Electroplated nickel coating on cemented carbide is a potential pretreatment technique for providing an interlayer prior to diamond deposition on the hard metal substrate. The electroplated nickel coating is expected to be of high quality, for example, indicated by having adequate thickness and uniformity. Electroplating parameters should be set accordingly for this purpose. In this study, the gap distances between the electrodes and duration of electroplating process are the investigated variables. Their effect on the coating thickness and uniformity was analyzed and quantified using design of experiment. The nickel deposition was carried out by electroplating in a standard Watt's solution keeping other plating parameters (current: 0.1 Amp, electric potential: 1.0 V, and pH: 3.5) constant. The gap distance between anode and cathode varied at 5, 10, and 15 mm, while the plating time was 10, 20, and 30 minutes. Coating thickness was found to be proportional to the plating time and inversely proportional to the electrode gap distance, while the uniformity tends to improve at a large electrode gap. Empirical models of both coating thickness and uniformity were developed within the ranges of the gap distance and plating time settings, and an optimized solution was determined using these models.
The present work covers the preparation of carbon-based nanosorbents by ethylene decomposition on stainless steel mesh without the use of external catalyst for the treatment of water containing nickel ions (Ni2+). The reaction temperature was varied from 650 to 850 degrees C, while reaction time and ethylene to nitrogen flow ratio were maintained at 30 min and 1:1 cm3/min, respectively. Results show that nanosorbents synthesised at a reaction temperature of 650 degrees C had the smallest average diameter (75 nm), largest BET surface area (68.95 m2/g) and least amount of impurity (0.98 wt.% Fe). A series of batch-sorption tests were performed to evaluate the effects of initial pH, initial metal concentration and contact time on Ni2+ removal by the nanosorbents. The equilibrium data fitted well to Freundlich isotherm. The kinetic data were best correlated to a pseudo second-order model indicating that the process was of chemisorption type. Further analysis by the Boyd kinetic model revealed that boundary layer diffusion was the controlling step. This primary study suggests that the prepared material with Freundlich constants compared well with those in the literature, is a promising sorbent for the sequestration of Ni2+ in aqueous solutions.
The present study examines the synthesis of Co3O4 ultra-nanosheets (Co3O4 UNSs) and Co3O4 ultra-nanosheet-Ni(OH)2 (Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2) via solvothermal process and their application as non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors for glucose detection. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results confirmed the Co3O4 UNS deposition on Ni(OH)2 surface. The presence of Co3O4 UNSs on Ni (OH) 2 surface improved the sensitivity of glucose detection, from the increase of glucose oxidation peak current at the Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2/glassy carbon electrode (current density: 2000μA·cm(-2)), compared to the Co3O4 UNSs. These results confirmed that Ni(OH)2 on glassy carbon electrode is a sensitive material for glucose detection, moreover the Co3O4 UNSs can increase the interaction and detection of glucose due to their high surface area. The estimated limit of detection (S/N=3) and limit of quantification (S/N=10) of the linear segment (5-40μM) are 1.08μM and 3.60μM respectively. The reproducibility experiments confirmed the feasibility of Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2 for the quantitative detection of certain concentration ranges of glucose.
This study investigated the impact of calcium silicate (CS) content on composition, compressive mechanical properties, and hardness of CS cermets with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V alloys sintered at 1200°C. The powder metallurgy route was exploited to prepare the cermets. New phases of materials of Ni16Ti6Si7, CaTiO3, and Ni31Si12 appeared in cermet of Ti-55Ni with CS and in cermet of Ti-6Al-4V with CS, the new phases Ti5Si3, Ti2O, and CaTiO3, which were emerged during sintering at different CS content (wt%). The minimum shrinkage and density were observed in both groups of cermets for the 50 and 100 wt% CS content, respectively. The cermets with 40 wt% of CS had minimum compressive Young's modulus. The minimum of compressive strength and strain percentage at maximum load were revealed in cermets with 50 and 40 wt% of CS with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V cermets, respectively. The cermets with 80 and 90 wt% of CS showed more plasticity than the pure CS. It concluded that the composition and mechanical properties of sintered cermets of Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V with CS significantly depend on the CS content in raw cermet materials. Thus, the different mechanical properties of the cermets can be used as potential materials for different hard tissues replacements.
