A monitoring procedure was introduced for process variability in a multivariate setting based on individual observations which was a combination of (i) robust high breakdown point approach in the set-up stage to determine the reference sample and (ii) the use of Wilks chart in the mass production stage. This setting is what the Malaysian manufacturing industry is currently lacking in, especially when a robust approach must be used. The advantage of this procedure was revealed by using the case of a female shrouded connector production process in a Malaysian industry. Moreover, this procedure could also be used in any process quality monitoring and for any industry. A recommendation for quality practitioners was also addressed.
Introduction. Demographic information is one of the key parameters that organizations utilize to modify their practices in order to respond to the existing risk within work environments. The present article aims to assess the level of safety climate factors as well as to evaluate the influence of personal factors on safety climate in two different-sized industries. Methods. A total of 216 employees in two large and three small and medium-sized chemical manufacturing industries responded to a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to measure the safety climate level; a two-independent-sample Mann-Whitney U test and a Kruskal-Wallis test were run to compare the difference in safety climate scores among different demographic variables. Results. The lower level of safety climate in small and medium-sized industries revealed lower understanding and performance of management and non-management with regard to safety climate compared to the large industries. Additionally, significant mean differences on some safety climate factors among demographic variables were detected in both sizes of industries, emphasizing the important role of the employees' demographic variables on the plants' safety climate. Conclusion. Improving organization-level and group-level safety climates is recommended to improve employees' level of safety climate and control their personal factors.
This study aims to analyze the development trend of the manufacturing industry transformation and upgrading in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (2008-2018). On the basis of synergetics, the order parameter method of factor analysis is used to study these factors. The results show that: (1) There are five slow variable factors, such as intelligent manufacturing industry, technological innovation, scale agglomeration, market demand, and fixed asset investment, which are important power sources of the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry in Greater Bay Area. The development of these factors is relatively mature, and they cooperate with each other. (2) Similar to a fast variable of manufacturing development ecology, green development is an important coordinating factor in removing bottlenecks. Finally, suggestions for the development of the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry are put forward.
The conveyor system plays a vital role in improving the performance of flexible manufacturing cells (FMCs). The conveyor selection problem involves the evaluation of a set of potential alternatives based on qualitative and quantitative criteria. This paper presents an integrated multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) model of a fuzzy AHP (analytic hierarchy process) and fuzzy ARAS (additive ratio assessment) for conveyor evaluation and selection. In this model, linguistic terms represented as triangular fuzzy numbers are used to quantify experts' uncertain assessments of alternatives with respect to the criteria. The fuzzy set is then integrated into the AHP to determine the weights of the criteria. Finally, a fuzzy ARAS is used to calculate the weights of the alternatives. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model, a case study is performed of a practical example, and the results obtained demonstrate practical potential for the implementation of FMCs.
This study analyzes the determinants of workplace injuries across 44 four-digit manufacturing industries in Malaysia from 1993 to 2008 through the business cycle and structural approaches. The results of fixed-effects estimations revealed that workplace injuries in Malaysian manufacturing sector were negatively influenced by firm size and positively influenced by business cycle. Consistent with the findings of previous studies in other countries, the empirical evidence of this study supports the pro-cyclical behavior of injury rates in manufacturing industries towards business cycle. The analysis demonstrates that both structural and cyclical variation effects are important determinants of workplace injuries in Malaysia.
Preventive maintenance (PM) planning becomes a crucial issue in the real world of the manufacturing process. It is important in the manufacturing industry to maintain the optimum level of production and minimize its investments. Thus, this paper focuses on multiple jobs with a single production line by considering stochastic machine breakdown time. The aim of this paper is to propose a good integration of production and PM schedule that will minimize total completion time. In this study, a hybrid method, which is a genetic algorithm (GA), is used with the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) technique to deal with the uncertain behavior of machine breakdown time. A deterministic model is adopted and tested under different levels of complexity. Its performance is evaluated based on the value of average completion time. The result clearly shows that the proposed integrated production with PM schedule can reduce the average completion time by 11.68% compared to the production scheduling with machine breakdown time.
