In this study, a new magnetorheological (MR) grease was made featuring plate-like carbonyl iron (CI) particles, and its magnetic field-dependent rheological properties were experimentally characterized. The plate-like CI particles were prepared through high-energy ball milling of spherical CI particles. Then, three different ratios of the CI particles in the MR grease, varying from 30 to 70 wt% were mixed by dispersing the plate-like CI particles into the grease medium with a mechanical stirrer. The magnetic field-dependent rheological properties of the plate-like CI particle-based MR grease were then investigated using a rheometer by changing the magnetic field intensity from 0 to 0.7 T at room temperature. The measurement was undertaken at two different modes, namely, a continuous shear mode and oscillation mode. It was shown that both the apparent viscosity and storage modulus of the MR grease were heavily dependent on the magnetic field intensity as well as the CI particle fraction. In addition, the differences in the yield stress and the MR effect between the proposed MR grease featuring the plate-like CI particles and the existing MR grease with the spherical CI particles were investigated and discussed in detail.
The main problem of landfill leachate is its diverse composition comprising many persistent organic pollutants which must be removed before being discharge into the environment. This study investigated the treatment of raw landfill leachate using electrocoagulation process. An electrocoagulation system was designed with iron as both the anode and cathode. The effects of inter-electrode distance, initial pH and electrolyte concentration on colour and COD removals were investigated. All these factors were found to have significant effects on the colour removal. On the other hand, electrolyte concentration was the most significant parameter affecting the COD removal. Numerical optimization was also conducted to obtain the optimum process performance. Under optimum conditions (initial pH: 7.73, inter-electrode distance: 1.16 cm, and electrolyte concentration (NaCl): 2.00 g/L), the process could remove up to 82.7% colour and 45.1% COD. The process can be applied as a pre-treatment for raw leachates before applying other appropriate treatment technologies.
The application of the anammox process has great potential in treating nitrogen-rich wastewater. The presence of Fe (II) is expected to affect the growth and activity of anammox bacteria. Short-term (acute) and long-term effects (chronic) of Fe (II) on anammox activity were investigated. In the short-term study, results demonstrated that the optimum concentration of Fe (II) that could be added to anammox is 0.08 mM, at which specific anammox activity (SAA) improved by 60% compared to the control assay, 0.00 mM. The inhibition concentration, IC50, of Fe (II) was found to be 0.192 mM. Kinetics of anammox specific growth rate were estimated based on results of the batch test and evaluated with Han-Levenspiel's substrate inhibition kinetics model. The optimum concentration and IC50 of Fe (II) predicted by the Han-Levenspiel model was similar to the batch test, with values of 0.07 mM and 0.20 mM, respectively. The long-term effect of Fe (II) on the performance of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was evaluated. Results showed that an appropriate Fe (II) addition enhanced anammox activity, achieving 85% NH4+-N and 96% NO2--N removal efficiency when 0.08 mM of Fe (II) was added. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was adopted to detect and identify the anammox bacteria.
In the present study, a comparison of central composite design (CCD) and Taguchi method was established for Fenton oxidation. [Dye]ini, Dye:Fe(+2), H2O2:Fe(+2), and pH were identified control variables while COD and decolorization efficiency were selected responses. L 9 orthogonal array and face-centered CCD were used for the experimental design. Maximum 99% decolorization and 80% COD removal efficiency were obtained under optimum conditions. R squared values of 0.97 and 0.95 for CCD and Taguchi method, respectively, indicate that both models are statistically significant and are in well agreement with each other. Furthermore, Prob > F less than 0.0500 and ANOVA results indicate the good fitting of selected model with experimental results. Nevertheless, possibility of ranking of input variables in terms of percent contribution to the response value has made Taguchi method a suitable approach for scrutinizing the operating parameters. For present case, pH with percent contribution of 87.62% and 66.2% was ranked as the most contributing and significant factor. This finding of Taguchi method was also verified by 3D contour plots of CCD. Therefore, from this comparative study, it is concluded that Taguchi method with 9 experimental runs and simple interaction plots is a suitable alternative to CCD for several chemical engineering applications.