Bimetallic Cu-Ni/TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized using wet impregnation (WI) method with TiO2 (Degussa-P25) as support and calcined at different temperatures (180, 200, and 300°C) for the photodegradation of DIPA under visible light. The photocatalysts were characterized using TGA, FESEM, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The results from the photodegradation experiments revealed that the Cu-Ni/TiO2 photocatalysts exhibited much higher photocatalytic activities compared to bare TiO2. It was found that photocatalyst calcined at 200°C had the highest photocatalyst activities with highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (86.82%). According to the structural and surface analysis, the enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to its strong absorption into the visible region and high metal dispersion.
The current-voltage characteristics of Ni contacts with the surfaces of ZnO thin films as well as single crystal (0001) ZnO substrate are investigated. The ZnO thin film shows a conversion from Ohmic to rectifying behavior when annealed at 800°C. Similar findings are also found on the Zn-polar surface of (0001) ZnO. The O-polar surface, however, only shows Ohmic behavior before and after annealing. The rectifying behavior observed on the Zn-polar and ZnO thin film surfaces is associated with the formation of nickel zinc oxide (Ni1-xZnxO, where x = 0.1, 0.2). The current-voltage characteristics suggest that a p-n junction is formed by Ni1-xZnxO (which is believed to be p-type) and ZnO (which is intrinsically n-type). The rectifying behavior for the ZnO thin film as a result of annealing suggests that its surface is Zn-terminated. Current-voltage measurements could possibly be used to determine the surface polarity of ZnO thin films.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects ofNi(II) and Cr(VI) individually and in combination on the simultaneous removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen and metals under a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operation. Three identical laboratory-scale SBRs were operated with FILL, REACT, SETTLE, DRAW and IDLE periods in a ratio of 1:12:1:2:8 for a cycle time of 24 h until the steady state was achieved. Nickel(II) at increasing concentrations up to 35 mg/L was added to one of the reactors; Cr(VI) at increasing concentrations up to 25 mg/L was added to a second reactor; while a combination of Ni(II) and Cr(VI) in equal concentrations up to 10 mg/L was added to a third reactor. The results demonstrate that both Ni(II) and Cr(VI) exerted a more pronounced inhibitory effect on the removal of ammonia nitrogen (AN) than on COD removal. Synergistic and antagonistic inhibitory effects on the rates of COD and AN removal, respectively, were observed for the 50% Ni(II) and 50% Cr(VI) (w/w) mixture in the concentration range between 10 and 20 mg/L. The simultaneous presence of 50% Ni(II) and 50% Cr(VI) at a concentration of 20 mg/L resulted in system failure.
Lanthanum substituted Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles (Ni0.5Zn0.5LaxFe1-xO4; 0.00 ≤x≤ 1.00) synthesized by sol-gel method were presented. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal the typical single phase spinel cubic ferrite structure, with the traces of secondary phase for lanthanum substituted nanocrystals. In addition, the structural analysis also demonstrates that the average crystallite size varied in the range of 21-25 nm. FTIR spectra present the two prominent absorption bands in the range of 400 to 600 cm-1 which are the fingerprint region of all ferrites. Surface morphology of both substituted and unsubstituted Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticle samples was studied using FESEM technique and it indicates a significant increase in the size of spherical shaped particles with La3+ substitution. Magnetic properties of all samples were analyzed using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results revealed that saturation magnetization (Ms) and coercivity (Hc) of La3+ substituted samples has decreased as compared to the Ni-Zn ferrite samples. Hence, the observed results affirm that the lanthanum ion substitution has greatly influenced the structural, morphology and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles.
