Phytochemical studies on rhizome of Etlingera elatior have resulted in the isolation of 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4,6-heptatrienone (1), demethoxycurcumin (2), 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (3), 16-hydroxylabda-8(17),11,13-trien-16,15-olide (4), stigmast-4-en-3-one (5), stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione (6), stigmast-4-en-6b-ol-3-one (7), 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (8). 1 and 4 were new compounds. Compounds 5 and 7 displayed high antitumour-promoting activity. Ethyl acetate extract showed a very significant cytotoxic activity against CEM-SS and MCF-7 cell lines (4 μg/ml and 6.25 μg/ml respectively). The antitumour-promoting activity was determined by EBV-EA assay and cytotoxic activity was determined by MTT assay.
Bioassay-guided isolation of the active hexane fractions of Curcuma zedoaria led to the identification of five pure compounds, namely, curzerenone (1), neocurdione (2), curdione (3), alismol (4), and zederone (5) and a mixture of sterols, namely, campesterol (6), stigmasterol (7), and β -sitosterol (8). Alismol has never been reported to be present in Curcuma zedoaria. All isolated compounds except (3) were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against MCF-7, Ca Ski, and HCT-116 cancer cell lines and noncancer human fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) using neutral red cytotoxicity assay. Curzerenone and alismol significantly inhibited cell proliferation in human cancer cell lines MCF-7, Ca Ski, and HCT-116 in a dose-dependent manner. Cytological observations by an inverted phase contrast microscope and Hoechst 33342/PI dual-staining assay showed typical apoptotic morphology of cancer cells upon treatment with curzerenone and alismol. Both compounds induce apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3. It can thus be suggested that curzerenone and alismol are modulated by apoptosis via caspase-3 signalling pathway. The findings of the present study support the use of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes in traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer-related diseases. Thus, two naturally occurring sesquiterpenoids, curzerenone and alismol, hold great promise for use in chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic strategies.
Breast cancer spheroids have been widely used as in vitro models of cancer stem cells (CSCs), yet little is known about their phenotypic characteristics and microRNAs (miRNAs) expression profiles. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the phenotypic characteristics of MDA-MB-231 spheroid-enriched cells for their CSCs properties and also to determine their miRNAs expression profile. Similar to our previously published MCF-7 spheroid, MDA-MB-231 spheroid also showed typical CSCs characteristics namely self-renewability, expression of putative CSCs-related surface markers and enhancement of drug resistance. From the miRNA profile, miR-15b, miR-34a, miR-148a, miR-628 and miR-196b were shown to be involved in CSCs-associated signalling pathways in both models of spheroids, which highlights the involvement of these miRNAs in maintaining the CSCs features. In addition, unique clusters of miRNAs namely miR-205, miR-181a and miR-204 were found in basal-like spheroid whereas miR-125, miR-760, miR-30c and miR-136 were identified in luminal-like spheroid. Our results highlight the roles of miRNAs as well as novel perspectives of the relevant pathways underlying spheroid-enriched CSCs in breast cancer.
