Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 73 in total

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  1. Yakubu ML, Yusop Z, Yusof F
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:361703.
    PMID: 25126597 DOI: 10.1155/2014/361703
    This paper presents the modelled raindrop size parameters in Skudai region of the Johor Bahru, western Malaysia. Presently, there is no model to forecast the characteristics of DSD in Malaysia, and this has an underpinning implication on wet weather pollution predictions. The climate of Skudai exhibits local variability in regional scale. This study established five different parametric expressions describing the rain rate of Skudai; these models are idiosyncratic to the climate of the region. Sophisticated equipment that converts sound to a relevant raindrop diameter is often too expensive and its cost sometimes overrides its attractiveness. In this study, a physical low-cost method was used to record the DSD of the study area. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to test the aptness of the data to exponential and lognormal distributions, which were subsequently used to formulate the parameterisation of the distributions. This research abrogates the concept of exclusive occurrence of convective storm in tropical regions and presented a new insight into their concurrence appearance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  2. Syadwa AS, Anita ZB
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2018 Aug;73(4):190-196.
    PMID: 30121680 MyJurnal
    AIM: Symptomatic relief following palliative radiotherapy for advanced cancers may take a few weeks up to a few months to achieve. Thus, accurate prognostication is important to avoid harm to these patients with limited lifespan. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to determine the median survival and 30-day mortality (30-DM) and factors associated with these parameters in our centre.

    METHODS: Data from 585 eligible patients who received palliative radiotherapy between January 2012 and December 2014 were analysed. Median overall survival was calculated from the commencement of first fraction of the last course of radiotherapy to date of death or when censored. 30-DM was calculated as the proportion of patients who died within 30 days from treatment start date. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate survival. Chi-square test and logistic regression was used to assess the impact of potential prognostic factors on median survival and 30-DM.

    RESULTS: The most common diagnoses were lung and breast cancers and most common irradiated sites were bone and brain. Median survival and 30-DM were 97 days and 22.7% respectively. Primary cancer, age, treatment course, performance status, systemic treatment post radiotherapy and intended radiotherapy treatment completed had an impact on median survival whereas mainly the latter three factors had an impact on 30-DM.

    CONCLUSION: Median survival and factors affecting both survival and 30-DM in our study are comparable to others. However, a 30-DM rate of 22.7% is significantly higher compared to the literature. We need to better select patients who will benefit from palliative radiotherapy in our centre.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  3. Loh LC, Tan RY, Chan LY, Govindaraju S, Ratnavelu K, Kumar S, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2006 Jul;13(2):24-9.
    PMID: 22589601 MyJurnal
    In Malaysia, many patients opted out of cancer-specific treatment for various reasons. This study was undertaken to investigate the survival rate of patients with stages I to III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who opted out of treatment, compared with those who accepted treatment. Case records of 119 patients diagnosed with NSCLC between 1996 and 2003 in two urban-based hospitals were retrospectively examined. Survival status was ascertained from follow-up medical clinic records or telephone contact with patients or their next-of-kin. Median (25-75% IQR) survival rate for 79 patients who accepted and 22 patients who opted out of treatment, were 8.6 (16.0-3.7) and 2.2 (3.5-0.8) months respectively [log rank p< 0.001, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis]. Except for proportionately more patients with large cell carcinoma who declined treatment, there was no significant difference between the two groups in relation with age, gender, ethnicity, tumour stage, and time delays between symptom onset and treatment or decision-to-treat. We concluded that there was a small but significant survival benefit in accepting cancer-specific treatment. The findings imply that there is no effective alternative therapy to cancer-specific treatment in improving survival. However, overall prognosis for patients with NSCLC remains dismal.

    Study site: Seremban General Hospital and Nilai Cancer
    Hospital
    Matched MeSH terms: Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  4. Ng WP, Liew BS, Idris Z, Rosman AK
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Mar;24(2):78-86.
    PMID: 28894407 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.2.10
    BACKGROUND: High grade gliomas (HGGs) are locally invasive brain tumours that carry a dismal prognosis. Although complete resection increases median survival, the difficulty in reliably demonstrating the tumour border intraoperatively is a norm. The Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Sungai Buloh is the first public hospital in Malaysia to overcome this problem by adopting fluorescence-guided (FG) surgery using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA).

