Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 27 in total

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  1. Ooi EH, Popov V, Alfano M, Cheong JKK
    Int J Hyperthermia, 2020;37(1):634-650.
    PMID: 32538190 DOI: 10.1080/02656736.2020.1771437
    Background: The thermally-induced urine flow can generate cooling that may alter the treatment outcome during hyperthermic treatments of bladder cancer. This paper investigates the effects of natural convection inside the bladder and at skin surface during gold nanorods (GNR) - assisted photothermal therapy (PTT) of bladder cancer in mice. Methods: 3D models of mouse bladder at orientations corresponding to the mouse positioned on its back, its side and its abdomen were examined. Numerical simulations were carried out for GNR volume fractions of 0.001, 0.005 and 0.01% and laser power of 0.2 and 0.3 W. Results: The obtained results showed that cooling due to natural convection inside the bladder and above the skin depends on the mouse orientation. For a mouse positioned on its back, on its side or on its abdomen, the maximum temperature achieved inside the tumour at 0.001% GNR volume fraction and 0.2 W laser power was 55.2°C, 50.0°C and 52.2°C, respectively compared to 56.8°C when natural convection was not considered. The average thermal gradients when natural convection was considered were also lower, suggesting a more homogenous temperature distribution. Conclusions: Natural convection inside the bladder can be beneficial but also detrimental to GNR-assisted PTT depending on the level of heating. At low levels of heating due to low GNR volume fraction and/or laser power, flow inside the bladder may dissipate heat from the targeted tissue; making the treatment ineffective. At high levels of heating due to high GNR volume fraction and/or laser power, cooling may prevent excessive thermal damage to surrounding tissues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyperthermia, Induced*
  2. Kumar AVP, Dubey SK, Tiwari S, Puri A, Hejmady S, Gorain B, et al.
    Int J Pharm, 2021 Sep 05;606:120848.
    PMID: 34216762 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120848
    Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a minimally invasive procedure for treating cancer. The two significant prerequisites of PTT are the photothermal therapeutic agent (PTA) and near-infrared radiation (NIR). The PTA absorbs NIR, causing hyperthermia in the malignant cells. This increased temperature at the tumor microenvironment finally results in tumor cell damage. Nanoparticles play a crucial role in PTT, aiding in the passive and active targeting of the PTA to the tumor microenvironment. Through enhanced permeation and retention effect and surface-engineering, specific targeting could be achieved. This novel delivery tool provides the advantages of changing the shape, size, and surface attributes of the carriers containing PTAs, which might facilitate tumor regression significantly. Further, inclusion of surface engineering of nanoparticles is facilitated through ligating ligands specific to overexpressed receptors on the cancer cell surface. Thus, transforming nanoparticles grants the ability to combine different treatment strategies with PTT to enhance cancer treatment. This review emphasizes properties of PTAs, conjugated biomolecules of PTAs, and the combinatorial techniques for a better therapeutic effect of PTT using the nanoparticle platform.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyperthermia, Induced*
  3. Yeap JS, Anbanandan S, Yeap JK, Borhan Tan M, Harwant S
    Med J Malaysia, 2001 Mar;56(1):102-3.
    PMID: 11503287
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyperthermia, Induced/adverse effects*
  4. Cheong JK, Popov V, Alchera E, Locatelli I, Alfano M, Menichetti L, et al.
    Comput Biol Med, 2021 11;138:104881.
