Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 402 in total

  1. Alruwaili M, Jarrar B, Jarrar Q, Alruwaili M, Goh KW, Moshawih S, et al.
    Front Biosci (Landmark Ed), 2023 Jul 13;28(7):137.
    PMID: 37525906 DOI: 10.31083/j.fbl2807137
    BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) toxicity can adversely affect vital organs, cause pathologic ocular damage, and can have direct cardiovascular effects. This study aims to identify the biochemical, hematological, and histological alterations of the vital organs associated with the effects of HCQ.

    METHODS: Male albino rats were exposed to the equivalent of HCQ therapeutic doses given to human patients being affected by malaria, lupus erythematosus, and COVID-19. The animal blood samples were subjected to hematological analysis, biochemical analysis, liver function tests, kidney function tests, and cardiac biomarkers. Liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and testis biopsies were subjected to histological examination.

    RESULTS: HCQ significantly lowered the values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, leucocytes, and lymphocytes but significantly increased the values of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), amylase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, and chlorine ions. The renal tissues of HCQ-treated animals demonstrated glomerular fragmentation, partial atrophy degeneration, renal tubules hydropic degeneration, hyaline cast formation, and interstitial edema formation. Additionally, the heart exhibited myofiber necrosis, myolysis, wavy appearance, disorganization, and disarray. The testicular tissues also demonstrated spermatocyte degeneration, spermatogenic cell sloughing, testicular interstitial edema, and occasional spermatogenic arrest. Additionally, the spleen showed a decrease in the number and size of the white pulp follicles, a decrease in the number of apoptotic activity, and a decline in the number of T-rich cells. However, the red pulp demonstrated a diffuse decline in B rich-lymphocytes and macrophages. The liver was also the least affected but showed Kupffer cell hyperplasia and occasional hepatocyte dysplasia.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that chronic exposure to HCQ could alter the structures and functions of the vital organs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Necrosis/pathology
  2. Mayya A, Bhandary S, Kolakemar A, George AM
    BMJ Case Rep, 2021 Mar 17;14(3).
    PMID: 33731387 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2020-240203
    The management of necrotic immature permanent teeth has always been a challenge to endodontists. Various treatment modalities have been tried and tested for achieving a successful outcome. Revascularisation is one among these treatment options, which is gaining widespread attention among endodontists. The growing body of evidence demonstrating the success of revascularisation has led to different variations of this treatment option. Clinicians have over time used different scaffolds such as blood clot, collagen, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and platelet-rich plasma for revascularisation. This case report outlines the management of immature maxillary central incisors with pulp necrosis and large periapical lesions in a 19-year-old female patient with a modified technique of revascularisation by combining PRF and blood clot. At the end of 12 months, the patient was completely asymptomatic along with regression of the periapical lesions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp Necrosis/therapy; Necrosis
  3. Reyhanah Mohd Rashid, Wan Nurulhuda, Synn, Joyce Hong Soo, Wu, Loo Ling, Cheah, Fook Choe
    Subcutaneous fat necrosis is a recognised complication of hypothermia. There appears to be a resurgence in this condition when therapeutic hypothermia emerges as a standard of care for asphyxiated infants. The TOBY trial reported an incidence of 0.1% for 1239 infants cooled.(Copied from article)
    Matched MeSH terms: Fat Necrosis; Necrosis
  4. Ahmad S, Hair-Bejo M, Hussein EA, Awad EA, Saeed MI, Liew PS, et al.
    Open Vet J, 2022;12(6):839-850.
    PMID: 36650863 DOI: 10.5455/OVJ.2022.v12.i6.8
    BACKGROUND: The studies about Salmonella infection in newly hatched chicks were not extensive.

    AIM: The objective of this study was to determine the pathogenicity of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) phage type (PT) 1 in one-day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicks.

    METHODS: Seventy, one-day-old SPF chicks, were divided into SE group (30 chicks), mortality group (10 chicks), both orally inoculated (1.0 ml) with SE PT1 (1 × 108 colony-forming unit per 1.0 ml), and one control group (30 chicks). The chicks were sacrificed at 6 and 12 hours, and days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21 post-inoculation (pi). Samples were collected for bacterial isolation, histological examination, and ultrastructural examination.