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a cosmopolitan mycotoxin found in agricultural commodities causes serious health maladies to human and animals when accidently consumed even at a low quantity. It necessitates selective and sensitive devices to analyse DON as the conventional methods are complex and time-consuming. This study is focused on developing a selective biosensing system using iron nanoflorets graphene nickel (INFGN) as the transducer and a specific aptamer as the biorecognition element. 3D-graphene is incorporated using a low-pressure chemical vapour deposition followed by the decoration of iron nanoflorets using electrochemical deposition. INFGN enables a feasible bio-capturing due to its large surface area. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirms the presence of the hydroxyl groups on the INFGN surface, which acts as the linker. Clear Fourier-transform infrared peak shifts affirm the changes with surface chemical modification and biomolecular assembly. The limit of detection attained is 2.11 pg mL-1 and displays high stability whereby it retains 30.65% of activity after 48 h. The designed INFGN demonstrates remarkable discrimination of DON against similar mycotoxins (zearalenone and ochratoxin A). Overall, the high-performance biosensor shown here is an excellent, simple and cost-effective alternative for detecting DON in food and feed samples.
PtRu catalyst is a promising anodic catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) but the slow reaction kinetics reduce the performance of DMFCs. Therefore, this study attempts to improve the performance of PtRu catalysts by adding nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe). Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are used to increase the active area of the catalyst and to improve the catalyst performance. Electrochemical analysis techniques, such as energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), are used to characterize the kinetic parameters of the hybrid catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is used to investigate the effects of adding Fe and Ni to the catalyst on the reaction kinetics. Additionally, chronoamperometry (CA) tests were conducted to study the long-term performance of the catalyst for catalyzing the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The binding energies of the reactants and products are compared to determine the kinetics and potential surface energy for methanol oxidation. The FESEM analysis results indicate that well-dispersed nanoscale (2-5 nm) PtRu particles are formed on the MWCNTs. Finally, PtRuFeNi/MWCNT improves the reaction kinetics of anode catalysts for DMFCs and obtains a mass current of 31 A g(-1) catalyst.
A series of bimetallic catalysts containing nickel supported over MgO-ZrO2 were tested for activity in the dry reforming of carbon dioxide. A nickel-cobalt bimetallic catalyst gave the best performance in terms of conversion and coke resistance from a range of Ni-X bimetallic catalysts, X=Ca, K, Ba, La, and Ce. The nitrogen-adsorption and hydrogen-chemisorption studies showed the Ni-Co bimetallic supported catalyst to have good surface area with high metal dispersion. This contributed to the high catalytic activity, in terms of conversion activity and stability of the catalyst, at an equimolar methane/carbon dioxide feed ratio. The kinetics of methane dry reforming are studied in a fixed-bed reactor over an Ni-Co bimetallic catalyst in the temperature range 700-800 °C by varying the partial pressures of CH4 and CO2. The experimental data were analyzed based on the proposed reaction mechanism using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. The activation energies for methane and carbon dioxide consumption were estimated at 52.9 and 48.1 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The lower value of CO2 activation energy compared to the activation energy of CH4 indicated a higher reaction rate of CO2, which owes to the strong basicity of nanocrystalline support, MgO-ZrO2.