    PMID: 34583149 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104881
    Gold nanorods assisted photothermal therapy (GNR-PTT) is a new cancer treatment technique that has shown promising potential for bladder cancer treatment. The position of the bladder cancer at different locations along the bladder wall lining can potentially affect the treatment efficacy since laser is irradiated externally from the skin surface. The present study investigates the efficacy of GNR-PTT in the treatment of bladder cancer in mice for tumours growing at three different locations on the bladder, i.e., Case 1: closest to skin surface, Case 2: at the bottom half of the bladder, and Case 3: at the side of the bladder. Investigations were carried out numerically using an experimentally validated framework for optical-thermal simulations. An in-silico approach was adopted due to the flexibility in placing the tumour at a desired location along the bladder lining. Results indicate that for the treatment parameters considered (laser power 0.3 W, GNR volume fraction 0.01% v/v), only Case 1 can be used for an effective GNR-PTT. No damage to the tumour was observed in Cases 2 and 3. Analysis of the thermo-physiological responses showed that the effectiveness of GNR-PTT in treating bladder cancer depends not only on the depth of the tumour from the skin surface, but also on the type of tissue that the laser must pass through before reaching the tumour. In addition, the results are reliant on GNRs with a diameter of 10 nm and an aspect ratio of 3.8 - tuned to exhibit peak absorption for the chosen laser wavelength. Results from the present study can be used to highlight the potential for using GNR-PTT for treatment of human bladder cancer. It appears that Cases 2 and 3 suggest that GNR-PTT, where the laser passes through the skin to reach the bladder, may be unfeasible in humans. While this study shows the feasibility of using GNRs for photothermal ablation of bladder cancer, it also identifies the current limitations needed to be overcome for an effective clinical application in the bladder cancer patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyperthermia, Induced*
  5. Liong ML, Suzuki T, Yamanaka H, Kurokawa K, Daikuzono N, Nakazato M
    J Clin Laser Med Surg, 1994 Apr;12(2):85-92.
    PMID: 10151050
    Prostalase¿ has a probe that emits a laser beam at 360 degrees . Targeted obstructive prostatic adenoma tissue was heated to above the cytotoxic threshold temperature of 45 degrees C. After successful canine prostate study, from September 1992 to April 1993, 45 patients were treated. This paper reports the 9 months results of this initial cohort of patients. Prostatic and periprostatic temperature mapping showed the mean temperature within the adenoma zone was 49 degrees C, while the periprostatic tissue remained within the safety level of less than 42.5 degrees C. The mean prostate volume reductions at 3, 6, and 9 months were 36, 33, and 38%, respectively. Those patients whose surgery was unsuccessful had prostatic tissue removed by TURP at 2 to 3 months. This tissue revealed a definite zone of coagulative necrosis. For the clinical assessment, patients were divided into urine retention (UR) and nonretention (NR) subgroups. At 9 months, 20 of the 32 UR subgroup and 10 of the 13 NR subgroup patients were available for assessment. Due to poor response or complications, 6 of the 26 UR patients (23%) required ancillary treatment. Hence, 20 of the 26 cases (77%) remained catheter free and their mean maximum uroflow +/- SE was 9.6 +/- 0.7 ml/sec. Based on a Siroky normogram only 7 of these 26 patients (27%) became unobstructed. Two of the 12 NR subgroup patients (17%) required ancillary treatment. The mean maximum uroflow +/- SE was 10.7 +/- 1.2 ml/sec.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyperthermia, Induced/adverse effects; Hyperthermia, Induced/instrumentation*; Hyperthermia, Induced/methods
  6. Dabbagh A, Abdullah BJ, Ramasindarum C, Abu Kasim NH
    Ultrason Imaging, 2014 Oct;36(4):291-316.
    PMID: 24626566 DOI: 10.1177/0161734614526372
    Tissue-mimicking phantoms that are currently available for routine biomedical applications may not be suitable for high-temperature experiments or calibration of thermal modalities. Therefore, design and fabrication of customized thermal phantoms with tailored properties are necessary for thermal therapy studies. A multitude of thermal phantoms have been developed in liquid, solid, and gel forms to simulate biological tissues in thermal therapy experiments. This article is an attempt to outline the various materials and techniques used to prepare thermal phantoms in the gel state. The relevant thermal, electrical, acoustic, and optical properties of these phantoms are presented in detail and the benefits and shortcomings of each type are discussed. This review could assist the researchers in the selection of appropriate phantom recipes for their in vitro study of thermal modalities and highlight the limitations of current phantom recipes that remain to be addressed in further studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyperthermia, Induced/methods*
  7. Manaf NA, Aziz MN, Ridzuan DS, Mohamad Salim MI, Wahab AA, Lai KW, et al.
    Med Biol Eng Comput, 2016 Jun;54(6):967-81.
