Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

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  1. Kassim M, Achoui M, Mansor M, Yusoff KM
    Fitoterapia, 2010 Dec;81(8):1196-201.
    PMID: 20708657 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2010.07.024
    We investigated the effects of honey and its methanol and ethyl acetate extracts on inflammation in animal models. Rats' paws were induced with carrageenan in the non-immune inflammatory and nociceptive model, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the immune inflammatory model. Honey and its extracts were able to inhibit edema and pain in inflammatory tissues as well as showing potent inhibitory activities against NO and PGE(2) in both models. The decrease in edema and pain correlates with the inhibition of NO and PGE(2). Phenolic compounds have been implicated in the inhibitory activities. Honey is potentially useful in the treatment of inflammatory conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors*
  2. Najmuldeen IA, Hadi AH, Awang K, Mohamad K, Ketuly KA, Mukhtar MR, et al.
    J. Nat. Prod., 2011 May 27;74(5):1313-7.
    PMID: 21428417 DOI: 10.1021/np200013g
    Three new limonoids, chisomicines A-C (1-3), have been isolated from the bark of Chisocheton ceramicus. Their structures were determined by 2D NMR, CD spectroscopic methods, and X-ray analysis. Chisomicine A (1) exhibited NO production inhibitory activity in J774.1 cells stimulated by LPS dose-dependently at high cell viability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors
  3. Saha K, Lajis NH, Israf DA, Hamzah AS, Khozirah S, Khamis S, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2004 Jun;92(2-3):263-7.
    PMID: 15138010
    Methanol extracts of seven Malaysian medicinal plants were screened for antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibitory activities. Antioxidant activity was measured by using FTC, TBA and DPPH free radical scavenging methods and Griess assay was used for the measurement of nitric oxide inhibition in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-treated RAW 264.7 cells. All the extracts showed strong antioxidant activity comparable to or higher than that of alpha-tocopherol, BHT and quercetin in FTC and TBA methods. The extracts from Leea indica and Spermacoce articularis showed strong DPPH free radical scavenging activity comparable with quercetin, BHT and Vit C. Spermacoce exilis showed only moderate activity but other species were weak as compared to the standards. In the Griess assay Lasianthus oblongus, Chasalia chartacea, Hedyotis verticillata, Spermacoce articularis and Leea indica showed strong inhibitory activity on nitric oxide production in LPS and IFN-gamma-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Extracts from Psychotria rostrata and Spermacoce exilis also inhibited NO production but this was due to their cytotoxic effects upon cells during culture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors*
  4. Achike FI, Kwan CY
    Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol., 2003 Sep;30(9):605-15.
    PMID: 12940876
    1. Nitric oxide (NO) is formed enzymatically from l-arginine in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide is generated constitutively in endothelial cells via sheer stress and blood-borne substances. Nitric oxide is also generated constitutively in neuronal cells and serves as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve endings. Furthermore, NO can also be formed via enzyme induction in many tissues in the presence of cytokines. 2. The ubiquitous presence of NO in the living body suggests that NO plays an important role in the maintenance of health. Being a free radical with vasodilatory properties, NO exerts dual effects on tissues and cells in various biological systems. At low concentrations, NO can dilate the blood vessels and improve the circulation, but at high concentrations it can cause circulatory shock and induce cell death. Thus, diseases can arise in the presence of the extreme ends of the physiological concentrations of NO. 3. The NO signalling pathway has, in recent years, become a target for new drug development. The high level of flavonoids, catechins, tannins and other polyphenolic compounds present in vegetables, fruits, soy, tea and even red wine (from grapes) is believed to contribute to their beneficial health effects. Some of these compounds induce NO formation from the endothelial cells to improve circulation and some suppress the induction of inducible NOS in inflammation and infection. 4. Many botanical medicinal herbs and drugs derived from these herbs have been shown to have effects on the NO signalling pathway. For example, the saponins from ginseng, ginsenosides, have been shown to relax blood vessels (probably contributing to the antifatigue and blood pressure-lowering effects of ginseng) and corpus cavernosum (thus, for the treatment of men suffering from erectile dysfunction; however, the legendary aphrodisiac effect of ginseng may be an overstatement). Many plant extracts or purified drugs derived from Chinese medicinal herbs with proposed actions on NO pathways are also reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors
  5. Mazlan NA, Mediani A, Abas F, Ahmad S, Shaari K, Khamis S, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:312741.