The potential of Pleurotus ostreatus spent mushroom compost (PSMC) as a green biosorbent for nickel (II) biosorption was investigated in this study. A novel approach of using the half-saturation concentration of biosorbent to rapidly determine the uptake, kinetics and mechanism of biosorption was employed together with cost per unit uptake analysis to determine the potential of this biosorbent. Fifty per cent nickel (II) biosorption was obtained at a half-saturation constant of 0.7 g biosorbent concentration, initial pH in the range of 4-8, 10 min contact time, 50 mL 50 mg/L nickel (II) initial concentration. The experimental data were well fitted with the Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum nickel (II) biosorption was 3.04 mg/g. The results corresponded well to a second pseudo order kinetic model with the coefficient of determination value of 0.9999. Based on FTIR analysis, the general alkyl, hydroxyl or amino, aliphatic alcohol and carbonyl functional groups of biosorbent were involved in the biosorption process. Therefore, biosorption of nickel (II) must involve several mechanisms simultaneously such as physical adsorption, chemisorption and ion exchange. Cost comparison for PSMC with Amberlite IRC-86 ion exchange resin indicates that the biosorbent has the potential to be developed into a cost effective and environmentally friendly treatment system.
This paper presents the results of research on heavy metals removal from water by filtration using low cost coarse media which could be used as an alternative approach to remove heavy metals from water or selected wastewater. A series of batch studies were conducted using different particle media (particle size 2.36-4.75 mm) shaken with different heavy metal solutions at various pH values to see the removal behaviour for each metal. Each solution of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr(III)) with a concentration of 2 mg/L was shaken with the media. At a final pH of 8.5, limestone has significantly removed more than 90% of most metals followed by 80% and 65% removals using crushed bricks and gravel, respectively. The removal by aeration and settlement methods without solid media was less than 30%. Results indicated that the removal of heavy metals was influenced by the media and not directly by the pH. Investigations on the removal behaviour of these metals indicated that rough solid media with the presence of carbonate were beneficial for the removal process. Adsorption and precipitation as metals oxide and probably as metals carbonate were among the two mechanisms that contributed to the removal of metals from solution.
In this study, solidification/stabilization (S/S) of nickel hydroxide sludge using ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and oil palm ash (OPA) was carried out. The effects of increased substitution of OPA wt% in the S/S mix designs on the treated samples' physical and chemical characteristics were investigated. The physical characteristics studied were unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and changes in crystalline phases while chemical characteristics studied were leachability of nickel and leachate pH. Results indicated the optimum mix design for S/S of nickel hydroxide sludge using both OPC and OPA at B/S(d)=1 in terms of cost-effectiveness and treatment efficiency was 15 wt% OPA, 35 wt% OPC and 50 wt% sludge. The sufficient UCS and low leached nickel concentrations shown for this mix design indicate the viability of using OPA as substitute of OPC as it can significantly reduce cost normally incurred by usage of high amounts of OPC.
Nanostructured network-like MnO2-NiO composite electrodes were electrodeposited onto stainless steel substrates via different electrodeposition modes, such as chronopotentiometry, chronoamperometry, and cyclic voltammetry, and then subjected to heat treatment at 300°C for metal oxide conversion. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the crystalline natures and morphologies of the deposited films. The electrochemical properties were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge tests. The results revealed that the electrochemical performance of the as-obtained composite electrodes depended on the electrodeposition mode. The electrochemical properties of MnO2-NiO composite electrodes prepared using cyclic voltammetry exhibited the highest capacitance values and were most influenced by the deposition cycle number. The optimum specific capacitance was 3509 Fg-1 with energy and power densities of 1322 Wh kg-1 and 110.5 kW kg-1, respectively, at a current density of 20 Ag-1 in a mixed KOH/K3Fe(CN)6 electrolyte.
NiTi arch wires are used widely in orthodontic treatment due to its superelastic and biocompatibility properties. In brackets configuration, the force released from the arch wire is influenced by the sliding resistances developed on the arch wire-bracket contact. This study investigated the evolution of the forces released by a rectangular NiTi arch wire towards possible intraoral temperature and deflection changes. A three dimensional finite element model was developed to measure the force-deflection behavior of superelastic arch wire. Finite element analysis was used to distinguish the martensite fraction and phase state of arch wire microstructure in relation to the magnitude of wire deflection. The predicted tensile and bending results from the numerical model showed a good agreement with the experimental results. As contact developed between the wire and bracket, binding influenced the force-deflection curve by changing the martensitic transformation plateau into a slope. The arch wire recovered from greater magnitude of deflection released lower force than one recovered from smaller deflection. In contrast, it was observed that the plateau slope increased from 0.66N/mm to 1.1N/mm when the temperature was increased from 26°C to 46°C.