Introduction: Cancer chemopreventive agents from natural sources have been actively investigated over the years to seek prevention against cancer. In this study, cocoa polyphenols extract (CPE) was examined to explore its antioxidant and cytotoxicity activities. Methods: CPE was analysed for total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity and FRAP ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays). In vitro cytotoxicity effect of CPE
against HepG2, HT-29, HeLa, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and WRL-68 cell lines after 48 h exposure was measured by MTT assay. Results: The study showed that CPE had higher total phenolic content (13560.0±420.1 mg GAE/100g dry weight of sample) than vitamin E (p
Breast cancer is considered as one of the most common cancers all over the world. A huge effort has been made to create a safe and cost effective breast cancer treatment. All of these features exist in the plants sources. In this study, the effect of local vegetable salad, Premna serratifolia (Bebuas) against MCF-7 cells (human breast adenocarcinoma) was determined. The optimum condition to extract breast cancer cytotoxic compound from the plant was investigated and the exact cytotoxic compound was identified as well. To determine the plant cytotoxicity effect against MCF-7 cells, MTT assay was used. Two important parameters in the sonication extraction method which are duration of time and temperature were optimized by carrying out a series of experiments which were designed by Face Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD). The extraction efficiency of each experiment was determined by measuring the yield of extract and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the extract against MCF-7 cells. The results obtained from the experiments were fitted to the second order polynomial model to generate equation that was used to determine best extraction processing condition. Based on the generated equation, the best sonication processing condition to extract the cytotoxic compound is at 30oC for 67 min. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the duration of extraction time has great influence (p
Desert truffles are seasonal and important edible fungi that grow wild in many countries around the world. Truffles are natural food sources that have significant compositions. In this work, the antioxidant, chemical composition, anticancer, and antiangiogenesis properties of the Terfezia claveryi truffle were investigated. Solvent extractions of the T. claveryi were evaluated for antioxidant activities using (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods). The extracts cytotoxicity on the cancer cell lines (HT29, MCF-7, PC3 and U-87 MG) was determined by MTT assay, while the anti-angiogenic efficacy was tested using ex-vivo assay. All extracts showed moderate anticancer activities against all cancer cells (p
DNA-templated silver nanocluster (AgNC), a new promising fluorescence probe has gained importance in biosensing and bioimaging in recent years. We employed a label-free AgNC to detect an intracellular transcription factor known as forkhead box p3 (FOXP3), which is the master regulator of regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppressive function. We developed an optimized method for the detection of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) of FOXP3 by hybridizing AgNC and G-rich to the target FOXP3 mRNA of a MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 cells are chosen as a model as it readily expresses FOXP3. The hybridized samples were examined with UV illuminator and further verified with fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry. The successful hybridization of a three-way junction with AgNC, G-rich and mRNA FOXP3 target generated an improved fluorescence intensity with a spectral shift. We have successfully delivered the green fluorescing AgNC and G-rich into MCF-7 cells, producing a shift to red fluorescing cells corroborated by flow cytometry results. In summary, our approach enables the detection of intracellular FOXP3 nucleic acid and holds considerable potential in establishing a non-lethal intracellular detection system which would be crucial for the isolation of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) when combined with other cell surface markers.
Erythropoietin receptors (EPORs) are present not only in erythrocyte precursors but also in non-hematopoietic cells including cancer cells. In this study, we determined the effect of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in culture medium on the EPOR expression and viability of the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 and ER-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Using flow cytometry, we showed that the inclusion of 10% FBS in the medium increased the EPOR expressions and viabilities of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. The MDA-MB-231 showed greater EPOR expression than MCF-7 cells, suggesting that the presence of ERs on cells is associated with poor expression of EPOR. Culture medium containing 10% FBS also caused increased number of breast cancer cells entering the synthesis phase of the cell cycle. The study also showed that rHuEPO treatment did not affect viability of breast cancer cells. In conclusion, it was shown that the inclusion of FBS in culture medium increased expression of EPOR in breast cancer cells and rHuEPO treatment had no effect on the proliferation of these cancer cells.
In recent years, chalcones and their derivatives have become the focus of global scientists due to increasing evidence reported towards their potency in antitumor and anti-cancer. Here, the chalcones designed and synthesized in our present study were derived from the derivatives of naphthaldehyde and acetophenone. Both these precursors have been reported in demonstrating a certain degree of anticancer property. Also, the substituents on these precursors such as hydroxyl, methoxy, prenyl, and chloro were shown able to enhance the anticancer efficiency. Hence, it is the interest of the current study to investigate the anticancer potential of the hybrid molecules (chalcones) consisting of these precursors with different alkoxy substituents and with or without the fluorine moiety. Two series of chalcone derivatives were designed, synthesized, and characterized using the elemental analysis, IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy, subsequently evaluated for their anti-cancer activity. Interestingly, the results showed that the fluorinated chalcones 11-15 exhibited stronger cytotoxic activity towards the breast cancer cell lines (4T1) compared to non-fluorinated chalcone derivatives. Remarkably, the selectivity index obtained for these fluorinated chalcones derivatives against the breast cancer 4T1 cell line was higher than those exhibited by cisplatin, which is one of the most frequently deployed chemotherapy agents in current medical practice. These findings could provide an insight towards the potential of fluorinated chalcones being developed as an anti-cancer agent with moderate activity towards breast cancer cell and low inhibition of fibroblast cell at a concentration of 100 μM.