    METHODS: A total of 74 patients with histologically proven HGGs treated between January 2008 and December 2014, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were enrolled. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and Cox proportional hazard regression were used.

    RESULTS: Significant longer survival time (months) was observed in the FG group compared with the conventional group (12 months versus 8 months, P < 0.020). Even without adjuvant therapy, HGG patients from FG group survived longer than those from the conventional group (8 months versus 3 months, P = 0.006). No significant differences were seen in postoperative Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) between the groups at 6 weeks and 6 months after surgery compared to pre-operative KPS. Cox proportional hazard regression identified four independent predictors of survival: KPS > 80 (P = 0.010), histology (P < 0.001), surgical method (P < 0.001) and adjuvant therapy (P < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: This study showed a significant clinical benefit for HGG patients in terms of overall survival using FG surgery as it did not result in worsening of post-operative function outcome when compared with the conventional surgical method. We advocate a further multicentered, randomised controlled trial to support these findings before FG surgery can be implemented as a standard surgical adjunct in local practice for the benefit of HGG patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  5. Fathinul Fikri AS, Dharmendran R, Vikneswaran P, Nordin AJ
    Abdom Imaging, 2015 Aug;40(6):1457-64.
    PMID: 25576048 DOI: 10.1007/s00261-014-0343-2
    A study was undertaken to investigate the value of pretreatment PET-CT in predicting survival in patients with oesophageal cancer (OC).
    Matched MeSH terms: Kaplan-Meier Estimate*
  6. Kosalaraksa P, Boettiger DC, Bunupuradah T, Hansudewechakul R, Saramony S, Do VC, et al.
    J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc, 2017 Jun 01;6(2):173-177.
    PMID: 27295973 DOI: 10.1093/jpids/piw031
    Background.: Regular CD4 count testing is often used to monitor antiretroviral therapy efficacy. However, this practice may be redundant in children with a suppressed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load.

    Methods: Study end points were as follows: (1) a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 followed by a CD4 count ≥200 cells/mm3 (transient CD4 <200); (2) CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 confirmed within 6 months (confirmed CD4 <200); and (3) a new or recurrent World Health Organization (WHO) stage 3 or 4 illness (clinical failure). Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were used to evaluate rates and predictors of transient CD4 <200, confirmed CD4 <200, and clinical failure among virally suppressed children aged 5-15 years who were enrolled in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database.

    Results: Data from 967 children were included in the analysis. At the time of confirmed viral suppression, median age was 10.2 years, 50.4% of children were female, and 95.4% were perinatally infected with HIV. Median CD4 cell count was 837 cells/mm3, and 54.8% of children were classified as having WHO stage 3 or 4 disease. In total, 18 transient CD4 <200 events, 2 confirmed CD4 <200 events, and10 clinical failures occurred at rates of 0.73 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.46-1.16), 0.08 (95% CI, 0.02-0.32), and 0.40 (95% CI, 0.22-0.75) events per 100 patient-years, respectively. CD4 <500 cells/mm3 at the time of viral suppression confirmation was associated with higher rates of both CD4 outcomes.

