METHODS: Data from 585 eligible patients who received palliative radiotherapy between January 2012 and December 2014 were analysed. Median overall survival was calculated from the commencement of first fraction of the last course of radiotherapy to date of death or when censored. 30-DM was calculated as the proportion of patients who died within 30 days from treatment start date. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate survival. Chi-square test and logistic regression was used to assess the impact of potential prognostic factors on median survival and 30-DM.
RESULTS: The most common diagnoses were lung and breast cancers and most common irradiated sites were bone and brain. Median survival and 30-DM were 97 days and 22.7% respectively. Primary cancer, age, treatment course, performance status, systemic treatment post radiotherapy and intended radiotherapy treatment completed had an impact on median survival whereas mainly the latter three factors had an impact on 30-DM.
CONCLUSION: Median survival and factors affecting both survival and 30-DM in our study are comparable to others. However, a 30-DM rate of 22.7% is significantly higher compared to the literature. We need to better select patients who will benefit from palliative radiotherapy in our centre.
METHODS: A total of 74 patients with histologically proven HGGs treated between January 2008 and December 2014, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were enrolled. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and Cox proportional hazard regression were used.
RESULTS: Significant longer survival time (months) was observed in the FG group compared with the conventional group (12 months versus 8 months, P < 0.020). Even without adjuvant therapy, HGG patients from FG group survived longer than those from the conventional group (8 months versus 3 months, P = 0.006). No significant differences were seen in postoperative Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) between the groups at 6 weeks and 6 months after surgery compared to pre-operative KPS. Cox proportional hazard regression identified four independent predictors of survival: KPS > 80 (P = 0.010), histology (P < 0.001), surgical method (P < 0.001) and adjuvant therapy (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: This study showed a significant clinical benefit for HGG patients in terms of overall survival using FG surgery as it did not result in worsening of post-operative function outcome when compared with the conventional surgical method. We advocate a further multicentered, randomised controlled trial to support these findings before FG surgery can be implemented as a standard surgical adjunct in local practice for the benefit of HGG patients.
Methods: Study end points were as follows: (1) a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 followed by a CD4 count ≥200 cells/mm3 (transient CD4 <200); (2) CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 confirmed within 6 months (confirmed CD4 <200); and (3) a new or recurrent World Health Organization (WHO) stage 3 or 4 illness (clinical failure). Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were used to evaluate rates and predictors of transient CD4 <200, confirmed CD4 <200, and clinical failure among virally suppressed children aged 5-15 years who were enrolled in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database.
Results: Data from 967 children were included in the analysis. At the time of confirmed viral suppression, median age was 10.2 years, 50.4% of children were female, and 95.4% were perinatally infected with HIV. Median CD4 cell count was 837 cells/mm3, and 54.8% of children were classified as having WHO stage 3 or 4 disease. In total, 18 transient CD4 <200 events, 2 confirmed CD4 <200 events, and10 clinical failures occurred at rates of 0.73 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.46-1.16), 0.08 (95% CI, 0.02-0.32), and 0.40 (95% CI, 0.22-0.75) events per 100 patient-years, respectively. CD4 <500 cells/mm3 at the time of viral suppression confirmation was associated with higher rates of both CD4 outcomes.
Conclusions: Regular CD4 testing may be unnecessary for virally suppressed children aged 5-15 years with CD4 ≥500 cells/mm3.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study examined breast cancer patients between 1st January 1994 and 31st December 2004 in UMMC. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and comparisons between groups using the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analysis on prognostic factors were carried out using the Cox's proportionate hazard model for patient demographics, and tumour and treatment factors.
RESULTS: One hundred and thirty six patients were identified, with a median age at diagnosis of 75 years. Most had at least one co-morbidity (61.8%). Only 75.0% had a good performance status (ECOG 0-1). Mean tumour size was 4.4 cm. Primary tumour stages (T stages) 3 and 4 were present in 8.1% and 30.1% of patients respectively, and 30.9% had stage III and 8.8% had stage IV disease based on overall AJCC staging. ER positivity was 58.1%. PR status was positive in 30.1%. Surgery was performed in 69.1% of the patients and mastectomy and axillary clearance were the commonest surgical procedures (50.7%). Some 79.4% of patients received hormonal therapy, 30.1% radiotherapy and only 3.6% chemotherapy. Non-standard treatment was given to 39.0% of patients due to a variety of reasons. The cumulative 5 years overall, relapse free and cause specific survivals were 51.9%, 79.7% and 73.3% respectively. Performance status, T3-4 tumour, presence of metastasis, tumour grade and ER status were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. For cause specific survival they were T4 tumour, presence of metastasis and ER status.
CONCLUSION: The 5 years overall survival rate was 51.9% and 41.8% of deaths were non-breast cancer related deaths. Low survival rate was related to low life expectancy in this population. Locally advanced disease, metastatic disease and high ER negative rates play a major role in the survival of elderly breast cancer patients in Malaysia.
METHODS: We propose a Bayesian joint modelling approach to determine mortality due to cognitive impairment via repeated measures of 3MS scores trajectories over a 21-year follow-up period. Data for this study are taken from the Osteoporotic Fracture longitudinal study among women aged 65+ which started in 1986-88.