Aminoanthraquinones were successfully synthesized via two reaction steps. 1,4-Dihydroxyanthraquinone (1) was first subjected to methylation, reduction and acylation to give an excellent yield of anthracene-1,4-dione (3), 1,4-dimethoxyanthracene-9,10-dione (5) and 9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-1,4-diyl diacetate (7). Treatment of 1, 3, 5 and 7 with BuNH2 in the presence of PhI(OAc)2 as catalyst produced seven aminoanthraquinone derivatives 1a, b, 3a, and 5a-d. Amination of 3 and 5 afforded three new aminoanthraquinones, namely 2-(butylamino)anthracene-1,4-dione (3a), 2-(butylamino)anthracene-9,10-dione (5a) and 2,3-(dibutylamino)anthracene-9,10-dione (5b). All newly synthesised aminoanthraquinones were examined for their cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 (estrogen receptor positive human breast) and Hep-G2 (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma) cancer cells using MTT assay. Aminoanthraquinones 3a, 5a and 5b exhibited strong cytotoxicity towards both cancer cell lines (IC50 1.1-13.0 µg/mL).
In this study, we investigated some bioactive compounds and pharmaceutical qualities of curry leaf (Murraya koenigii L.) extracts from three different locations in Malaysia. The highest TF and total phenolic (TP) contents were observed in the extracts from Kelantan (3.771 and 14.371 mg/g DW), followed by Selangor (3.146 and 12.272 mg/g DW) and Johor (2.801 and 12.02 mg/g DW), respectively. High quercetin (0.350 mg/g DW), catechin (0.325 mg/g DW), epicatechin (0.678 mg/g DW), naringin (0.203 mg/g DW), and myricetin (0.703 mg/g DW) levels were observed in the extracts from Kelantan, while the highest rutin content (0.082 mg/g DW) was detected in the leaves from Selangor. The curry leaf extract from Kelantan exhibited higher concentration of gallic acid (0.933 mg/g DW) than that from Selangor (0.904 mg/g DW) and Johor (0.813 mg/g DW). Among the studied samples, the ones from Kelantan exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (DPPH, 66.41%) and ferric reduction activity potential (FRAP, 644.25 μ m of Fe(II)/g) followed by those from Selangor (60.237% and 598.37 μ m of Fe(II)/g) and Johor (50.76% and 563.42 μ m of Fe(II)/g), respectively. A preliminary screening showed that the curry leaf extracts from all the locations exhibited significant anticarcinogenic effects inhibiting the growth of breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and maximum inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cell was observed with the curry leaf extract from Kelantan. Based on these results, it is concluded that Malaysian curry leaf collected from the North (Kelantan) might be potential source of potent natural antioxidant and beneficial chemopreventive agents.
A phage display library of single chain variable fragment (scFv) against MCF-7 breast cancer cells was constructed from C3A8 hybridoma cells. RNA from the C3A8 was isolated, cDNA was constructed, and variable heavy and light immunoglobulin chain gene region were amplified using PCR. The variable heavy and light chain gene regions were combined with flexible linker, linked to a pCANTAB 5E phagemid vector and electrophoresed into supE strain of Escherichia coli TG1 cells. Forty-eight clones demonstrated positive binding activity to MCF-7 breast cancer cell membrane fragments and the strongest of 48 clones was selected for analysis. The anti-MCF-7 library evaluated by SfiI and NotI digests demonstrated that anti-MCF-7 scFv antibodies possess individual patterns that should be able to recognize distinct human breast cancer cells. The C3A8 scFv, with an apparent molecular weight of 32 kDa, showed high homology (99%) with single chain antibody against rice stripe virus protein P20. In summary, the anti MCF-7 scFv antibody can be used for pretargeting breast cancer for clinical diagnosis of patients; it also has potential for therapeutic applications.