    Conclusions: Regular CD4 testing may be unnecessary for virally suppressed children aged 5-15 years with CD4 ≥500 cells/mm3.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  7. Reynolds D, Duray GZ, Omar R, Soejima K, Neuzil P, Zhang S, et al.
    N. Engl. J. Med., 2016 Feb 11;374(6):533-41.
    PMID: 26551877 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1511643
    BACKGROUND: A leadless intracardiac transcatheter pacing system has been designed to avoid the need for a pacemaker pocket and transvenous lead.
    METHODS: In a prospective multicenter study without controls, a transcatheter pacemaker was implanted in patients who had guideline-based indications for ventricular pacing. The analysis of the primary end points began when 300 patients reached 6 months of follow-up. The primary safety end point was freedom from system-related or procedure-related major complications. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage of patients with low and stable pacing capture thresholds at 6 months (≤2.0 V at a pulse width of 0.24 msec and an increase of ≤1.5 V from the time of implantation). The safety and efficacy end points were evaluated against performance goals (based on historical data) of 83% and 80%, respectively. We also performed a post hoc analysis in which the rates of major complications were compared with those in a control cohort of 2667 patients with transvenous pacemakers from six previously published studies.
    RESULTS: The device was successfully implanted in 719 of 725 patients (99.2%). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the rate of the primary safety end point was 96.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 93.9 to 97.3; P<0.001 for the comparison with the safety performance goal of 83%); there were 28 major complications in 25 of 725 patients, and no dislodgements. The rate of the primary efficacy end point was 98.3% (95% CI, 96.1 to 99.5; P<0.001 for the comparison with the efficacy performance goal of 80%) among 292 of 297 patients with paired 6-month data. Although there were 28 major complications in 25 patients, patients with transcatheter pacemakers had significantly fewer major complications than did the control patients (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.75; P=0.001).
    CONCLUSIONS: In this historical comparison study, the transcatheter pacemaker met the prespecified safety and efficacy goals; it had a safety profile similar to that of a transvenous system while providing low and stable pacing thresholds. (Funded by Medtronic; Micra Transcatheter Pacing Study ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02004873.).
    Matched MeSH terms: Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  8. Capeding MR, Tran NH, Hadinegoro SR, Ismail HI, Chotpitayasunondh T, Chua MN, et al.
    Lancet, 2014 Oct 11;384(9951):1358-65.
    PMID: 25018116 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61060-6
    An estimated 100 million people have symptomatic dengue infection every year. This is the first report of a phase 3 vaccine efficacy trial of a candidate dengue vaccine. We aimed to assess the efficacy of the CYD dengue vaccine against symptomatic, virologically confirmed dengue in children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  9. Norsa' adah B, Nur-Zafira A, Knight A
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(6):2857-60.
    PMID: 22938473
    Pancreatic cancer is usually detected late and has a high mortality rate. Since little is known about this cancer in Malaysia, a review of all cases admitted to Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital was conducted to identify the epidemiological distribution and assess survival. A list of pancreatic cancer patients in 2001-2008 was obtained from the Hospital Record Department. Only cases confirmed by radio-imaging or histo-pathology examination were included. We excluded those with incomplete medical records. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard approaches were used for data analysis. Only 56 cases were included with a mean (SD) age of 49.6 (16.0) years, with 60.7% males and 82.1% of Malay ethnicity. Previous history included cholelithiasis in 23.2%, diabetes mellitus in 16.1%, previous laparotomy in 10.7%, chronic pancreatitis in 7.1%, alcohol drinking in 5.4% and positive family history in 3.6%. The common presenting history included 67.9% loss of appetite, 66.1% loss of weight, 58.9% jaundice and 46.4% abdominal pain. Tumour staging was: 21.5% stage l, 17.8% stage ll, 3.6% stage lll and 57.1% stage lV. The median (95% CI) survival time was 3.4 (0.5, 6.3) months and significant prognostic factors were duration of symptoms (HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95, 0.99; p value 0.013), ascites (HR 2.64; 95% CI: 1.28, 5.44; p value 0.008) and Whipple surgery (HR 4.20; 95% CI: 2.27, 7.76; p value <0.001). The history of presenting complaints was short and the majority presented at late stages of the disease, thus the median survival time was very poor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  10. Phua CE, Bustam AZ, Yip CH, Taib NA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(5):1205-11.
    PMID: 21198264
    BACKGROUND: Information about elderly breast cancer patients' outcome is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the treatment outcomes in women aged 70 and above with specific analysis on prognostic clinicopathological features and treatment modalities.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study examined breast cancer patients between 1st January 1994 and 31st December 2004 in UMMC. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and comparisons between groups using the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analysis on prognostic factors were carried out using the Cox's proportionate hazard model for patient demographics, and tumour and treatment factors.

    RESULTS: One hundred and thirty six patients were identified, with a median age at diagnosis of 75 years. Most had at least one co-morbidity (61.8%). Only 75.0% had a good performance status (ECOG 0-1). Mean tumour size was 4.4 cm. Primary tumour stages (T stages) 3 and 4 were present in 8.1% and 30.1% of patients respectively, and 30.9% had stage III and 8.8% had stage IV disease based on overall AJCC staging. ER positivity was 58.1%. PR status was positive in 30.1%. Surgery was performed in 69.1% of the patients and mastectomy and axillary clearance were the commonest surgical procedures (50.7%). Some 79.4% of patients received hormonal therapy, 30.1% radiotherapy and only 3.6% chemotherapy. Non-standard treatment was given to 39.0% of patients due to a variety of reasons. The cumulative 5 years overall, relapse free and cause specific survivals were 51.9%, 79.7% and 73.3% respectively. Performance status, T3-4 tumour, presence of metastasis, tumour grade and ER status were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. For cause specific survival they were T4 tumour, presence of metastasis and ER status.