    PMID: 27039402 DOI: 10.1007/s11517-016-1480-2
    Recently, there is an increasing interest in the use of local hyperthermia treatment for a variety of clinical applications. The desired therapeutic outcome in local hyperthermia treatment is achieved by raising the local temperature to surpass the tissue coagulation threshold, resulting in tissue necrosis. In oncology, local hyperthermia is used as an effective way to destroy cancerous tissues and is said to have the potential to replace conventional treatment regime like surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. However, the inability to closely monitor temperature elevations from hyperthermia treatment in real time with high accuracy continues to limit its clinical applicability. Local hyperthermia treatment requires real-time monitoring system to observe the progression of the destroyed tissue during and after the treatment. Ultrasound is one of the modalities that have great potential for local hyperthermia monitoring, as it is non-ionizing, convenient and has relatively simple signal processing requirement compared to magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. In a two-dimensional ultrasound imaging system, changes in tissue microstructure during local hyperthermia treatment are observed in terms of pixel value analysis extracted from the ultrasound image itself. Although 2D ultrasound has shown to be the most widely used system for monitoring hyperthermia in ultrasound imaging family, 1D ultrasound on the other hand could offer a real-time monitoring and the method enables quantitative measurement to be conducted faster and with simpler measurement instrument. Therefore, this paper proposes a new local hyperthermia monitoring method that is based on one-dimensional ultrasound. Specifically, the study investigates the effect of ultrasound attenuation in normal and pathological breast tissue when the temperature in tissue is varied between 37 and 65 °C during local hyperthermia treatment. Besides that, the total protein content measurement was also conducted to investigate the relationship between attenuation and tissue denaturation level at different temperature ranges. The tissues were grouped according to their histology results, namely normal tissue with large predominance of cells (NPC), cancer tissue with large predominance of cells (CPC) and cancer with high collagen fiber content (CHF). The result shows that the attenuation coefficient of ultrasound measured following the local hyperthermia treatment increases with the increment of collagen fiber content in tissue as the CHF attenuated ultrasound at the highest rate, followed by NPC and CPC. Additionally, the attenuation increment is more pronounced at the temperature over 55 °C. This describes that the ultrasound wave experienced more energy loss when it propagates through a heated tissue as the tissue structure changes due to protein coagulation effect. Additionally, a significant increase in the sensitivity of attenuation to protein denaturation is also observed with the highest sensitivity obtained in monitoring NPC. Overall, it is concluded that one-dimensional ultrasound can be used as a monitoring method of local hyperthermia since its attenuation is very sensitive to the changes in tissue microstructure during hyperthermia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyperthermia, Induced/methods*
  8. Chan CLK, Annapoorna V, Roy AC, Ng SC
    Med J Malaysia, 2001 Sep;56(3):370-3.
    PMID: 11732085
    A 45 years old Chinese housewife presented with menorrhagia and dysmenorrhoea due to adenomyosis failed to respond to various medical treatments. She was treated with balloon thermoablation. The total menstrual blood loss (MBL) decreased from 96.94 ml before to 37.57 ml, six months after thermoablation. The pictorial blood loss chart (PBLC) showed similar decrease in blood loss. Dysmenorrhoea was also cured. At three year follow up, there was no recurrence. This is the first report which shows thermoablation decreases MBL objectively and can be tried to treat adenomyosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyperthermia, Induced*
  9. DIDSBURY B
    Med J Malaya, 1953 Dec;8(2):192-201.
    PMID: 13164690
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyperthermia, Induced*
  10. Dabbagh A, Hedayatnasab Z, Karimian H, Sarraf M, Yeong CH, Madaah Hosseini HR, et al.
    Int J Hyperthermia, 2019;36(1):104-114.