A novel hydrous iron-nickel-manganese (HINM) trimetal oxide was successfully fabricated using oxidation and coprecipitation method for metalloid arsenite removal. The atomic ratio of Fe:Ni:Mn for this adsorbent is 3:2:1. HINM adsorbent was identified as an amorphous nanosized adsorbent with particle size ranged from 30 nm to 60 nm meanwhile the total active surface area and pore diameter of HINM area of 195.78 m2/g and 2.43 nm, respectively. Experimental data of arsenite adsorption is best fitted into pseudo-second order and Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity of arsenite onto HINM was 81.9 mg/g. Thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption of arsenite was a spontaneous and endothermic reaction with enthalpy change of 14.04 kJ/mol and Gibbs energy of -12 to -14 kJ/mol. Zeta potential, thermal gravimetric (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis were applied to elucidate the mechanism of arsenite adsorption by HINM. Mechanism of arsenite adsorption by HINM involved both chemisorption and physisorption based on the electrostatic attraction between arsenite ions and surface charge of HINM. It also involved the hydroxyl substitution by arsenite ions through the formation of inner-sphere complex. Reusability of HINM trimetal oxide was up to 89% after three cycles of testing implied that HINM trimetal oxide is a promising and practical adsorbent for arsenite.
Two optimization strategies, codon usage modification and glycine supplementation, were adopted to improve the extracellular production of Bacillus sp. NR5 UPM β-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGT-BS) in recombinant Escherichia coli. Several rare codons were eliminated and replaced with the ones favored by E. coli cells, resulting in an increased codon adaptation index (CAI) from 0.67 to 0.78. The cultivation of the codon modified recombinant E. coli following optimization of glycine supplementation enhanced the secretion of β-CGTase activity up to 2.2-fold at 12 h of cultivation as compared to the control. β-CGTase secreted into the culture medium by the transformant reached 65.524 U/mL at post-induction temperature of 37 °C with addition of 1.2 mM glycine and induced at 2 h of cultivation. A 20.1-fold purity of the recombinant β-CGTase was obtained when purified through a combination of diafiltration and nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) affinity chromatography. This combined strategy doubled the extracellular β-CGTase production when compared to the single approach, hence offering the potential of enhancing the expression of extracellular enzymes, particularly β-CGTase by the recombinant E. coli.
NiS-SiO2 and Cr2S3-TiO2 synthesized by Ultrasound-Microwave method was tested for the photo-degradation of methyl red as azo dye under ultraviolet (UV) light. The structure and morphology of the synthesized materials were examined through scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and the band gap energy differences were determined through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The crystallite size and band gap values of SiO2, TiO2, NiS-SiO2 and Cr2S3-TiO2-1 were obtained from XRD and UV-vis DRS analysis and found insignificant 44.22, 54.11, and 57.11 nm, and 8.9, 3.2, 3.0, 2.7 eV, respectively. The NiS-SiO2 and Cr2S3-TiO2 nanocomposites exhibited good stability and catalytic performance in the azo dye degradation; the composite provides a complete degradation after 50 min under UV irradiation. The effects of different quencher compounds on the Methyl red dye degradation were also investigated. The result for this experiment shows the system without the quencher was highly degradation of Methyl red. The antibacterial influence of the SiO2, TiO2, NiS-SiO2 and Cr2S3-TiO2-1 were studied versus two species bacteria. The antifungal performance of this nanoparticle was analyzed versus two species fungi as the C. albicans and P. funiculosum. Biological data demonstrated that the prepared catalyst has great bactericidal and fungicidal properties.