    CONCLUSION: The 5 years overall survival rate was 51.9% and 41.8% of deaths were non-breast cancer related deaths. Low survival rate was related to low life expectancy in this population. Locally advanced disease, metastatic disease and high ER negative rates play a major role in the survival of elderly breast cancer patients in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  11. Ghani WM, Razak IA, Yang YH, Talib NA, Ikeda N, Axell T, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2011;11:82.
    PMID: 21294919 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-82
    Betel quid chewing is a common habit widely practiced in Southern Asian populations. However, variations are seen in the content of a betel quid across the different countries. Factors associated with commencement and cessation of this habit has been numerously studied. Unfortunately, data on Malaysian population is non-existent. This study aims to determine the factors associated with the inception and also cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour among Malaysian adults.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  12. Guure CB, Ibrahim NA, Adam MB, Said SM
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(8):e0182873.
    PMID: 28813458 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182873
    BACKGROUND: Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) is an instrument administered by trained personnel to examine levels of participants' cognitive function. However, the association between changes in scores over time and the risk of death (mortality) is not known. The aims of this study are to examine the association between 3MS scores and mortality via cognitive impairment among older women and to determine individuals' risk of changes in scores to better predict their survival and mortality rates.

    METHODS: We propose a Bayesian joint modelling approach to determine mortality due to cognitive impairment via repeated measures of 3MS scores trajectories over a 21-year follow-up period. Data for this study are taken from the Osteoporotic Fracture longitudinal study among women aged 65+ which started in 1986-88.

    RESULTS: The standard relative risk model from the analyses with a baseline 3MS score after adjusting for all the significant covariates demonstrates that, every unit decrease in a 3MS score corresponds to a non-significant 1.059 increase risk of mortality with a 95% CI of (0.981, 1.143), while the extended model results in a significant 0.09% increased risk in mortality. The joint modelling approach found a strong association between the 3MS scores and the risk of mortality, such that, every unit decrease in 3MS scores results in a 1.135 (13%) increased risk of death via cognitive impairment with a 95% CI of (1.056, 1.215).

    CONCLUSION: It has been demonstrated that a decrease in 3MS results has a significant increase risk of mortality due to cognitive impairment via joint modelling, but insignificant when considered under the standard relative risk approach.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  13. Miao H, Hartman M, Verkooijen HM, Taib NA, Wong HS, Subramaniam S, et al.
    BMC Cancer, 2016 10 21;16(1):820.
    PMID: 27769212
    BACKGROUND: CancerMath is a set of web-based prognostic tools which predict nodal status and survival up to 15 years after diagnosis of breast cancer. This study validated its performance in a Southeast Asian setting.

    METHODS: Using Singapore Malaysia Hospital-Based Breast Cancer Registry, clinical information was retrieved from 7064 stage I to III breast cancer patients who were diagnosed between 1990 and 2011 and underwent surgery. Predicted and observed probabilities of positive nodes and survival were compared for each subgroup. Calibration was assessed by plotting observed value against predicted value for each decile of the predicted value. Discrimination was evaluated by area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with 95 % confidence interval (CI).

    RESULTS: The median predicted probability of positive lymph nodes is 40.6 % which was lower than the observed 43.6 % (95 % CI, 42.5 %-44.8 %). The calibration plot showed underestimation for most of the groups. The AUC was 0.71 (95 % CI, 0.70-0.72). Cancermath predicted and observed overall survival probabilities were 87.3 % vs 83.4 % at 5 years after diagnosis and 75.3 % vs 70.4 % at 10 years after diagnosis. The difference was smaller for patients from Singapore, patients diagnosed more recently and patients with favorable tumor characteristics. Calibration plot also illustrated overprediction of survival for patients with poor prognosis. The AUC for 5-year and 10-year overall survival was 0.77 (95 % CI: 0.75-0.79) and 0.74 (95 % CI: 0.71-0.76).