    RESULTS: Starting from day 2 pi, the body weight in the SE group significantly (p < 0.05) decreased. The SE isolation percentages from the liver, spleen, mid-intestinal content, cecal content, cecal tonsil, blood, and cloacal swab were 0.73, 0.77, 0.33, 0.33, 0.36, 0.40, and 0.30, respectively. The isolation percentage in the liver was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the blood and cloacal swab. The villi heights and crypt depths in the SE group were significantly (p < 0.05) greater and smaller, respectively. Ultrastructurally, erosion and necrosis were observed in the microvilli of the cecal tonsil. The bacteria were engulfed by macrophages at the interepithelial clefts of the M-like M cells.

    CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the inoculation of SE PT 1 in one-day-old chicks caused a systemic infection with diarrhea, a decrease in the body weight and villi height in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and high bacterial loading in the liver with mild gross and histological lesions of organs, erosion, and necrosis of microvilli and low mortality. The bacteria entered the body system from the intestinal tract through the interepithelial clefts of the M-like M cells of the cecal tonsil.

    Matched MeSH terms: Necrosis/veterinary
  5. Aliyu A, Shaari MR, Ahmad Sayuti NS, Reduan FH, Sithambaram S, Mohamed Mustapha N, et al.
    Sci Prog, 2021 Oct;104(4):368504211004272.
    PMID: 34886737 DOI: 10.1177/00368504211004272
    Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam belongs to the family Moringaceae. It is an important multipurpose tree that is largely distributed globally and has been used almost in every aspect of traditional medicine for the treatment of various illnesses including cancers, diabetes mellitus, asthma, arthritis, etc. This study investigated the effects of oral acute and sub-acute administration of M. oleifera hydroethanolic leaf extract (MOHE) in ICR-mice. Its major phenolic compounds were also determined. Ten (10) female, 8-week old mice were grouped into control and treatment groups for acute toxicity study. A dose of 2000 mg/kg MOHE was given once to the treatment group via oral gavage. However, for the sub-acute toxicity study, 25 mice were grouped into groups A (control), B (125 mg/kg), C (250 mg/kg), D (500 mg/kg) and E (1000 mg/kg). MOHE was given via oral gavage to groups B, C, D and E daily for 28 days. Group A received only distilled water. The mice were sacrificed at the end of the experiments and samples were collected for evaluation. The results of the chemical profiling of MOHE revealed the presence of glucomoringin, niaziminine, quercetin and kaempferol as the major compounds. The treated mice in the acute toxicity study were slightly anaemic and showed evidence of stress leukogram. Moreover, a slight increase in creatinine, significant increases in AST and CK, hepatic degeneration and necrosis, none-obstructive sinusoidal dilatation, renal tubular necrosis, interstitial nephritis and renal interstitial oedema were observed. It is concluded that the LD50 of MOHE is higher than 2000 mg/kg. However, oral administration of MOHE causes acute mild anaemia and moderate hepato-nephrotoxicity in ICR-mice. Its major phenolic compounds are glucomoringin, niaziminine, quercetin and kaempferol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Necrosis/drug therapy
  6. Yap SH, Lee CS, Zulkifli ND, Suresh D, Hamase K, Das KT, et al.
    Amino Acids, 2024 Feb 03;56(1):6.
    PMID: 38310167 DOI: 10.1007/s00726-023-03360-8
    Studies in vivo have demonstrated that the accumulation of D-amino acids (D-AAs) is associated with age-related diseases and increased immune activation. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of these observations are not well defined. The metabolism of D-AAs by D-amino oxidase (DAO) produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen species involved in several physiological processes including immune response, cell differentiation, and proliferation. Excessive levels of H2O2 contribute to oxidative stress and eventual cell death, a characteristic of age-related pathology. Here, we explored the molecular mechanisms of D-serine (D-Ser) and D-alanine (D-Ala) in human liver cancer cells, HepG2, with a focus on the production of H2O2 the downstream secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine, and subsequent cell death. In HepG2 cells, we demonstrated that D-Ser decreased H2O2 production and induced concentration-dependent depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). This was associated with the upregulation of activated NF-кB, pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, and chemokine, IL-8 secretion, and subsequent apoptosis. Conversely, D-Ala-treated cells induced H2O2 production, and were also accompanied by the upregulation of activated NF-кB, TNF-α, and IL-8, but did not cause significant apoptosis. The present study confirms the role of both D-Ser and D-Ala in inducing inflammatory responses, but each via unique activation pathways. This response was associated with apoptotic cell death only with D-Ser. Further research is required to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying D-AA-induced inflammation and its downstream consequences, especially in the context of aging given the wide detection of these entities in systemic circulation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
  7. Tajunisah I, Reddy SC
    Ann Ophthalmol (Skokie), 2007;39(1):57-62.
    PMID: 17914207
    We report a case of unilateral acute retinal necrosis (ARN) with marked vitritis and retinal necrosis leading to retinal breaks following chicken pox successfully treated with intravenous acyclovir followed by oral acyclovir, orbital floor triamcinolone injections to contain the inflammation, and barrier laser therapy to secure the retinal breaks with good visual outcome. This case is unusual in its severity and the novel use orbital floor triamcinolone therapy to contain ARN inflammation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Retinal Necrosis Syndrome, Acute/diagnosis*; Retinal Necrosis Syndrome, Acute/etiology*; Retinal Necrosis Syndrome, Acute/virology
  8. Abbas KF, Tawfik H, Hashem AAR, Ahmed HMA, Abu-Seida AM, Refai HM
    Aust Endod J, 2020 Dec;46(3):405-414.
    PMID: 32783325 DOI: 10.1111/aej.12426