Researchers are looking into the potential development of natural compounds for anticancer therapy. Previous studies have postulated the cytotoxic effect of helichrysetin towards different cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of helichrysetin, a naturally occurring chalcone on four selected cancer cell lines, A549, MCF-7, Ca Ski, and HT-29, and further elucidated its biochemical and molecular mechanisms in human lung adenocarcinoma, A549. Helichrysetin showed the highest cytotoxic activity against Ca Ski followed by A549. Changes in the nuclear morphology of A549 cells such as chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were observed in cells treated with helichrysetin. Further evidence of apoptosis includes the externalization of phosphatidylserine and the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential which are both early signs of apoptosis. These signs of apoptosis are related to cell cycle blockade at the S checkpoint which suggests that the alteration of the cell cycle contributes to the induction of apoptosis in A549. These results suggest that helichrysetin has great potentials for development as an anticancer agent.
Tualang honey (TH) is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids and has significant anticancer activity against breast cancer cells comparable to the effect of tamoxifen (TAM), in vitro. The current study evaluated the effects of TH when used in combination with TAM on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. We observed that TH promoted the anticancer activity of TAM in both the estrogen receptor-(ER-)responsive and ER-nonresponsive human breast cancer cell lines. Flow cytometric analyses indicated accelerated apoptosis especially in MDA-MB-231 cells and with the involvement of caspase-3/7, -8 and -9 activation as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane was also increased in both cell lines when TH was used in combination with TAM compared to TAM treatment alone. TH may therefore be a potential adjuvant to be used with TAM for reducing the dose of TAM, hence, reducing TAM-induced adverse effects.
Lignosus rhinocerus, the tiger milk mushroom, is one of the most important medicinal mushrooms used by the indigenous people of Southeast Asia and China. It has been used to treat breast cancer. A cold water extract (LR-CW) prepared from the sclerotia of L. rhinocerus cultivar was found to exhibit antiproliferative activity against human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and human lung carcinoma (A549), with IC(50) of 96.7 μg/mL and 466.7 μg/mL, respectively. In comparison, LR-CW did not show significant cytotoxicity against the two corresponding human normal cells, 184B5 (human breast cell) and NL 20 (human lung cell). DNA fragmentation studies suggested that the cytotoxic action of LR-CW against cancer cells is mediated by apoptosis. Sephadex G-50 gel filtration fractionation of LR-CW yielded a high-molecular-weight and a low-molecular-weight fraction. The high-molecular-weight fraction contains mainly carbohydrate (68.7%) and small amount of protein (3.6%), whereas the low-molecular-weight fraction contains 31% carbohydrate and was devoid of protein. Only the high-molecular-weight fraction exhibited antiproliferative activity against cancer cells, with IC(50) of 70.0 μg/mL and 76.7 μg/mL, respectively. Thus, the cytotoxic action of the LR-CW is due to the high-molecular-weight fraction, either the proteins or protein-carbohydrate complex.
Breast cancer is the second most frequent cancer affecting women worldwide after lung cancer. The toxicity factor associated with synthetic drugs has turned the attention toward natural compounds as the primary focus of interest as anticancer agents. Vitamin E derivatives consisting of the well-established tocopherols and their analogs namely tocotrienols have been extensively studied due to their remarkable biological properties. While tocopherols have failed to offer protection, tocotrienols, in particular, α-, δ-, and γ-tocotrienols alone and in combination have demonstrated anticancer properties. The discovery of the antiangiogenic, antiproliferative, and apoptotic effects of tocotrienols, as well as their role as an inducer of immunological functions, not only reveals a new horizon as a potent antitumor agent but also reinforces the notion that tocotrienols are indeed more than antioxidants. On the basis of a transcriptomic platform, we have recently demonstrated a novel mechanism for tocotrienol activity that involves estrogen receptor (ER) signaling. In silico simulations and in vitro binding analyses indicate a high affinity of specific forms of tocotrienols for ERβ, but not for ERα. Moreover, we have demonstrated that specific tocotrienols increase ERβ translocation into the nucleus which, in turn, activates the expression of estrogen-responsive genes (MIC-1, EGR-1 and Cathepsin D) in breast cancer cells only expressing ERβ cells (MDA-MB-231) and in cells expressing both ER isoforms (MCF-7). The binding of specific tocotrienol forms to ERβ is associated with the alteration of cell morphology, caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and apoptosis. Furthermore, a recently concluded clinical trial seems to suggest that tocotrienols in combination with tamoxifen may have the potential to extend breast cancer-specific survival.