    CONCLUSIONS: The discrimination and calibration of CancerMath were modest. The results suggest that clinical application of CancerMath should be limited to patients with better prognostic profile.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  14. Fahmy O, Khairul-Asri MG, Schubert T, Renninger M, Kübler H, Stenzl A, et al.
    Urol. Oncol., 2018 02;36(2):54-59.
    PMID: 29196179 DOI: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2017.11.007
    PURPOSE: Currently, identified factors for urethral recurrence (UR) are based on individual reporting which has displayed controversy. In addition, risk of UR is one of the limiting factors to offer neobladder diversion during radical cystectomy (RC). We aim to systematically evaluate the incidence and risk factors of UR post-RC and its effect on survival.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic online search was conducted according to PRISMA statement for publications reporting on UR after RC. From initial 802 results, 14 articles including 6169 patients were included finally after exclusion of ineligible studies.

    RESULTS: The incidence rate of UR was 4.4% (1.3%-13.7%). It was significantly lower with neobladder diversion (odds ratio = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24-0.79, P = 0.006). Muscle invasion (hazard ratio = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.86-1.62, P = 0.31), carcinoma in situ (hazard ratio 0.97, 95% CI: 0.64-1.47, P = 0.88), prostatic stromal involvement (hazard ratio = 2.26, 95% CI: 0.01-627.75, P = 0.78), and prostatic urethral involvement (hazard ratio = 2.04, 95% CI: 0.20-20.80, P = 0.55) have no significant effect on UR. Men displayed tendency toward higher incidence of UR (odds ratio = 2.21, 95% CI: 0.96-5.06, P = 0.06). Absence of recurrence displayed tendency toward better disease specific survival, yet not significant (hazard ratio = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.66-1.08, P = 0.17). These results are limited by the retrospective nature of the included studies.

    CONCLUSION: Muscle invasion, carcinoma in situ and prostatic stromal or urethral involvement at time of RC have no significant effect on UR. Orthotopic neobladder is associated with a significant lower risk of UR after RC.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  15. Sudjaritruk T, Aurpibul L, Ly PS, Le TPK, Bunupuradah T, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    J Adolesc Health, 2017 Jul;61(1):91-98.
    PMID: 28343759 DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.01.014
    PURPOSE: To assess the incidence and predictors of postsuppression virologic rebound (VR) among adolescents on stable combination antiretroviral therapy in Asia.

    METHODS: Perinatally HIV-infected Asian adolescents (10-19 years) with documented virologic suppression (two consecutive viral loads [VLs] <400 copies/mL ≥6 months apart) were included. Baseline was the date of the first VL <400 copies/mL at age ≥10 years or the 10th birthday for those with prior suppression. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify predictors of postsuppression VR (VL >1,000 copies/mL).

    RESULTS: Of 1,379 eligible adolescents, 47% were males. At baseline, 22% were receiving protease inhibitor-containing regimens; median CD4 cell count (interquartile range [IQR]) was 685 (448-937) cells/mm3; 2% had preadolescent virologic failure (VF) before subsequent suppression. During adolescence, 180 individuals (13%) experienced postsuppression VR at a rate of 3.4 (95% confidence interval: 2.9-3.9) per 100 person-years, which was consistent over time. Median time to VR during adolescence (IQR) was 3.3 (2.1-4.8) years. Wasting (weight-for-age z-score