The Industrial Revolution 4.0 began with the breakthrough technological advances in 5G, and artificial intelligence has innovatively transformed the manufacturing industry from digitalization and automation to the new era of smart factories. A smart factory can do not only more than just produce products in a digital and automatic system, but also is able to optimize the production on its own by integrating production with process management, service distribution, and customized product requirement. A big challenge to the smart factory is to ensure that its network security can counteract with any cyber attacks such as botnet and Distributed Denial of Service, They are recognized to cause serious interruption in production, and consequently economic losses for company producers. Among many security solutions, botnet detection using honeypot has shown to be effective in some investigation studies. It is a method of detecting botnet attackers by intentionally creating a resource within the network with the purpose of closely monitoring and acquiring botnet attacking behaviors. For the first time, a proposed model of botnet detection was experimented by combing honeypot with machine learning to classify botnet attacks. A mimicking smart factory environment was created on IoT device hardware configuration. Experimental results showed that the model performance gave a high accuracy of above 96%, with very fast time taken of just 0.1 ms and false positive rate at 0.24127 using random forest algorithm with Weka machine learning program. Hence, the honeypot combined machine learning model in this study was proved to be highly feasible to apply in the security network of smart factory to detect botnet attacks.
Cement is a vital material used in the construction of concrete buildings. World annual cement demand is increasing rapidly along with the improvement in infrastructure development. However, cement manufacturing industries are facing challenges in reducing the environmental impacts of cement production. To resolve this issue, a suitable methodology is crucial to ensure the selected processes are effective and efficient and at the same time environmentally friendly. Different technologies and equipment have potential to produce variations in operational effectiveness, environmental impacts, and manufacturing costs in cement manufacturing industries. Therefore, this work aims to present the sustainability assessment of cement plants by taking into consideration of environmental, social, and economic impacts. Three cement production plants located in Western Indonesian are used as case studies where social impact and environmental impact are evaluated via life cycle assessment (LCA) model. This model is integrated with analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a multi-criteria decision analysis tool in selecting the most sustainable cement manufacturing plant.
Malaysia’s palm oil industry is growing in complexity and successively to succeed on the global level by accounts for about 36% of the word production of palm oil . But, Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) issues are still problematic areas that need to be addressed by all parties concerned in this industry. In the olden days, unlike construction or manufacturing industry, palm oil industry was green in OHS management system. However, due to stringent in the legislative enforcement in the past few years, it has lead some of the plantation companies to develop OHS management system, which are based on Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS), towards corporate sustainability. Sustainability is not about paying lip-service to the latest corporate buzzword; neither is it about superficially meeting minimum requirements for the sake of compliance. Rather, sustainability is a core value that lies at the heart of the companies’ business conduct. In practical terms, this means strive to operate with due consideration for the interest of all stakeholders by making the health and safety of all workers a priority. This paper describes the certification of OHSAS 18001 and MS 1722 in Genting Plantations Berhad (GENP) prove the commitment to sustainability by forming guiding principle on safety management. Further, this paper also demonstrates that the implementation of safety management can help to reduce the accident rate, especially fatal accident.
Aluminium titanate (AT) (Al2TiO5) is a promising engineering material because of its low thermal expansion coefficient, excellent thermal shock resistance, good refractoriness and non-wetting with most metals. Functionally graded material (FGM) is generally a particulate composite with continuously varying volume fractions. FGMs are alternative materials for dental implants, building materials and ballistic protection. It has been of great interest to future engines, internal combustion engines, metal cutting and other high temperature engineering application. There has been a demand for an adequate disc brake that requires less maintenance in the automotive manufacturing industry. FGM, the next evolution of layered structure, consists of graded compositions that are dispersed across the ceramic which produces a gradual improvement in the properties across the ceramic at a steady pace.
According to annual reports from the Social Security Organization (SOCSO), between years 2009 and 2011,
metal industry has the highest reported number of accidents compared to the other manufacturing industry in small
and medium enterprises (SMEs). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the actual causes of problems that
lead to the accidents involving metal industries within SMEs. In this study, a checklist through site visits was used to
collect the data. The overall results revealed that the main causes of accidents are; organization failure, human factor,
machine failure and surrounding environments.
Background: Technological diversity management in the manufacturing of advanced medical devices is
essential. The manufacturing industries of medical devices should act in accordance with the technical
guidelines and regulations in order to ensure best practices with the use of devices in hospitals
Aim: To explore safety hazards, cost implications, and social and ethical standards to be considered during
the manufacturing of advanced medical devices
Subject and Methods: Aqualitative descriptive study was used. There was no targeted sample in the current
study whereby secondary data were used to explore the research topic. Secondary sources were obtained
from databases including EBSCOHOST, PubMed, ProQuest, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Peerreviewed
articles, journals, books, conference proceedings, and other web publications were used to gather
Results: The current study indicated that the technological diversity management of advanced medical
devices is associated with safety hazards like security threats, integrity problems, and medical errors. The
study also showed that high cost of standardizations, supply, and purchase of advanced medical devices is a
huge burden faced by the manufacturers andusers. The study showed that the regulation of the medical
devices, certification, and post-market surveillanceare essential social and ethical considerations during the
manufacturing process of the new medical devices.