    PMID: 30428737 DOI: 10.1080/02656736.2018.1536809
    PURPOSE: Although magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) are promising agents for hyperthermia therapy, insufficient drug encapsulation efficacies inhibit their application as nanocarriers in the targeted drug delivery systems. In this study, porous magnetite nanoparticles (PMNPs) were synthesized and coated with a thermosensitive polymeric shell to obtain a synergistic effect of hyperthermia and chemotherapy.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: PMNPs were produced using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide template and then coated by a polyethylene glycol layer with molecular weight of 1500 Da (PEG1500) and phase transition temperature of 48 ± 2 °C to endow a thermosensitive behavior. The profile of drug release from the nanostructure was studied at various hyperthermia conditions generated by waterbath, magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS), and alternating magnetic field (AMF). The in vitro cytotoxicity and hyperthermia efficacy of the doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles (DOX-PEG1500-PMNPs) were assessed using human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells.

    RESULTS: Heat treatment of DOX-PEG1500-PMNPs containing 235 ± 26 mg·g-1 DOX at 48 °C by waterbath, MRgFUS, and AMF, respectively led to 71 ± 4%, 48 ± 3%, and 74 ± 5% drug release. Hyperthermia treatment of the A549 cells using DOX-PEG1500-PMNPs led to 77% decrease in the cell viability due to the synergistic effects of magnetic hyperthermia and chemotherapy.

    CONCLUSION: The large pores generated in the PMNPs structure could provide a sufficient space for encapsulation of the chemotherapeutics as well as fast drug encapsulation and release kinetics, which together with thermosensitive characteristics of the PEG1500 shell, make DOX-PEG1500-PMNPs promising adjuvants to the magnetic hyperthermia modality.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hyperthermia, Induced/methods*
  11. Ashrafizadeh M, Delfi M, Zarrabi A, Bigham A, Sharifi E, Rabiee N, et al.
    J Control Release, 2022 Nov;351:50-80.
    PMID: 35934254 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2022.08.001
    The site-specific delivery of antitumor agents is of importance for providing effective cancer suppression. Poor bioavailability of anticancer compounds and the presence of biological barriers prevent their accumulation in tumor sites. These obstacles can be overcome using liposomal nanostructures. The challenges in cancer chemotherapy and stimuli-responsive nanocarriers are first described in the current review. Then, stimuli-responsive liposomes including pH-, redox-, enzyme-, light-, thermo- and magneto-sensitive nanoparticles are discussed and their potential for delivery of anticancer drugs is emphasized. The pH- or redox-sensitive liposomes are based on internal stimulus and release drug in response to a mildly acidic pH and GSH, respectively. The pH-sensitive liposomes can mediate endosomal escape via proton sponge. The multifunctional liposomes responsive to both redox and pH have more capacity in drug release at tumor site compared to pH- or redox-sensitive alone. The magnetic field and NIR irradiation can be exploited for external stimulation of liposomes. The light-responsive liposomes release drugs when they are exposed to irradiation; thermosensitive-liposomes release drugs at a temperature of >40 °C when there is hyperthermia; magneto-responsive liposomes release drugs in presence of magnetic field. These smart nanoliposomes also mediate co-delivery of drugs and genes in synergistic cancer therapy. Due to lack of long-term toxicity of liposomes, they can be utilized in near future for treatment of cancer patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyperthermia, Induced*
  12. Soomro IA, Pedapati SR, Awang M
    Materials (Basel), 2021 Feb 08;14(4).
    PMID: 33567606 DOI: 10.3390/ma14040802
    Resistance spot welding (RSW) of dual phase (DP) steels is a challenging task due to formation of brittle martensitic structure in the fusion zone (FZ), resulting in a low energy capacity of the joint during high-rate loading. In the present study, in situ postweld heat treatment (PWHT) was carried out by employing a double pulse welding scheme with the aim of improving the mechanical performance of DP590 steel resistance spot weld joint. Taguchi method was used to optimize in situ PWHT parameters to obtain maximum peak load and failure energy. Experiments were designed based on orthogonal array (OA) L16. Mechanical performance was evaluated in terms of peak load and failure energy after performing low dynamic tensile shear (TS) test. Microstructural characterization was carried out using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that improvements of 17 and 86% in peak load and failure energy, respectively, were achieved in double-pulse welding (DPW) at optimum conditions compared to traditional single-pulse welding (SPW). The improvement in mechanical performance resulted from (i) enlargement of the FZ and (ii) improved weld toughness due to tempering of martensite in the FZ and subcritical heat affected zone (SCHAZ). These factors are influenced by heat input, which in turn depends upon in situ PWHT parameters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyperthermia, Induced
  13. Che Rose L, Bear JC, McNaughter PD, Southern P, Piggott RB, Parkin IP, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016;6:20271.
