In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter.
The purpose of this paper was to carry out microwave induced pyrolysis of oil palm biomass (shell and fibers) with the help of char as microwave absorber (MA). Rapid heating and yield of microwave pyrolysis products such as bio-oil, char, and gas was found to depend on the ratio of biomass to microwave absorber. Temperature profiles revealed the heating characteristics of the biomass materials which can rapidly heat-up to high temperature within seconds in presence of MA. Some characterization of pyrolysis products was also presented. The advantage of this technique includes substantial reduction in consumption of energy, time and cost in order to produce bio-oil from biomass materials. Large biomass particle size can be used directly in microwave heating, thus saving grinding as well as moisture removal cost. A synergistic effect was found in using MA with oil palm biomass.
Semisolid metal (SSM) processing or thixoforming is widely known as a technology that involves the formation of metal alloys between solidus and liquidus temperatures. For the procedure to operate successfully, the microstructure of the starting material must consist of solid near-globular grains surrounded by a liquid matrix and a wide solidus-to-liquidus transition area. Currently, this process is industrially successful, generating a variety of products with high quality parts in various industrial sectors. Throughout the years since its inception, a number of technologies to produce the appropriate globular microstructure have been developed and applied worldwide. The main aim of this paper is to classify the presently available SSM technologies and present a comprehensive review of the potential mechanisms that lead to microstructural alterations during the preparation of feedstock materials for SSM processing.
Several binary and ternary medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT)-enriched margarine formulations were examined for their solid fat content, heating profile, polymorphism and textural properties. MLCT feedstock was produced through enzymatic esterification of capric and stearic acids with glycerol. The binary formulations were produced by mixing MLCT feedstock blend (40%–90%) and palm olein (10%–60%) with 10% increments (w/w). Solid fat profiles of commercial margarines were used as a reference to determine the suitability of the formulations for margarine production. The solid fat content of the binary formulations of MO 82 and MO 91 (M, MLCT, O, palm olein) were similar to the commercial margarines at 25°C which met the basic requirement for efficient dough consistency. Ternary formulations using reduced MLCT feedstock blend proportion (from 80%–90% to 60%–70%) were also developed. The reduction of MLCT feedstock blend was
done as it had the highest production cost (3USD/kg) in comparison to palm olein (0.77USD/kg) and palm stearin (0.7USD/kg). The proportions of 5%–15% of palm stearin were substituted with palm olein in MO 64 and MO 73 (M, MLCT; O, palm olein) formulations with 5% increment (w/w). As a result, MOS 702010 and MOS 603010 (M, MLCT; O, palm olein; S, palm stearin) margarine formulations showed similar SFC % to the commercial margarines at 25ºC. These formulations were subsequently chosen to produce margarines. The onset melting and complete melting points of MLCT-enriched margarine formulations were high (51.04ºC –57.93ºC) due to the presence of a high amount of long chain saturated fatty acids. Most of the formulations showed β΄- crystals. MOS 702010 was selected as the best formulation due to values for textural parameters comparable (P
Magnesol XL concentration (0.5, 1, 3 and 5%), heating temperature (25, 50, 70 and 90 ˚C) and time (5, 10, 15 and 20 mnt) during purification to the color properties (Lightness L*, redness a* and yellowness b*) of Sardinella lemuru oil were evaluated. Purification using Magnesol XL in any condition effectively increase the L* and a* value but reduced the b* value of the lemuru oil. Highest L* value (96.57) was achieved at the treatment temperature 90 ˚C, 5 % level of Magnesol XL concentration and 5 minutes process. Lowest a* value (more green color) was obtained at treatment 70 ˚C temperature, 5% level of concentration and 15 minutes, then lowest b* value was obtained at treatment 90 ˚C temperature, 5 % concentration and 5 minutes process. All the refined lemuru oil’s result had a hue angle higher than 90˚ representing the light greenish-yellow color.
