398 DOI: 10.1049/iet-nbt.2017.0051
    In this study, the authors investigated the effects of a single layer graphene as a coating layer on top of metal thin films such as silver, gold, aluminum and copper using finite-difference time domain method. To enhance the resolution of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, it is necessary to increase the SPR reflectivity and decrease the full-width-half maximum (FWHM) of the SPR curve so that there is minimum uncertainty in the determination of the resonance dip. Numerical data was verified with analytical and experimental data where all the data were in good agreement with resonance angle differing in <10% due to noise present in components such as humidity and temperature. In further analysis, reflectivity and FWHM were compared among four types of metal with various thin film thicknesses where graphene was applied on top of the metal layers, and data was compared against pure conventional metal thin films. A 60 nm-thick Au thin film results in higher performance with reflectivity of 92.4% and FWHM of 0.88° whereas single layer graphene-on-60 nm-thick Au gave reflectivity of 91.7% and FWHM of 1.32°. However, a graphene-on-40 nm-thick Ag also gave good performance with narrower FWHM of 0.88° and reflection spectra of 89.2%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry*
  16. Arul P, Nandhini C, Huang ST, Gowthaman NSK, Huang CH
    Food Chem, 2023 Jul 15;414:135747.
    PMID: 36841102 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2023.135747
    A simple and rapid screening of biomarkers in clinical and food matrices is urgently needed to diagnose cardiovascular diseases. The cholesterol (Chol) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are critical bio-indicators, which require more inventive detection techniques to be applied to real food, and bio-samples. In this study, a robust dual sensor was developed for Chol and H2O2 using hybrid catalyst. Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-capped nanocatalyst was potentially catalyzed 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), and H2O2. The enzymatic nanoelectrocatalyst delivered a wide range of signaling concentrations from 250 nM to 3.0 mM and 100 nM to 10 mM, limit of detection (LOD) of 53.2 nM and 18.4 nM for Chol and H2O2. The cholesterol oxidase-BSA-AuNPs-metal-free organic framework (ChOx-BSA-AuNPs-MFOF) based electrode surface effectively operated in live-cells and real-food samples. The enzymatic sensor exhibits adequate recovery of real-food samples (96.96-99.44%). Finally, the proposed system is a suitable choice for the potential applications of Chol and H2O2 in clinical and food chemistry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry
  17. Filippova TA, Masamrekh RA, Shumyantseva VV, Latsis IA, Farafonova TE, Ilina IY, et al.
    Talanta, 2023 May 15;257:124341.
    PMID: 36821964 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2023.124341
    In this work, we proposed a biosensor for trypsin proteolytic activity assay using immobilization of model peptides on screen-printed electrodes (SPE) modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) prepared by electrosynthetic method. Sensing of proteolytic activity was based on electrochemical oxidation of tyrosine residues of peptides. We designed peptides containing N-terminal cysteine residue for immobilization on an SPE, modified with gold nanoparticles, trypsin-specific cleavage site and tyrosine residue as a redox label. The peptides were immobilized on SPE by formation of chemical bonds between mercapto groups of the N-terminal cysteine residues and AuNPs. After the incubation with trypsin, time-dependent cleavage of the immobilized peptides was observed by decline in tyrosine electrochemical oxidation signal. The kinetic parameters of trypsin, such as the catalytic constant (kcat), the Michaelis constant (KM) and the catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM), toward the CGGGRYR peptide were determined as 0.33 ± 0.01 min-1, 198 ± 24 nM and 0.0016 min-1 nM-1, respectively. Using the developed biosensor, we demonstrated the possibility of analysis of trypsin specificity toward the peptides with amino acid residues disrupting proteolysis. Further, we designed the peptides with proline or glutamic acid residues after the cleavage site (CGGRPYR and CGGREYR), and trypsin had reduced activity toward both of them according to the existing knowledge of the enzyme specificity. The developed biosensor system allows one to perform a comparative analysis of the protease steady-state kinetic parameters and specificity toward model peptides with different amino acid sequences.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry
  18. Zambry NS, Awang MS, Beh KK, Hamzah HH, Bustami Y, Obande GA, et al.
    Lab Chip, 2023 Mar 14;23(6):1622-1636.