    PMID: 26842884 DOI: 10.1038/srep20271
    An orally-administered system for targeted, on-demand drug delivery to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is highly desirable due to the high instances of diseases of that organ system and harsh mechanical and physical conditions any such system has to endure. To that end, we present an iron oxide nanoparticle/wax composite capsule coating using magnetic hyperthermia as a release trigger. The coating is synthesised using a simple dip-coating process from pharmaceutically approved materials using a gelatin drug capsule as a template. We show that the coating is impervious to chemical conditions within the GI tract and is completely melted within two minutes when exposed to an RF magnetic field under biologically-relevant conditions. The overall simplicity of action, durability and non-toxic and inexpensive nature of our system demonstrated herein are key for successful drug delivery systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyperthermia, Induced
  14. Amiri A, Shanbedi M, Ahmadi G, Eshghi H, Kazi SN, Chew BT, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 09 08;6:32686.
    PMID: 27604639 DOI: 10.1038/srep32686
    This study reports on a facile and economical method for the scalable synthesis of few-layered graphene sheets by the microwave-assisted functionalization. Herein, single-layered and few-layered graphene sheets were produced by dispersion and exfoliation of functionalized graphite in ethylene glycol. Thermal treatment was used to prepare pure graphene without functional groups, and the pure graphene was labeled as thermally-treated graphene (T-GR). The morphological and statistical studies about the distribution of the number of layers showed that more than 90% of the flakes of T-GR had less than two layers and about 84% of T-GR were single-layered. The microwave-assisted exfoliation approach presents us with a possibility for a mass production of graphene at low cost and great potentials in energy storage applications of graphene-based materials. Owing to unique surface chemistry, the T-GR demonstrates an excellent energy storage performance, and the electrochemical capacitance is much higher than that of the other carbon-based nanostructures. The nanoscopic porous morphology of the T-GR-based electrodes made a significant contribution in increasing the BET surface as well as the specific capacitance of graphene. T-GR, with a capacitance of 354.1 Fg(-1) at 5 mVs(-1) and 264 Fg(-1) at 100 mVs(-1), exhibits excellent performance as a supercapacitor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyperthermia, Induced
  15. Jamil NH, Abdullah MMAB, Pa FC, Mohamad H, Ibrahim WMAW, Amonpattaratkit P, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2021 Mar 10;14(6).
    PMID: 33801862 DOI: 10.3390/ma14061325
    Kaolin, theoretically known as having low reactivity during geopolymerization, was used as a source of aluminosilicate materials in this study. Due to this concern, it is challenging to directly produce kaolin geopolymers without pre-treatment. The addition of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) accelerated the geopolymerization process. Kaolin-GGBS geopolymer ceramic was prepared at a low sintering temperature due to the reaction of the chemical composition during the initial stage of geopolymerization. The objective of this work was to study the influence of the chemical composition towards sintering temperature of sintered kaolin-GGBS geopolymer. Kaolin-GGBS geopolymer was prepared with a ratio of solid to liquid 2:1 and cured at 60 °C for 14 days. The cured geopolymer was sintered at different temperatures: 800, 900, 1000, and 1100 °C. Sintering at 900 °C resulted in the highest compressive strength due to the formation of densified microstructure, while higher sintering temperature led to the formation of interconnected pores. The difference in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra was related to the phases obtained from the X-ray diffraction analysis, such as akermanite and anothite. Thermal analysis indicated the stability of sintered kaolin-GGBS geopolymer when exposed to 1100 °C, proving that kaolin can be directly used without heat treatment in geopolymers. The geopolymerization process facilitates the stability of cured samples when directly sintered, as well as plays a significant role as a self-fluxing agent to reduce the sintering temperature when producing sintered kaolin-GGBS geopolymers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyperthermia, Induced
  16. Dabbagh A, Mahmoodian R, Abdullah BJ, Abdullah H, Hamdi M, Abu Kasim NH
    Int J Hyperthermia, 2015;31(8):920-9.