A study has been conducted on pink guava juice (PGJ) fouling deposit. Several ex-situ experimental rigs were set-up to obtain PGJ fouling deposit, while the best ex-situ experimental rig was also selected. PGJ was heated at 93°C and its fouling deposit was obtained after 1 hour of heating. Then, it was used for the ex-situ cleaning study at 1 litre min-1, at several temperatures (70, 80 and 90°C), and in some chemical concentrations (1.6 v/v% of Maxiclean CP6 or 0.325 % OH-; 1.8 v/v% of Maxiclean CP6 or 0.369 % OH-; 2.0 v/v% of Maxiclean CP6 or 0.44 % OH-). The best cleaning combinations were investigated. Carbohydrate is the main content in the fouling deposit. The morphology of the deposit was studied using SEM and it showed an aggregated structure. The cleaning process improved as the temperature increased with the increasing of the chemical solution concentration. The shortest cleaning time was 40 minutes, for cleaning using 2.0 v/v % of Maxiclean CP6 (0.44 % OH-) at 90°C.
Extract of mengkudu was heated using a bench-top tube heat exchanger at 30, 50, 70 and 90 o C for 0, 5, 10 and 15 min residence time. The treated mengkudu extract was then measured for pH, L * , a * , b * color parameters, clarity, viscosity and total polyphenol content. Results show that heating using temperature of 30 to 90 o C for 5 to 15 mins significantly (p
The glow curve in TLD-100 was compared by applying long preheat time, short preheat time
techniques and without preheat technique before the TLD readout. Fading effect of the TLD signal
upon certain storage time with long preheat time (100°C, 10 minutes using the oven) and short
preheat time techniques (100°C, 10 seconds using the reader) were also studied. 15 TLD-100 chips
were used with 3 of the TLD chips were used for measuring background radiation. 12 TLD chips
were annealed, irradiated, preheated long and short preheat time techniques) and analyzed. The TL
signals output from TLD chips of without preheated were used as the control. Two sets of data were
taken using TLD chips irradiated with 6 MV and 10 MV photon beams. TL signal output was
recorded the highest for short preheat time, followed by long preheat time and no preheating. The
TL signal loss upon certain storage time was also reduced when short preheat time technique was
applied. By applying long preheat time technique the low temperature peak in the glow curve was
completely removed for both energies. Whereas, TLD chips exposed to 6 MV and with short preheat
time technique the low temperature peak did not disappear completely but decreased in intensity as
compared to the control data by 19.80%, 37.69%, 48.19% and 100% at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours
after exposure prior to readout, respectively. Meanwhile, for 10 MV photon beam with short
preheat time, the small peak intensity was reduced by 19.58% for readout at 24 hours after
irradiation and 100% for 48,72 and 96 hours delayed time prior to readout. It was observed that
the TLD-100 was highly dependent on preheat heating time before readout. Short preheat time
technique was able to reduce post irradiation fading of TLD-100 dosimeters
The thermal degradation behaviour and kinetic parameter of non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis of rice husk (RH) using rice hull ash (RHA) as catalyst were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis at four different heating rates of 10, 20, 50 and 100 K/min. Four different iso conversional kinetic models such as Kissinger, Friedman, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) were applied in this study to calculate the activation energy (EA) and pre-exponential value (A) of the system. The EA of non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis was found to be in the range of 152-190 kJ/mol and 146-153 kJ/mol, respectively. The results showed that the catalytic pyrolysis of RH had resulted in a lower EA as compared to non-catalytic pyrolysis of RH and other biomass in literature. Furthermore, the high Gibb's free energy obtained in RH implied that it has the potential to serve as a source of bioenergy production.
Quantifying the elevated temperature strengths of cement-based material is crucial to the design of building structural systems for fire resistance purpose. This paper collates a database of elevated temperature axial compressive and flexural strengths of coir fibre reinforced foamed concrete exposed to heating temperatures of 105 °C, 200 °C, 300 °C, 400 °C, 500 °C, 600 °C, 700 °C and 800 °C. There were four densities of foamed concrete of 700, 1100, 1500 and 1900 kg/m3 were prepared and tested. The untreated coir fibre was added in foamed concrete in percentages of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%, and 0.6% by mix volume fraction. The database can aid in prediction of elevated temperature strengths of fibre reinforced foamed concrete which can be exploited to assist manufacturers to develop their products without having to perform numerous large-scale elevated temperature tests in the future.