To enhance the potential of activated carbon (AC), iron incorporation into the AC surface was examined in the present investigations. Iron doped activated carbon (FeAC) material was synthesized and characterized by using surface area analysis, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The surface area of FeAC (543 m(2)/g) was found to be lower than AC (1043 m(2)/g) as a result of the pores widening due to diffusion of iron particles into the porous AC. Iron uploading on AC surface was confirmed through EDX analysis, showing up to 13.75 wt.% iron on FeAC surface. TPR and TPD profiles revealed the presence of more active sites on FeAC surface. FeAC have shown up to 98% methylene blue (MB) removal from the aqueous media. Thermodynamic parameters indicated the spontaneous and exothermic nature of the sorption processes.
The mineralisation kinetics of petroleum refinery effluent (PRE) by Fenton oxidation were evaluated. Within the ambit of the experimental data generated, first-order kinetic model (FKM), generalised lumped kinetic model (GLKM), and generalized kinetic model (GKM) were tested. The obtained apparent kinetic rate constants for the initial oxidation step (k'2), their final oxidation step (k'1), and the direct conversion to endproducts step (k3') were 10.12, 3.78, and 0.24 min(-1) for GKM; 0.98, 0.98, and nil min(-1) for GLKM; and nil, nil, and >0.005 min(-1) for FKM. The findings showed that GKM is superior in estimating the mineralization kinetics.
The mineralisation of remazol black B (RBB) was studied at concentrations ranging from 20-1000 mgL(-1). The work was aimed at investigating the Fenton-like peroxidation of RBB at a concentration typically obtained in Batik cottage industries. Other response parameters were degradation and colour removal efficiencies. The parameters that were measured included total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) as well as absorbance for mineralisation, degradation and colour. To optimise the process, the interaction effects of several controlling variables on the treatment process were examined using dispersion matrix-optimal design and response surface analysis. Four specific variables: initial dye concentration (Dye)o; the molar ratio of oxidant to dye organic strength (H2O2):(COD); the mass ratio of the oxidant to the catalyst (H2O2):(Fe3+) and reaction time (t(r)), were observed. Three reduced empirical models, one for each response, were developed for describing the treatment process. For 20, 510 and 1000 mgL(-1), the optimum %TOC reduction and oxidation times were 44% for 95 min, 52% for 52.5 min and 68% for 10 min corresponding to 67, 81 and 75% COD reduction, respectively. The optimum COD reduction and oxidation times were 89% for 95 min, 91% for 10 min and 84% for 95 min for concentrations of 20, 510 and 1000 mg L(-1), respectively. For all concentrations, total colour removal was achieved. A comparison of the results obtained in this study with literature values for traditional Fenton, photo-Fenton and photo-Fenton-like oxidation indicated that the TOC reduction obtained using the Fenton-like process was satisfactory.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of Fenton's technique for the treatment of semi-aerobic landfill leachate collected from Pulau Burung Landfill Site (PBLS), Penang, Malaysia. The Fe2+ or Fe3+ as catalyst and H2O2 as oxidizing agent are commonly used for the classical Fenton's reaction. In present study, the effect of operating conditions such as pH, reaction time, molar ratio, agitation rate, feeding mode and Fenton reagent concentrations which are important parameters that affect the removal efficiencies of Fenton method were investigated. Under the most favorable conditions, the highest removals of 58.1 and 78.3% were observed for COD and color, respectively. In general, the best operating conditions were pH = 3, Fe = 560 mg L(-1), H2O2 = 1020 mg L(-1), H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio = 3, agitation rate = 400 rpm and reaction time = 120 minutes. The results highlighted that stepwise addition of Fenton's reagent was more effective than adding the entire volume in a single step. Excessive hydrogen peroxide and iron have shown scavenging effects on hydroxyl radicals and reduced degradation of refractory organics in the landfill leachate.