The study aimed to investigate the phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of 80% methanol extract of Lepidozia borneensis. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were analysed using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using FRAP, ABTS, and DPPH assays while the effects of L. borneensis on the proliferation of MCF-7 cell line were evaluated by using MTT assay. The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 12.42 ± 0.47 mg GAE/g and 9.36 ± 1.29 mg CE/g, respectively. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of at least 35 compounds. The extract was found to induce cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cell line with IC50 value of 47.33 ± 7.37 µg/mL. Cell cycle analysis showed that the extract induced significant arrest at G0/G1 at 24 hours of treatment. After 72 hours of treatment, the proportion of cells in G0/G1 and G2-M phases had decreased significantly as compared to their control. Apoptosis occurred during the first 24 hours and significantly increased to 30.8% after 72 hours of treatment. No activation of caspase 3 was observed. These findings suggest that L. borneensis extract has the potential as natural antioxidant and anticancer agents.
In this work, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from a pigment produced by a recently-discovered bacterium, Chryseobacterium artocarpi CECT 8497, was achieved, followed by an investigation of its anticancer properties. The bacterial pigment was identified as flexirubin following NMR ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR), UV-Vis, and LC-MS analysis. An aqueous silver nitrate solution was treated with isolated flexirubin to produce silver nanoparticles. The synthesised silver nanoparticles were subsequently characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy methodologies. Furthermore, the anticancer effects of synthesised silver nanoparticles in a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were evaluated. The tests showed significant cytotoxicity activity of the silver nanoparticles in the cultured cells, with an IC50 value of 36μgmL(-1). This study demonstrates that silver nanoparticles, synthesised from flexirubin from C. artocarpi CECT 8497, may have potential as a novel chemotherapeutic agent.
Enterococcus lactis IW5 was obtained from human gut and the potential probiotic characteristics of this organism were then evaluated. Results showed that this strain was highly resistant to low pH and high bile salt and adhered strongly to Caco-2 human epithelial colorectal cell lines. The supernatant of E. lactis IW5 strongly inhibited the growth of several pathogenic bacteria and decreased the viability of different cancer cells, such as HeLa, MCF-7, AGS, HT-29, and Caco-2. Conversely, E. lactis IW5 did not inhibit the viability of normal FHs-74 cells. This strain did not generate toxic enzymes, including β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and was highly susceptible to ampicillin, gentamycin, penicillin, vancomycin, clindamycin, sulfamethoxazol, and chloramphenicol but resistant to erythromycin and tetracyclin. This study provided evidence for the effect of E. lactis IW5 on cancer cells. Therefore, E. lactis IW5, as a bioactive therapeutics, should be subjected to other relevant tests to verify the therapeutic suitability of this strain for clinical applications.
Topical chemotherapy is the application of cancer drugs directly onto the skin, which has become a standard treatment for basal cell carcinoma. Due to the promising results in the treatment of skin cancer, topical chemotherapy has recently been applied to breast cancer patients because some breast cancer tissues are only superficial. Hydroxytyrosol, a phenolic compound from olives that is present in high amounts in Hidrox(®) olive extract, has been shown to have a protective effect on normal cells and selective antitumor activities on cancerous cells. The aims of the present study were to develop an alginate bilayer film containing Hidrox(®) and to investigate its potential use as a topical chemotherapeutic agent. Alginate films were characterized for swelling and for physical, thermal, rheological, and mechanical properties. Drug content uniformity and in vitro drug release tests were also investigated. The alginate bilayer films containing Hidrox(®), HB2, showed controlled release of hydroxytyrosol at a flux of 0.094±0.009 mg/cm(2)/h. The results of the cytotoxic assay showed that the HB2 films were dose-dependent and could significantly reduce the growth of breast cancer cells (MCF-7) at 150 μg/mL for a cell viability of 29.34±4.64%. In conclusion, an alginate bilayer film containing Hidrox(®) can be a potential alternative for topical chemotherapeutic agent for skin and breast cancer treatment.