The aim of this study is to identify the optimum thermal conversion of Chlorella vulgaris with neuro-evolutionary approach. A Progressive Depth Swarm-Evolution (PDSE) neuro-evolutionary approach is proposed to model the Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data of catalytic thermal degradation of Chlorella vulgaris. Results showed that the proposed method can generate predictions which are more accurate compared to other conventional approaches (>90% lower in Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Bias Error (MBE)). In addition, Simulated Annealing is proposed to determine the optimal operating conditions for microalgae conversion from multiple trained ANN. The predicted optimum conditions were reaction temperature of 900.0 °C, heating rate of 5.0 °C/min with the presence of HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst to obtain 88.3% of Chlorella vulgaris conversion.
A single sample from the logged section at eastern side of Gua Panjang limestone hill, southwest of Kampung Kubang
Rasa Village, Merapoh, has yielded 5 very important conodont species. They are Hindeodus parvus erectus, Hindeodus
parvus parvus, Hindeodus latidentatus latidentatus, Hindeodus latidentatus praeparvus, Hindeodus postparvus, Hindeodus
eurypge and Isarcicella staeschi. These Early Triassic conodonts were obtained in a bioclastic dolostone sample, located
2.5 m above bioclastic grainstone which yielded Late Permian foraminifera. The conodonts found were given Conodont
Alteration Index (CAI) scale of 5, consistent with the heating of Main Range granitoid during Indosinian Orogeny.
Limestone harbouring basal Triassic conodonts in Gua Panjang is interpreted to be deposited in an open shallow marine
Oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) and palm frond (PF) were respectively devolatilized by pyrolysis to OPMF-oil and PF-oil bio-oils and biochars, OPMF-char and PF-char in a slow-heating fixed-bed reactor. In particular, the OPMF-oil and PF-oil were produced to a maximum yield of 48wt% and 47wt% bio-oils at 550°C and 600°C, respectively. The high heating values (HHVs) of OPMF-oil and PF-oil were respectively found to be 23MJ/kg and 21MJ/kg, whereas 24.84MJ/kg and 24.15MJ/kg were for the corresponding biochar. The HHVs of the bio-oils and biochars are associated with low O/C ratios to be higher than those of the corresponding biomass. The Fourier transform infrared spectra and peak area ratios highlighted the effect of pyrolysis temperatures on the bio-oil compositions. The bio-oils are pervaded with numerous oxygenated carbonyl and aromatic compounds as suitable feedstocks for renewable fuels and chemicals.
Air heating by solar collectors is renewable technology providing hot air for different purposes. The present research
emphasizes on analysis of energy, exergy and efficiency of a flat plate solar air heater. The analysis model was tested
on five different air mass flow rates of 0.5 (Natural), 1.31, 2.11, 2.72 and 3.03 kgs-1 under three different tilt angles of
25, 35 (Recommended) and 50o
. The data was replicated three times making a total of 45 treatments. A two factorial
completely randomized design was used to find if there is any significant difference among the treatments. The results
showed that the solar collector gave better performance at air mass flow of 3.03 kgs-1 under tilt of 35o
. At maximum
air mass flow rate of 3.03 kgs-1and optimum tilt angle of 35o
the maximum energetic efficiency of 51%, while minimum
exergetic efficiency of 24% and maximum overall efficiency of 71% were recorded. It was concluded that to get maximum
thermal efficiencies of 71% from flat plate solar collector used as an air heater must be operated at high air mass flow
rates of 3.03 kgs-1under 35o
tilt angle at Peshawar, Pakistan.