    This study aimed to assess regenerative treatment protocols for maturogenesis of immature teeth with apical periodontitis in dogs. Apical periodontitis was induced in immature premolars of 8 mongrel dogs teeth that were divided into 5 groups; regeneration via blood clotting (REG group); chitosan loaded with demineralised bone matrix (REG-CD group); chitosan loaded with dexamethazone corticosteroid (REG-CC group); and positive and negative control groups. All groups showed comparable apical hard tissue formation and significantly different from the control group. Results also showed decrease in inflammatory tissue reaction, bone resorption and periodontal ligament thickness. Tissue reaction and inflammatory infiltrates were significantly less in REG-CC group compared to others. Other parameters showed no significant difference. In conclusion, regenerative endodontic techniques using chitosan-based formulations have the potential to be used as an alternative for root maturation in teeth with apical periodontitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp Necrosis
  9. González-Gómez JP, Soto-Rodriguez S, López-Cuevas O, Castro-Del Campo N, Chaidez C, Gomez-Gil B
    Curr Microbiol, 2020 Dec;77(12):3851-3860.
    PMID: 32959087 DOI: 10.1007/s00284-020-02214-w
    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a severe disease affecting recently stocked cultured shrimps. The disease is mainly caused by V. parahaemolyticus that harbors the pVA1 plasmid; this plasmid contains the pirA and pirB genes, which encode a delta-endotoxin. AHPND originated in China in 2009 and has since spread to several other Asian countries and recently to Latin America (2013). Many Asian strains have been sequenced, and their sequences are publicly accessible in scientific databases, but only four strains from Latin America have been reported. In this study, we analyzed nine pVA1-harboring V. parahaemolyticus sequences from strains isolated in Mexico along with the 38 previously available pVA1-harboring V. parahaemolyticus sequences and the reference strain RIMD 2210633. The studied sequences were clustered into three phylogenetic clades (Latin American, Malaysian, and Cosmopolitan) through pangenomic and phylogenomic analysis. The nucleotide sequence alignment of the pVA1 plasmids harbored by the Asian and Latin American strains confirmed that the main structural difference in the plasmid between the Asian and Latin American strains is the absence of the Tn3 transposon in the Asian strains; in addition, some deletions in the pirAB region were found in two of the Latin American strains. Our study represents the most robust and inclusive phylogenomic analysis of pVA1-harboring V. parahaemolyticus conducted to date and provides insight into the epidemiology of AHPND. In addition, this study highlights that disease diagnosis through the detection of the pirA and pirB genes is an inadequate approach due to the instability of these genes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Necrosis
  10. Ahmad S, Azid NA, Boer JC, Lim J, Chen X, Plebanski M, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2018;9:2572.
    PMID: 30473698 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02572
    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is a pleiotropic cytokine, which is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, including allergy. TNF is produced at the early stage of allergen sensitization, and then continues to promote the inflammation cascade in the effector phase of allergic reactions. Consequently, anti-TNF treatment has been proposed as a potential therapeutic option. However, recent studies reveal anti-intuitive effects of TNF in the activation and proliferative expansion of immunosuppressive Tregs, tolerogenic DCs and MDSCs. This immunosuppressive effect of TNF is mediated by TNFR2, which is preferentially expressed by immunosuppressive cells. These findings redefine the role of TNF in allergic reaction, and suggest that targeting TNF-TNFR2 interaction itself may represent a novel strategy in the treatment of allergy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology*; Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II/immunology*
  11. Samuvel DJ, Nguyen NT, Jaeschke H, Lemasters JJ, Wang X, Choo YM, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2022 Jul 22;85(7):1779-1788.
    PMID: 35815804 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.2c00324
    Oxidative stress plays an important role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Platanosides (PTSs) isolated from the American sycamore tree (Platanus occidentalis) represent a potential new four-molecule botanical drug class of antibiotics active against drug-resistant infectious disease. Preliminary studies have suggested that PTSs are safe and well tolerated and have antioxidant properties. The potential utility of PTSs in decreasing APAP hepatotoxicity in mice in addition to an assessment of their potential with APAP for the control of infectious diseases along with pain and pyrexia associated with a bacterial infection was investigated. On PTS treatment in mice, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) release, hepatic centrilobular necrosis, and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) were markedly decreased. In addition, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation decreased when mice overdosed with APAP were treated with PTSs. Computational studies suggested that PTSs may act as JNK-1/2 and Keap1-Nrf2 inhibitors and that the isomeric mixture could provide greater efficacy than the individual molecules. Overall, PTSs represent promising botanical drugs for hepatoprotection and drug-resistant bacterial infections and are effective in protecting against APAP-related hepatotoxicity, which decreases liver necrosis and inflammation, iNOS expression, and oxidative and nitrative stresses, possibly by preventing persistent JNK activation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Necrosis/chemically induced; Necrosis/drug therapy; Necrosis/metabolism
  12. Subramaniam K, Hazmi HB, Guan YS, Zainun KAB
    Fetal Pediatr Pathol, 2023 Apr;42(2):263-269.
    PMID: 35620894 DOI: 10.1080/15513815.2022.2080309
    BACKGROUND: The increased use of illicit drugs continues to lead to the discovery of various unexpected pathologies.