Conclusion: The current study explored the technological diversity of advanced medical devices. It is
evident in the current study that technology diversity of medical devices is associated with safety hazards
and cost implications. The study disclosed that taking into account social and ethical issues aid in
manufacturing safe and high quality medical devices.
Solid-state recycling, which involves the direct recycling of scrap metal into bulk material using severe plastic deformation, has emerged as a potential alternative to the conventional remelting and recycling techniques. Hot press forging has been identified as a sustainable direct recycling technique that has fewer steps and maintains excellent material performance. An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the hardness and density of a recycled aluminum-based metal matrix composite by varying operating temperature and holding time. A mixture of recycled aluminum, AA6061, and aluminum oxide were simultaneously heated to 430, 480, and 530 °C and forged for 60, 90, and 120 min. We found a positive increase in microhardness and density for all composites. The hardness increased approximately 33.85%, while density improved by about 15.25% whenever the temperature or the holding time were increased. Based on qualitative analysis, the composite endures substantial plastic deformation due to the presence of hardness properties due to the aluminum oxide embedded in the aluminum matrix. These increases were significantly affected by the operating temperature; the holding time also had a subordinate role in enhancing the metal matrix composite properties. Furthermore, in an effort to curb the shortage of primary resources, this study reviewed the promising performance of secondary resources produced by using recycled aluminum and aluminum oxide as the base matrix and reinforcement constituent, respectively. This study is an outline for machining practitioners and the manufacturing industry to help increase industry sustainability with the aim of preserving the Earth for our community in the future.
Traditional robotic work cell design and programming are considered inefficient and outdated in current industrial and market demands. In this research, virtual reality (VR) technology is used to improve human-robot interface, whereby complicated commands or programming knowledge is not required. The proposed solution, known as VR-based Programming of a Robotic Work Cell (VR-Rocell), consists of two sub-programmes, which are VR-Robotic Work Cell Layout (VR-RoWL) and VR-based Robot Teaching System (VR-RoT). VR-RoWL is developed to assign the layout design for an industrial robotic work cell, whereby VR-RoT is developed to overcome safety issues and lack of trained personnel in robot programming. Simple and user-friendly interfaces are designed for inexperienced users to generate robot commands without damaging the robot or interrupting the production line. The user is able to attempt numerous times to attain an optimum solution. A case study is conducted in the Robotics Laboratory to assemble an electronics casing and it is found that the output models are compatible with commercial software without loss of information. Furthermore, the generated KUKA commands are workable when loaded into a commercial simulator. The operation of the actual robotic work cell shows that the errors may be due to the dynamics of the KUKA robot rather than the accuracy of the generated programme. Therefore, it is concluded that the virtual reality based solution approach can be implemented in an industrial robotic work cell.
The research aims to address the physically loading task and quality and productivity problems in the brazing of coils of air-handler units. Eight operators participated in two intervention studies conducted in a factory in Malaysia to compare the status quo brazing with (1) the use of a new twin-brazing torch that replaced the single-brazing gun and (2) brazing in a sitting position. The outcome measures are related to quality, productivity, monetary costs, body postures and symptoms. After baseline, Interventions I and II were applied for 3 months respectively. The results show a 58.9% quality improvement, 140% productivity increase and 113 times ROI. There was also a reduction in poor work postures e.g. in the raising of the arms and shoulders; bending, twisting and extending of the neck; and bending of left and right wrists, and the back. This research can be replicated in other factories that share similar processes.
Malaysia is facing an increasing trend in industrial solid waste generation due to industrial development.Thus there is a paramount need in taking a serious action to move toward sustainable industrial waste management. The main aim of this study is to assess practicing solid waste minimization by manufacturing firms in Shah Alam industrial state, Malaysia. This paper presents a series of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis regarding the level and effects of practicing waste minimization methods, and seriousness of barriers preventing industries from practicing waste minimization methods. For this purpose the survey questions were designed such that both quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (semi-structures interview) data were collected concurrently. Analysis showed that, the majority of firms (92%) dispose their wastes rather than practice other sustainable waste management options. Also waste minimization methods such as segregation of wastes, on-site recycle and reuse, improve housekeeping and equipment modification were found to have significant contribution in waste reduction (p<0.05). Lack of expertise (M=3.50), lack of enough information (M= 3.54), lack of equipment modification (M= 3.16) and lack of specific waste minimization guidelines (M=3.49) have higher mean scores comparing with other barriers in different categories. These data were interpreted for elaborating of SWOT and TOWS matrix to highlight strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities. Accordingly, ten policies were recommended for improvement of practicing waste minimization by manufacturing firms as the main aim of this research. Implications This manuscript critically analysis waste minimization practices by manufacturing firms in Malaysia. Both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis were conducted to formulate SWOT and TOWS matrix in order to recommend policies and strategies for improvement of solid waste minimization by manufacturing industries. The results contribute to the knowledge and the findings of this study provide a useful baseline information and data on industrial solid waste generation and waste minimization practice.