In this study, advanced oxidation process utilizing Fenton's reagent was investigated for degradation of malachite green (MG). The effects of different reaction parameters such as the initial MG concentration, initial pH, the initial hydrogen peroxide concentration, the initial ferrous concentration and the reaction temperature on the oxidative degradation of MG have been investigated. The optimal reacting conditions were experimentally found to be pH 3.40, initial hydrogen peroxide concentration=0.50mM and initial ferrous concentration=0.10mM for initial MG concentration of 20mg/L at 30 degrees C. Under optimal conditions, 99.25% degradation efficiency of dye in aqueous solution was achieved after 60 min of reaction.
The effect of pH and redox potential on the redox equilibria of iron oxides in aqueous-based magnetite dispersions was investigated. The ionic activities of each dissolved iron species in equilibrium with magnetite nanoparticles were determined and contoured within the Eh-pH framework of a composite stability diagram. Both standard redox potentials and equilibrium constants for all major iron oxide redox equilibria in magnetite dispersions were found to differ from values reported for noncolloidal systems. The "triple point" position of redox equilibrium among Fe(II) ions, magnetite, and hematite shifted to a higher standard redox potential and an equilibrium constant which was several orders of magnitude higher. The predominant area of magnetite stability was enlarged to cover a wider range of both pH and redox potentials as compared to that of a noncolloidal magnetite system.
Iron and its alloy have been proposed as biodegradable metals for temporary medical implants. However, the formation of iron oxide and iron phosphate on their surface slows down their degradation kinetics in both in vitro and in vivo scenarios. This work presents new approach to tailor degradation behavior of iron by incorporating biodegradable polymers into the metal. Porous pure iron (PPI) was vacuum infiltrated by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to form fully dense PLGA-infiltrated porous iron (PIPI) and dip coated into the PLGA to form partially dense PLGA-coated porous iron (PCPI). Results showed that compressive strength and toughness of the PIPI and PCPI were higher compared to PPI. A strong interfacial interaction was developed between the PLGA layer and the iron surface. Degradation rate of PIPI and PCPI was higher than that of PPI due to the effect of PLGA hydrolysis. The fast degradation of PIPI did not affect the viability of human fibroblast cells. Finally, this work discusses a degradation mechanism for PIPI and the effect of PLGA incorporation in accelerating the degradation of iron.
The main physical properties of ferroelectric crystals are described, and the macroscopic and microscopic viewpoints are discussed along with some applications, such as in capacitors and nonlinear optics. The emphasis is on physical understanding, while the mathematical level is kept to a minimum or supplemented by graphical representations to make the article more accessible.
In this study, effect of degree of deacetylation on property and adsorption capacity of chitosan/polyvinyl Alcohol electrospun membrane has been investigated. Resulting nanofibers were characterized by FESEM, FTIR, XRD, TGA, tensile testing, weight loss test and adsorption test. FESEM result shows, finer nanofiber was fabricated from 42h hydrolyzed chitosan and PVA blend solution. FTIR and XRD result showed a strong interaction between chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol. Higher tensile strength was observed for the nanofiber having 42h hydrolyzed chitosan. Blend solution of chitosan/PVA having low DD chitosan had higher viscosity. The nanofibrous membrane was stable in distilled water, acidic and basic medium. The isotherm study shows that the adsorption capacity (qm) of nanofiber containing higher DD chitosan was higher for Cr(VI). In contrary, the membrane containing chitosan with lower DD showed the higher adsorption capacity for Fe(III) and methyl orange. Moreover, the effect of DD on removal percentage of adsorbate was dependent on the initial concentration of the adsorbate.