    CASE PRESENTATION: This 7-month-old infant died suddenly at home. Pulmonary artery fibrinoid necrosis, diffuse fatty liver changes, and skin rash were the main histologic postmortem findings. Postmortem urine contained traces of methamphetamine. Methamphetamine was smoked by the parents.

    CONCLUSIONS: Fibrinoid necrosis has been described with inhaling methamphetamine and can result in fibrinoid angiitis such as in this case. Although this did not result in pulmonary hemorrhage or could be directly related to death, it does suggest that pulmonary artery fibrinoid necrosis may develop with passive inhalation of methamphetamines.

    Matched MeSH terms: Necrosis
  13. Segasothy M, Kamal A, Das D, Naidu RR, Sivalingam S
    Singapore Med J, 1990 Jun;31(3):250-2.
    PMID: 2392703
    Six hundred and one intravenous Urograms (IVU) done at the General Hospital, Kuala Trengganu from 1981 to 1985 were reviewed retrospectively for Renal Papillary Necrosis (RPN). It was found that 1.3% of IVUs had RPN. There was a higher incidence of RPN amongst males as compared to females. RPN occurred more commonly in the younger age groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Papillary Necrosis/diagnosis; Kidney Papillary Necrosis/ethnology; Kidney Papillary Necrosis/epidemiology*
  14. Mohd Zawawi Z, Kalyanasundram J, Mohd Zain R, Thayan R, Basri DF, Yap WB
    Int J Mol Sci, 2023 Mar 24;24(7).
    PMID: 37047115 DOI: 10.3390/ijms24076142
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) became a worldwide concern at the beginning of 2020 and has affected millions. Several previous studies revealed the impact of the imbalanced innate immune response on the progression of COVID-19 and its disease outcomes. High levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukins are produced readily by innate immune cells to fight Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Nonetheless, cytokine-mediated inflammatory events are also linked to detrimental lung injury and respiratory failure, which can result in deaths among COVID-19 patients. TNF-α is amongst the early cytokines produced to mediate proinflammatory responses and enhance immune cell infiltration in response to SARS-CoV-2 infections. In COVID-19, TNF-α-mediated inflammation can cause detrimental tissue damage and gradually promotes lung fibrosis, which later results in pneumonia, pulmonary edema, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. This review, therefore, aims to deliberate the immunomodulatory roles of TNF-α in promoting inflammation and its relation with COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. In addition, this review also proposes the potential of TNF-α as a biomarker for the prognosis of severe COVID-19 and its related complications and as a molecular target for anti-TNF-α therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  15. Liew YT, Lim EY, Zulkiflee AB, Prepageran N
    Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 2017 Apr;65(4):225-228.
    PMID: 27016203 DOI: 10.1007/s11748-016-0642-3
    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a rapidly progressive disease from the spread of cervical infection. Transcervical and transthoracic drainage was the recognized traditional surgical approach to achieve adequate clearance of infection. Non-invasive vacuum-assisted dressing is a new technique where applied negative pressure can help remove infective fluid and to promote wound healing. A 60-year-old man presented with odynophagia, fever and anterior neck swelling for 2 weeks. He was diagnosed to have anterior neck abscess and underwent surgical drainage. However, it did not respond well, but progressed to involve superior and inferior mediastinum. Vacuum-assisted dressing was applied for total of 2 weeks and the patient recovered without going through usual traditional transthoracic drainage. Vacuum drainage is a simple, safe and non-invasive method of managing DNM, in well selected group with small abscess cavity without airway obstruction and septicemia. This potential technique can lead to paradigm shift in treating life-threatening DNM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Necrosis/therapy
  16. Yadav M, Kamath KR, Iyngkaran N, Sinniah M
    FEMS Microbiol Immunol, 1991 Dec;4(1):45-9.
    PMID: 1815710 DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1991.tb04969.x