Synthetic materials that are capable of healing upon damage are being developed at a rapid pace because of their
many potential applications. Here, new healing chemically cross-linked hydrogel of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)
(pHEMA) was prepared. The healing hydrogel was achieved by heating above its glass transition (Tg
). The intermolecular
diffusion of dangling chain and the chain slippage led to healing of the gel. The peaks in attenuated total reflectance
(ATR) confirmed that hydrogel was formed while rheological studies had determined the minimum for healing temperature
C. The results showed that ratio stress of the healable hydrogel can reach until 92 and 91% of first and second
healing cycle, respectively. The morphology of the sample was carried out to evaluate the self-property of hydrogel.
In this study, the numerical solution of stagnation point flow over a stretching surface, generated by Newtonian heating in which the heat transfer from the surface is proportional to the local surface temperature is considered. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically using the shooting method. Numerical solutions are obtained for the local heat transfer coefficient, the surface temperature and the temperature profiles. The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for various values of the Prandtl number, stretching parameter and conjugate parameter are analyzed and discussed.
Thermoelectricity, by converting heat energy directly into useable electricity, offers a promising technology to convert heat from solar energy and to recover waste heat from industrial sectors and automobile exhausts. In recent years, most of the efforts have been done on improving the thermoelectric efficiency using different approaches, that is, nanostructuring, doping, molecular rattling, and nanocomposite formation. The applications of thermoelectric polymers at low temperatures, especially conducting polymers, have shown various advantages such as easy and low cost of fabrication, light weight, and flexibility. In this review, we will focus on exploring new types of polymers and the effects of different structures, concentrations, and molecular weight on thermoelectric properties. Various strategies to improve the performance of thermoelectric materials will be discussed. In addition, a discussion on the fabrication of thermoelectric devices, especially suited to polymers, will also be given. Finally, we provide the challenge and the future of thermoelectric polymers, especially thermoelectric hybrid model.
The melting curves of 11 vegetable oils have been characterised. Vegetable oil samples that were cooled at a constant rate (5 degrees C/min) from the melt showed between one and seven melting endotherms upon heating at four different heating rates (1, 5, 10 and 20 degrees C/min) in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles and iodine value analyses were used to complement the DSC data. Generally, the melting transition temperature shifted to higher values with increased rates of heating. The breadth of the melting endotherm and the area under the melting peak also increased with increasing heating rate. Although the number of endothermic peaks was dependent on heating rate, the melting curves of the oil samples were not straightforward in that there was no correlation between the number of endothermic peaks and heating rates. Multiple melting behaviour in DSC experiments with different heating rates could be explained by: (1) the melting of TAG populations with different melting points; and (2) TAG crystal reorganisation effects. On the basis of the corollary results obtained, vegetable oils and fats may be distinguished from their offset-temperature (Toff) values in the DSC melting curves. The results showed that Toff values of all oil samples were significantly (p < 0.01) different in the melting curves scanned at four different scanning rates. These calorimetric results indicate that DSC is a valuable technique for studying vegetable oils.
Chicken breast muscle powder (CBMP) was treated as a function of heating temperature, heating time and amount of alkali added. The pre-treated CBMP was then blended with modified waxy corn starch (MWCS) and characterized by flow analysis and temperature sweep. Flow analysis revealed that the blend behaved as a shear thickening and time dependent fluid with a yield stress. Statistical analysis showed that only linear and quadratic effects of heating temperature and heating time caused significant effects on flow behaviour index, consistency index and yield stress (p
The presence of airflow during heating process is expected to increase heat uniformity in a closed heating chamber. Circulation of hot air increases the percentage of convective heat transfer. In this study effects of airflow on oven temperature, cake temperature and several cake qualities were investigated. Experimental studies were conducted in convective oven using two different baking modes; with and without airflow. During baking, oven temperatures and internal cake temperature were measured, and images of cake expansion were captured. Results of the study showed that the presence of airflow could maintain the oven temperature within a small range of set point temperature. Temperature in the oven exhibited ±5.5°C fluctuation, approximately 3.5% overshoot that occurred continuously during baking with airflow. On the contrary, higher overshoot (ranging from 15 to 30%) was observed in oven temperature without airflow. Airflow also showed a significant effect (p