    PMID: 36786757 DOI: 10.1039/d2lc01159j
    The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) motivates continuous efforts to develop robust and accurate diagnostic tests to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Detection of viral nucleic acids provides the highest sensitivity and selectivity for diagnosing early and asymptomatic infection because the human immune system may not be active at this stage. Therefore, this work aims to develop a label-free electrochemical DNA biosensor for SARS-CoV-2 detection using a printed circuit board-based gold substrate (PCBGE). The developed sensor used the nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N) gene as a biomarker. The DNA sensor-based PCBGE was fabricated by self-assembling a thiolated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe onto an Au surface, which performed as the working electrode (WE). The Au surface was then treated with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MCH) before detecting the target N gene to produce a well-oriented arrangement of the immobilized ssDNA chains. The successful fabrication of the biosensor was characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The DNA biosensor performances were evaluated using a synthetic SARS-CoV-2 genome and 20 clinical RNA samples from healthy and infected individuals through EIS. The developed DNA biosensor can detect as low as 1 copy per μL of the N gene within 5 minutes with a LOD of 0.50 μM. Interestingly, the proposed DNA sensor could distinguish the expression of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in a patient diagnosed with COVID-19 without any amplification technique. We believe that the proposed DNA sensor platform is a promising point-of-care (POC) device for COVID-19 viral infection since it offers a rapid detection time with a simple design and workflow detection system, as well as an affordable diagnostic assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry
  19. Khatir NM, Abdul-Malek Z, Banihashemian SM
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(10):19229-41.
    PMID: 25320908 DOI: 10.3390/s141019229
    The fabrication of Metal-DNA-Metal (MDM) structure-based high sensitivity sensors from DNA micro-and nanoarray strands is a key issue in their development. The tunable semiconducting response of DNA in the presence of external electromagnetic and thermal fields is a gift for molecular electronics. The impact of temperatures (25-55 °C) and magnetic fields (0-1200 mT) on the current-voltage (I-V) features of Au-DNA-Au (GDG) structures with an optimum gap of 10 μm is reported. The I-V characteristics acquired in the presence and absence of magnetic fields demonstrated the semiconducting diode nature of DNA in GDG structures with high temperature sensitivity. The saturation current in the absence of magnetic field was found to increase sharply with the increase of temperature up to 45 °C and decrease rapidly thereafter. This increase was attributed to the temperature-assisted conversion of double bonds into single bond in DNA structures. Furthermore, the potential barrier height and Richardson constant for all the structures increased steadily with the increase of external magnetic field irrespective of temperature variations. Our observation on magnetic field and temperature sensitivity of I-V response in GDG sandwiches may contribute towards the development of DNA-based magnetic sensors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry
  20. Ibrahim ER, Hossain MA, Roslan HA
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:348140.
    PMID: 25295258 DOI: 10.1155/2014/348140
    Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu) is a perennial plant native to Southeast Asia and exploited mainly for the starch content in its trunk. Genetic improvement of sago palm is extremely slow when compared to other annual starch crops. Urgent attention is needed to improve the sago palm planting material and can be achieved through nonconventional methods. We have previously developed a tissue culture method for sago palm, which is used to provide the planting materials and to develop a genetic transformation procedure. Here, we report the genetic transformation of sago embryonic callus derived from suspension culture using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and gene gun systems. The transformed embryoids cells were selected against Basta (concentration 10 to 30 mg/L). Evidence of foreign genes integration and function of the bar and gus genes were verified via gene specific PCR amplification, gus staining, and dot blot analysis. This study showed that the embryogenic callus was the most suitable material for transformation as compared to the fine callus, embryoid stage, and initiated shoots. The gene gun transformation showed higher transformation efficiency than the ones transformed using Agrobacterium when targets were bombarded once or twice using 280 psi of helium pressure at 6 to 8 cm distance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry
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