    A consecutive series of 24 patients with clinical features of primary dengue infection and 22 controls (14 patients with viral fever of unknown origin and 8 healthy subjects) were assayed for serum levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF). The acute sera of the 24 patients with clinical dengue infection were positive for dengue virus-specific IgM antibody. Clinically, 8 had dengue fever (DF), 14 dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and 2 dengue shock syndrome (DSS). All 16 patients with DHF/DSS had significantly elevated serum TNF levels but the 8 DF patients had TNF levels equivalent to that in the 22 controls. A case is made for augmented TNF production having a role for the pathophysiological changes observed in DHF/DSS and mediator modulation as a possible therapeutic approach to treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism*
  17. Al-Hatamleh MAI, Ahmad S, Boer JC, Lim J, Chen X, Plebanski M, et al.
    J Oncol, 2019;2019:6313242.
    PMID: 31239840 DOI: 10.1155/2019/6313242
    In the past decade, nanomedicine research has provided us with highly useful agents (nanoparticles) delivering therapeutic drugs to target cancer cells. The present review highlights nanomedicine applications for breast cancer immunotherapy. Recent studies have suggested that tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and its receptor 2 (TNFR2) expressed on breast cancer cells have important functional consequences. This cytokine/receptor interaction is also critical for promoting highly immune-suppressive phenotypes by regulatory T cells (Tregs). This review generally provides a background for nanoparticles as potential drug delivery agents for immunomodulators and further discusses in depth the potential of TNF antagonists delivery to modulate TNF-TNFR2 interactions and inhibit breast cancer progression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II
  18. Zulpa AK, Barathan M, Iyadorai T, Chandramathi S, Vellasamy KM, Vadivelu J, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2021 Jun 01;38(2):180-185.
    PMID: 34172708 DOI: 10.47665/tb.38.2.055
    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a malignant disease progressed from abnormal production of immature myeloid cells, which is often associated with concurrent infections after diagnosis. It was widely established that infections are the major contributors to mortality in this group due to the prevalency of neutropenia. Gram-negative Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis. This disease had been reported in several neutropenic cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy resulting in severe clinical presentations and high mortalities which is in need of critical attention. Studies show that cytokines are important mediators of melioidosis progression and low neutrophil counts are associated with progression of its severity. However, to date, there are no reports on cytokine production in neutropenic cancer patients who are prone to melioidosis. Hence, here we assessed the cytokine production in neutropenic AML patients by introducing B. pseudomallei to their peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture in vitro. We observed that inflammatory response related cytokines namely TNF-α, IFN-γ IL-6 and IL-10 were highly circulated in infected PBMCs suggesting that these cytokines may play important roles in the progression of severity in melioidosis infected neutropenic patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood*
  19. Primasari DN, Nirwana I, Budi HS, Wardhana AS, Sari AF, Novita N, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2022;2022:6740853.
    PMID: 36561943 DOI: 10.1155/2022/6740853
    OBJECTIVE: Ellagic acid, a phenolic compound with anti-inflammatory potential, can be used to accelerate the bone healing process and affect human health, while hydroxyapatite is the most commonly used bone graft material. Using a combination of the two materials results in reduced inflammation and increased osteogenesis. This study aimed to determine the effects of combining ellagic acid and hydroxyapatite in bone marker remodelling by analysing the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 10 (IL-10), bone morphogenetic 4 protein (BMP-4), and osteopontin (OPN).

    METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats were used in the study. A defect was created in each animal's femur using a low-speed diamond bur. In the control group, the bone was then treated with polyethylene glycol (PEG). In one of the other groups, the bone was treated with hydroxyapatite, and in the other, with ellagic acid-hydroxyapatite. The femur was biopsied 7 days after the procedure and again 14 days after the procedure, and an indirect immunohistochemical (IHC) examination was performed for TNF-α, IL-10, BMP-4, and OPN expression.

    RESULTS: The ellagic acid-hydroxyapatite decreased TNF-α expression in the bone tissue after 7 days and again after 14 days (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
  20. Ahmad S, Hatmal MM, Lambuk L, Al-Hatamleh MAI, Alshaer W, Mohamud R
    Life Sci, 2021 Dec 01;286:120063.
    PMID: 34673116 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2021.120063
    COVID-19 is a multi-faceted disease ranging from asymptomatic to severely ill condition that primarily affects the lungs and could advance to other organs as well. It's causing factor, SARS-CoV-2 is recognized to develop robust cell-mediated immunity that responsible to either control or exaggerate the infection. As an important cell subset that control immune responses and are significantly dysregulated in COVID-19, Tregs is proposed to be considered for COVID-19 management. Among its hallmark, TNFR2 is recently recognized to play important role in the function and survival of Tregs. This review gathers available TNFR2 agonists to directly target Tregs as a potential approach to overcome immune dysregulation that affect the severity in COVID-19. Furthermore, this review performs a rigid body docking of TNF-TNFR2 interaction and such interaction with TNFR2 agonist to predict the optimal targeting approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II/physiology*
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