RESULTS: The standard relative risk model from the analyses with a baseline 3MS score after adjusting for all the significant covariates demonstrates that, every unit decrease in a 3MS score corresponds to a non-significant 1.059 increase risk of mortality with a 95% CI of (0.981, 1.143), while the extended model results in a significant 0.09% increased risk in mortality. The joint modelling approach found a strong association between the 3MS scores and the risk of mortality, such that, every unit decrease in 3MS scores results in a 1.135 (13%) increased risk of death via cognitive impairment with a 95% CI of (1.056, 1.215).
CONCLUSION: It has been demonstrated that a decrease in 3MS results has a significant increase risk of mortality due to cognitive impairment via joint modelling, but insignificant when considered under the standard relative risk approach.
METHODS: Using Singapore Malaysia Hospital-Based Breast Cancer Registry, clinical information was retrieved from 7064 stage I to III breast cancer patients who were diagnosed between 1990 and 2011 and underwent surgery. Predicted and observed probabilities of positive nodes and survival were compared for each subgroup. Calibration was assessed by plotting observed value against predicted value for each decile of the predicted value. Discrimination was evaluated by area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with 95 % confidence interval (CI).
RESULTS: The median predicted probability of positive lymph nodes is 40.6 % which was lower than the observed 43.6 % (95 % CI, 42.5 %-44.8 %). The calibration plot showed underestimation for most of the groups. The AUC was 0.71 (95 % CI, 0.70-0.72). Cancermath predicted and observed overall survival probabilities were 87.3 % vs 83.4 % at 5 years after diagnosis and 75.3 % vs 70.4 % at 10 years after diagnosis. The difference was smaller for patients from Singapore, patients diagnosed more recently and patients with favorable tumor characteristics. Calibration plot also illustrated overprediction of survival for patients with poor prognosis. The AUC for 5-year and 10-year overall survival was 0.77 (95 % CI: 0.75-0.79) and 0.74 (95 % CI: 0.71-0.76).
CONCLUSIONS: The discrimination and calibration of CancerMath were modest. The results suggest that clinical application of CancerMath should be limited to patients with better prognostic profile.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic online search was conducted according to PRISMA statement for publications reporting on UR after RC. From initial 802 results, 14 articles including 6169 patients were included finally after exclusion of ineligible studies.
RESULTS: The incidence rate of UR was 4.4% (1.3%-13.7%). It was significantly lower with neobladder diversion (odds ratio = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24-0.79, P = 0.006). Muscle invasion (hazard ratio = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.86-1.62, P = 0.31), carcinoma in situ (hazard ratio 0.97, 95% CI: 0.64-1.47, P = 0.88), prostatic stromal involvement (hazard ratio = 2.26, 95% CI: 0.01-627.75, P = 0.78), and prostatic urethral involvement (hazard ratio = 2.04, 95% CI: 0.20-20.80, P = 0.55) have no significant effect on UR. Men displayed tendency toward higher incidence of UR (odds ratio = 2.21, 95% CI: 0.96-5.06, P = 0.06). Absence of recurrence displayed tendency toward better disease specific survival, yet not significant (hazard ratio = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.66-1.08, P = 0.17). These results are limited by the retrospective nature of the included studies.
CONCLUSION: Muscle invasion, carcinoma in situ and prostatic stromal or urethral involvement at time of RC have no significant effect on UR. Orthotopic neobladder is associated with a significant lower risk of UR after RC.
METHODS: Perinatally HIV-infected Asian adolescents (10-19 years) with documented virologic suppression (two consecutive viral loads [VLs] <400 copies/mL ≥6 months apart) were included. Baseline was the date of the first VL <400 copies/mL at age ≥10 years or the 10th birthday for those with prior suppression. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify predictors of postsuppression VR (VL >1,000 copies/mL).
RESULTS: Of 1,379 eligible adolescents, 47% were males. At baseline, 22% were receiving protease inhibitor-containing regimens; median CD4 cell count (interquartile range [IQR]) was 685 (448-937) cells/mm3; 2% had preadolescent virologic failure (VF) before subsequent suppression. During adolescence, 180 individuals (13%) experienced postsuppression VR at a rate of 3.4 (95% confidence interval: 2.9-3.9) per 100 person-years, which was consistent over time. Median time to VR during adolescence (IQR) was 3.3 (2.1-4.8) years. Wasting (weight-for-age z-score
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Paraffin blocks of 133 CRCs were retrieved from the Department of Pathology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Immunostaining was done using antibody to clusterin. Staining expression in 10% of malignant cells was used as a cut-off to determine low immunostaining and high immunostaining. Statistical tests were used to evaluate the association of clusterin immunostaining with clinicopathological parameters.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemical results showed clusterin low immunostaining in CRC and nodal metastases. No association was found between clusterin immunostaining and tumour grade, age, tumour invasiveness, distant metastases, vascular invasion, nodal metastases, relapse, and survival.
CONCLUSION: Our study showed low clusterin immunostaining in CRC with lack of association with prognostic indicators in CRC. These results raise the controversy of understanding the role of clusterin in CRC. Further molecular studies are required to explore more about possible mechanisms of clusterin association with tumorigenicity, apoptosis, tumour growth progression, local and vascular invasion, and metastasis of CRC.