Evidence on rising global temperature, melting of ice caps, and withdrawal of glaciers
brings attentions to the enhancement of energy efficiency in energy intensive industries. Having a
realistic comparison between one plant and the best practice technology (BPT) in operation in the field
helps significantly to distinguish and diagnose the potentials where measures towards energy efficiency
improvement would be applicable. In this regard, for manufacturing industries, one of the most widely
used energy benchmarking tools is the Energy Benchmark Curve. An energy benchmark curve plots the
efficiency of plants as a function of the total production volume from all similar plants or as a function
of the total number of plants that operate at that level of efficiency or worse. This paper reviews the
methodology through which the benchmark curve is obtained for a specific industry followed by a
comparison of energy intensity for the iron and steel industry among China and the US. According to
the international energy benchmark curve for the iron and steel industry, the savings potentials per ton
of crude steel for the US. and China have been respectively 4.1 and 7.1 gigajoule comparing with the
BPT in the field. Finally, an overview over certain measures to enhance efficiency of such plants is
Introduction : Shift work is practised in manufacturing industry to increase production capacity up to three times compared to the normal daily eight hours working system and able to optimize the utilization of machine and equipment. However, shift work has negatif effects on human social interaction, health and safety.
Methodology : The study was conducted to evaluate production workers’ perception on the effects of working at night shift. The respondents of the study were production workers in Company X in Kuala Lumpur. The Data was collected using self administered questionnaires. The study objectives was to study the work schedule design, to find out their perceptions on the effects of night shift and to study on personal factors, employees’ level of acceptance on the work schedule design and personal factors that cause safety and health disruption.
Result : A total of 200 production workers participated in the study. The result of the study shows 61% of production workers took sick leave and 43.5% were absent between 1 and 2 times a month. In terms of health and safety disruption, 77% of respondents agreed that they faced lack of focus with family and friends, 75.5% of them did not have enough sleep and 76.5% felt sleepy during working time. Regarding the work schedule and workstation design, 81.5% said they felt uncomfortable because they were required to stand during working and 77% felt that the resting period provided by the factory was too short and inadequate. More than 70% of the respondents proposed the rest period should be extended from the current 40 minutes to one hour. More than 80% of respondents agreed they would feel comfortable if standing at work is changed to sitting work system.
Conclusion : To minimize the unwanted effect of night shift among the production.
Lead-free solder paste printing processes account for the majority of assembly defects in the electronic manufacturing industry. In the stencil printing process, the solder paste must be able to withstand low and high shear rates which result in continuous structural breakdown and build-up. This study investigated the effect of the addition of nickel and platinum powders to the thixotropic behaviour of lead-free Sn/Ag/Cu solder pastes using the structural kinetic model. A hysteresis loop test and constant shear test were utilized to investigate the thixotropic behaviour of the pastes using parallel plate rheometry at 25ºC. In this study, the shear rates were increased from 0.01 s–1 to 10 s–1 and the second curve was a result of decreasing the shear rate from 10 s–1 to 0.01 s–1. For the constant shear test, the samples were subjected to five different shear rates of 0.01s–1, 0.1s–1, 1s–1, 10s–1 and 100s–1. The constant shear rate test was designed to study the structural breakdown and build-up of the paste materials. From this investigation, the hysteresis loop test was shown to be an effective test method to differentiate the extent of structural recovery in the solder pastes. All the pastes showed a high degree of shear thinning behaviour with time. This might be due to the agglomeration of particles in the flux that prohibited paste flow under low shear rate. The action of high shear rate would break the agglomerates into smaller pieces which facilitated the flow of pastes, thus viscosity was reduced at high shear rate.
Perceived work environment could be described as the opinions and attitudes of workers towards their work condition. Elements of perceived work environment such as physical environment, supportive work environment, and perceived work tasks may possibly be important factors that influence the occurrence of accidents. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between perceived work environment and the occurrence of accidents within an electronic manufacturing industry in Kuching, Sarawak. A cross-sectional survey utilizing a bilingual self-report questionnaire was conducted to garner data from 50 workers. Independent t-test and Pearson moment correlation were used to assess data. The results indicated that the occurrence of accidents was not affected by age group. Although physical environment and perceived work tasks did not demonstrate significant relationships with the occurrence of accidents, supportive work environment exhibited a significant inverse relationship, thereby indicating that accidents could be lowered in the presence of higher supportive work environment. Thus, support and help from co-workers are essential determinants of safety at the workplace.