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a cosmopolitan mycotoxin found in agricultural commodities causes serious health maladies to human and animals when accidently consumed even at a low quantity. It necessitates selective and sensitive devices to analyse DON as the conventional methods are complex and time-consuming. This study is focused on developing a selective biosensing system using iron nanoflorets graphene nickel (INFGN) as the transducer and a specific aptamer as the biorecognition element. 3D-graphene is incorporated using a low-pressure chemical vapour deposition followed by the decoration of iron nanoflorets using electrochemical deposition. INFGN enables a feasible bio-capturing due to its large surface area. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirms the presence of the hydroxyl groups on the INFGN surface, which acts as the linker. Clear Fourier-transform infrared peak shifts affirm the changes with surface chemical modification and biomolecular assembly. The limit of detection attained is 2.11 pg mL-1 and displays high stability whereby it retains 30.65% of activity after 48 h. The designed INFGN demonstrates remarkable discrimination of DON against similar mycotoxins (zearalenone and ochratoxin A). Overall, the high-performance biosensor shown here is an excellent, simple and cost-effective alternative for detecting DON in food and feed samples.
Aluminum substituted yttrium iron garnet nano particles with compositional variation of Y(3.0-x) A1(x)Fe5O12, where x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 were prepared using sol gel technique. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the best garnet phase appeared when the sintering temperature was 800 degrees C. Nano-crystalline particles with high purity and sizes ranging from 20 to 100 nm were obtained. It was found that the aluminum substitution had resulted in a sharp fall of the d-spacing when x = 2, which we speculated is due to the preference of the aluminum atoms to the smaller tetrahedron and octahedron sites instead of the much larger dodecahedron site. High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and electron diffraction (ED) patterns showed single crystal nanoparticles were obtained from this method. The magnetic measurement gave moderate values of initial permeability; the highest value of 5.3 was shown by sample Y3Fe5O12 at more than 100 MHz which was attributed to the morphology of the microstructure which appeared to be homogeneous. This had resulted in an easy movement of domain walls. The substitution of aluminum for yttrium is speculated to cause a cubic to rhombodedral structural change and had weakened the super-exchange interactions thus a fall of real permeability was observed. This might have created a strain in the sub-lattices and had subsequently caused a shift of resonance frequencies to more than 1.8 GHz when x > 0.5.
Ferrocene or ferrocenium has been widely studied in the field of organometallic complexes because of its stable thermodynamic, kinetic and redox properties. Novel hexaferrocenium tri[hexa(isothiocyanato)iron(III)]trihydroxonium (HexaFc) complex was the product from the reaction of ferrocene, maleic acid and ammonium thiocyanate and was confirmed by elemental analysis CHNS, FTIR and single crystal X-ray crystallography. In this study, HexaFc was used for the first time as an electroactive indicator for porcine DNA biosensor. The UV-Vis DNA titrations with this compound showed hypochromism and redshift at 250 nm with increasing DNA concentrations. The binding constant (Kb) for HexaFc complex towards CT-DNA (calf-thymus DNA) was 3.1 × 104 M-1, indicated intercalator behaviour of the complex. To test the usefulness of this complex for DNA biosensor application, a porcine DNA biosensor was constructed. The recognition probes were covalently immobilised onto silica nanospheres (SiNSs) via glutaraldehyde linker on a screen-printed electrode (SPE). After intercalation with the HexaFc complex, the response of the biosensor to the complementary porcine DNA was measured using differential pulse voltammetry. The DNA biosensor demonstrated a linear response range to the complementary porcine DNA from 1 × 10-6 to 1 × 10-3 µM (R2 = 0.9642) with a limit detection of 4.83 × 10-8 µM and the response was stable up to 23 days of storage at 4 °C with 86% of its initial response. The results indicated that HexaFc complex is a feasible indicator for the DNA hybridisation without the use of a chemical label for the detection of porcine DNA.