    PMID: 26670340 DOI: 10.3109/02656736.2015.1094147
    The aim of this paper was to synthesise core-shell nanostructures comprised of mesoporous silica core and a low melting-point polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanoshell with a sharp gel-liquid phase transition for rapid drug release at hyperthermia temperature range.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyperthermia, Induced*
  17. Dabbagh A, Abdullah BJ, Abu Kasim NH, Abdullah H, Hamdi M
    Int J Hyperthermia, 2015 Jun;31(4):375-85.
    PMID: 25716769 DOI: 10.3109/02656736.2015.1006268
    The aim of this paper was to introduce a new mechanism of thermal sensitivity in nanocarriers that results in a relatively low drug release at physiological temperature and rapid release of the encapsulated drug at hyperthermia and thermal ablation temperature range (40-60 °C).
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyperthermia, Induced/methods*
  18. Dabbagh A, Abdullah BJ, Abu Kasim NH, Ramasindarum C
    Int J Hyperthermia, 2014 Feb;30(1):66-74.
    PMID: 24286257 DOI: 10.3109/02656736.2013.854930
    The emergence of thermal modalities has promoted the use of heat-sensitive phantoms for calibration, measurement, and verification purposes. However, development of durable phantoms with high precision ability to represent the temperature distribution remains a challenge. This study aims to introduce a reusable phantom that provides an accurate assessment of the heated region in various thermal modalities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyperthermia, Induced/instrumentation*
  19. Miyazaki T, Akaike J, Kawashita M, Lim HN
    PMID: 30889741 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.01.091
    Nanocomposites of magnetite (Fe3O4) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) generate heat under an alternating magnetic field and therefore have potential applications as thermoseeds for cancer hyperthermia treatment. However, the properties of such nanocomposites as biomaterials have not been sufficiently well characterized. In this study, the osteoconductivity of Fe3O4-rGO nanocomposites of various compositions was evaluated in vitro in terms of their apatite-forming ability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Furthermore, the heat generation of the nanocomposites was measured under an alternating magnetic field. The apatite-forming ability in SBF improved as the Fe3O4 content in the nanocomposite was increased. As the Fe3O4 content was increased, the nanocomposite not only rapidly raised the surrounding temperature to approximately 100 °C, but the specific absorption rate also increased. We assumed that the ionic interaction between the Fe3O4 and rGO was enhanced and that Brown relaxation was suppressed as the proportion of rGO in the nanocomposite was increased. Consequently, a high content of Fe3O4 in the nanocomposite was effective for improving both the osteoconductivity and heat generation characteristics for hyperthermia applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyperthermia, Induced*
  20. Tuan Zainazor, T. C., Afsah-Hejri, L., Noor Hidayah, M. S., Noor Eliza, M. R., Naziehah, M. D., Tang, J. Y. H., et al.
    MyJurnal
    Presence of Norovirus in food can cause viral gasteroenteritis. Recently, lots of reports relating to Norovirus in food have been published. Special attention must be paid to the raw foods as they are not subjected to further heat treatment. In this study, pegaga, kesum, tauge and ulam raja (popular salad vegetables in Malaysia) were investigated for Norovirus. A total of 32 samples from each type of salad vegetables were purchased from local market and analyzed using One-step RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction) for both genogroups namely Norovirus Genogroup I and Genogroup II. Results showed that tauge had the highest contamination with Norovirus Genogroup I (15.6%) comparing to pegaga (9.4%), kesum (12.5%)
    and ulam raja (0%). Samples were free from Norovirus Genogroup II. The study showed that raw vegetables are high-risk foods and can be contaminated with Norovirus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hyperthermia, Induced
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