    Matched MeSH terms: Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  16. Mat Bah MN, Sapian MH, Jamil MT, Alias A, Zahari N
    Pediatr Cardiol, 2018 Oct;39(7):1389-1396.
    PMID: 29756159 DOI: 10.1007/s00246-018-1908-6
    Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, data on survival of CCHD and the risk factors associated with its mortality are limited. This study examined CCHD survival and the risk factors for CCHD mortality. Using a retrospective cohort study of infants born with CCHD from 2006 to 2015, survival over 10 years was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the risk factors for mortality were analyzed using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression. A total of 491 CCHD cases were included in the study, with an overall mortality rate of 34.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30.6-39.2). The intervention/surgical mortality rate was 9.8% ≤ 30 days and 11.5% > 30 days after surgery, and 17% died before surgery or intervention. The median age at death was 2.7 months [first quartile: 1 month, third quartile: 7.3 months]. The CCHD survival rate was 90.4% (95% CI 89-91.8%) at 1 month, 69.3% (95% CI 67.2-71.4%) at 1 year, 63.4% (95% CI 61.1-65.7%) at 5 years, and 61.4% (95% CI 58.9-63.9%) at 10 years. Weight of
    Matched MeSH terms: Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  17. Gomaa W, Al-Ahwal M, Al-Maghrabi H, Buhmeida A, Al-Qahtani M, Al-Maghrabi B, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2017 Dec;39(3):243-250.
    PMID: 29279586
    BACKGROUND/AIM: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) carries a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Prognosis is related to nodal metastasis and stage. Clusterin is a widely distributed glycoprotein with not yet fully understood functions. Clusterin may be overexpressed in some tumours or under expressed in other tumours. The aim behind this study is to examine the relation of clusterin cytoplasmic immunostaining to tumour characteristics, disease relapse, and survival in CRC.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Paraffin blocks of 133 CRCs were retrieved from the Department of Pathology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Immunostaining was done using antibody to clusterin. Staining expression in 10% of malignant cells was used as a cut-off to determine low immunostaining and high immunostaining. Statistical tests were used to evaluate the association of clusterin immunostaining with clinicopathological parameters.

    RESULTS: Immunohistochemical results showed clusterin low immunostaining in CRC and nodal metastases. No association was found between clusterin immunostaining and tumour grade, age, tumour invasiveness, distant metastases, vascular invasion, nodal metastases, relapse, and survival.

    CONCLUSION: Our study showed low clusterin immunostaining in CRC with lack of association with prognostic indicators in CRC. These results raise the controversy of understanding the role of clusterin in CRC. Further molecular studies are required to explore more about possible mechanisms of clusterin association with tumorigenicity, apoptosis, tumour growth progression, local and vascular invasion, and metastasis of CRC.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  18. Hadinegoro SR, Arredondo-García JL, Capeding MR, Deseda C, Chotpitayasunondh T, Dietze R, et al.
    N. Engl. J. Med., 2015 Sep 24;373(13):1195-206.
    PMID: 26214039 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1506223
    BACKGROUND: A candidate tetravalent dengue vaccine is being assessed in three clinical trials involving more than 35,000 children between the ages of 2 and 16 years in Asian-Pacific and Latin American countries. We report the results of long-term follow-up interim analyses and integrated efficacy analyses.
    METHODS: We are assessing the incidence of hospitalization for virologically confirmed dengue as a surrogate safety end point during follow-up in years 3 to 6 of two phase 3 trials, CYD14 and CYD15, and a phase 2b trial, CYD23/57. We estimated vaccine efficacy using pooled data from the first 25 months of CYD14 and CYD15.
    RESULTS: Follow-up data were available for 10,165 of 10,275 participants (99%) in CYD14 and 19,898 of 20,869 participants (95%) in CYD15. Data were available for 3203 of the 4002 participants (80%) in the CYD23 trial included in CYD57. During year 3 in the CYD14, CYD15, and CYD57 trials combined, hospitalization for virologically confirmed dengue occurred in 65 of 22,177 participants in the vaccine group and 39 of 11,089 participants in the control group. Pooled relative risks of hospitalization for dengue were 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 1.24) among all participants, 1.58 (95% CI, 0.83 to 3.02) among those under the age of 9 years, and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.86) among those 9 years of age or older. During year 3, hospitalization for severe dengue, as defined by the independent data monitoring committee criteria, occurred in 18 of 22,177 participants in the vaccine group and 6 of 11,089 participants in the control group. Pooled rates of efficacy for symptomatic dengue during the first 25 months were 60.3% (95% CI, 55.7 to 64.5) for all participants, 65.6% (95% CI, 60.7 to 69.9) for those 9 years of age or older, and 44.6% (95% CI, 31.6 to 55.0) for those younger than 9 years of age.
    CONCLUSIONS: Although the unexplained higher incidence of hospitalization for dengue in year 3 among children younger than 9 years of age needs to be carefully monitored during long-term follow-up, the risk among children 2 to 16 years of age was lower in the vaccine group than in the control group. (Funded by Sanofi Pasteur; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00842530, NCT01983553, NCT01373281, and NCT01374516.).
    Matched MeSH terms: Kaplan-Meier Estimate
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