PtRu catalyst is a promising anodic catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) but the slow reaction kinetics reduce the performance of DMFCs. Therefore, this study attempts to improve the performance of PtRu catalysts by adding nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe). Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are used to increase the active area of the catalyst and to improve the catalyst performance. Electrochemical analysis techniques, such as energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), are used to characterize the kinetic parameters of the hybrid catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is used to investigate the effects of adding Fe and Ni to the catalyst on the reaction kinetics. Additionally, chronoamperometry (CA) tests were conducted to study the long-term performance of the catalyst for catalyzing the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The binding energies of the reactants and products are compared to determine the kinetics and potential surface energy for methanol oxidation. The FESEM analysis results indicate that well-dispersed nanoscale (2-5 nm) PtRu particles are formed on the MWCNTs. Finally, PtRuFeNi/MWCNT improves the reaction kinetics of anode catalysts for DMFCs and obtains a mass current of 31 A g(-1) catalyst.
Extensive contamination of soils by highly recalcitrant contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is an environmental problem arising from rapid industrialisation. This work focusses on the remediation of soil contaminated with 3- and 4-aromatic ring PAHs (phenanthrene (PHE) and fluoranthene (FLUT)) through catalysed hydrogen peroxide propagation (CHP). In the present work, the operating parameters of the CHP treatment in packed soil column was optimised with central composite design (H2O2/soil 0.081, Fe(3+)/soil 0.024, sodium pyrophosphate (SP)/soil 0.024, pH of SP solution 7.73). The effect of contaminant aging on PAH removals was also investigated. Remarkable oxidative PAH removals were observed for the short aging and extended aging period (up to 86.73 and 70.61 % for PHE and FLUT, respectively). The impacts of CHP on soil biological, chemical and physical properties were studied for both spiked and aged soils. Overall, the soil functionality analyses after the proposed operating condition demonstrated that the values for soil respiration, electrical conductivity, pH and iron precipitation fell within acceptable limits, indicating the compatibility of the CHP process with land restoration.
Fe-doped titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanotubes were prepared using sol-gel followed by hydrothermal methods and characterized using various methods. The sonocatalytic activity was evaluated based on oxidation of Rhodamine B under ultrasonic irradiation. Iron ions (Fe(3+)) might incorporate into the lattice and intercalated in the interlayer spaces of TiO(2) nanotubes. The catalysts showed narrower band gap energies, higher specific surface areas, more active surface oxygen vacancies and significantly improved sonocatalytic activity. The optimum Fe doping at Fe:Ti=0.005 showed the highest sonocatalytic activity and exceeded that of un-doped TiO(2) nanotubes by a factor of 2.3 times. It was believed that Fe(3+) doping induced the formation of new states close to the valence band and conduction bands and accelerated the separation of charge carriers. Leached Fe(3+) could catalyze Fenton-like reaction and led to an increase in the hydroxyl radical (OH) generation. Fe-doped TiO(2) nanotubes could retain high degradation efficiency even after being reused for 4 cycles with minimal loss of Fe from the surface of the catalyst.
Ozonation, combined with the Fenton process (O(3)/H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+)), was used to treat matured landfill leachate. The effectiveness of the Fenton molar ratio, Fenton concentration, pH variance, and reaction time were evaluated under optimum operational conditions. The optimum removal values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, and NH(3)-N were found to be 65%, 98%, and 12%, respectively, for 90 min of ozonation using a Fenton molar ratio of 1 at a Fenton concentration of 0.05 mol L(-1) (1700 mg/L) H(2)O(2) and 0.05 mol L(-1) (2800 mg/L) Fe(2+) at pH 7. The maximum removal of NH(3)-N was 19% at 150 min. The ozone consumption for COD removal was 0.63 kg O(3)/kg COD. To evaluate the effectiveness, the results obtained in the treatment of stabilized leachate were compared with those obtained from other treatment processes, such as ozone alone, Fenton reaction alone, as well as combined Fenton and ozone. The combined method (i.e., O(3)/H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+)) achieved higher removal efficiencies for COD, color, and NH(3)-N compared with other studied applications.