    PMID: 24319356 DOI: 10.1155/2013/312741
    The methanol extracts of three Macaranga species (M. denticulata, M. pruinosa, and M. gigantea) were screened to evaluate their total phenolic contents and activities as cholinesterase inhibitors, nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitors, tyrosinase inhibitors, and antioxidants. The bark of M. denticulata showed the highest total phenolic content (2682 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g) and free radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.063 mg/mL). All of the samples inhibited linoleic acid peroxidation by greater than 80%, with the leaves of M. gigantea exhibiting the highest inhibition of 92.21%. Most of the samples exhibited significant antioxidant potential. The bark of M. denticulata and the leaves of both M. pruinosa and M. gigantea exhibited greater than 50% tyrosinase inhibition, with the bark of M. denticulata having the highest percentage of inhibition (68.7%). The bark and leaves of M. denticulata exhibited greater than 50% inhibition (73.82% and 54.50%, resp.) of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE), while none of the samples showed any significant inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Only the bark of M. denticulata and M. gigantea displayed greater than 50% inhibition of nitric oxide production in cells (81.79% and 56.51%, resp.). These bioactivities indicate that some Macaranga spp. have therapeutic potential in medicinal research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors*
  6. Khan KM, Mesaik MA, Abdalla OM, Rahim F, Soomro S, Halim SA, et al.
    Bioorg. Chem., 2016 Feb;64:21-8.
    PMID: 26637945 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2015.11.004
    Benzothiazole and its natural or synthetic derivatives have been used as precursors for several pharmacological agents for neuroprotective, anti-bacterial, and anti-allergic activities. The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of benzothiazole analogs (compounds 1-26) for their immunomodulatory activities. Eight compounds (2, 4, 5, 8-10, 12, and 18) showed potent inhibitory activity on PHA-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with IC50 ranging from 3.7 to 11.9 μM compared to that of the standard drug, prednisolone <1.5 μM. Some compounds (2, 4, 8, and 18) were also found to have potent inhibitory activities on the production of IL-2 on PHA/PMA-stimulated PBMCs with IC50 values ranging between <4.0 and 12.8 μM. The binding interaction of these compounds was performed through silico molecular docking. Compounds 2, 8, 9, and 10 significantly suppressed oxidative burst ROS production in phagocytes with IC50 values between <4.0 and 15.2 μM. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitrites in murine macrophages cell line J774 were found to be inhibited by compounds 4, 8, 9, and 18 at a concentration of 25 μg/mL by 56%, 91%, 58%, and 78%, respectively. Furthermore, compounds 5, 8, 12, and 18 showed significant (P<0.05) suppressive activity on Th-2 cytokine, interleukin 4 (IL-4) with an IC50 range of <4.0 to 40.3 μM. Interestingly compound 4 has shown a selective inhibitory activity on IL-2 and T cell proliferation (naïve T cell proliferation stage) rather than on IL-4 cytokine, while compound 12 displayed an interference with T-cell proliferation and IL-4 generation. Moreover compound 8 and 18 exert non-selective inhibition on both IL-2 and IL-4 cytokines, indicating a better interference with stage leading to humoral immune response and hence possible application in autoimmune diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors
  7. Kassim M, Yusoff KM, Ong G, Sekaran S, Yusof MY, Mansor M
    Fitoterapia, 2012 Sep;83(6):1054-9.
    PMID: 22626749 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2012.05.008
    Malaysian Gelam honey has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, a high antioxidant capacity, and free radical-scavenging activity. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates immune cells to sequentially release early pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and induces the synthesis of several related enzymes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the intravenous injection of honey in rats with LPS-induced endotoxemia. The results showed that after 4h of treatment, honey reduced cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins 1β, and 10) and NO levels and increased heme oxygenase-1 levels. After 24h, a decrease in cytokines and NO and an increase in HO-1 were seen in all groups, whereas a reduction in HMGB1 occurred only in the honey-treated groups. These results support the further examination of honey as a natural compound for the treatment of a wide range of inflammatory diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors*
  8. Leong SW, Mohd Faudzi SM, Abas F, Mohd Aluwi MF, Rullah K, Lam KW, et al.
    Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2015 Aug 15;25(16):3330-7.
    PMID: 26071636 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2015.05.056
    A series of twenty-four 2-benzoyl-6-benzylidenecyclohexanone analogs were synthesized and evaluated for their nitric oxide inhibition and antioxidant activity. Six compounds (3, 8, 10, 17, 18 and 19) were found to exhibit significant NO inhibitory activity in LPS/IFN-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, of which compound 10 demonstrated the highest activity with the IC50 value of 4.2 ± 0.2 μM. Furthermore, two compounds (10 and 17) displayed antioxidant activity upon both the DPPH scavenging and FRAP analyses. However, none of the 2-benzoyl-6-benzylidenecyclohexanone analogs significantly scavenged NO radical. Structure-activity comparison suggested that 3,4-dihydroxylphenyl ring is crucial for bioactivities of the 2-benzoyl-6-benzylidenecyclohexanone analogs. The results from this study and the reports from previous studies indicated that compound 10 could be a candidate for further investigation on its potential as a new anti-inflammatory agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors*
  9. Kassim M, Achoui M, Mustafa MR, Mohd MA, Yusoff KM
    Nutr Res, 2010 Sep;30(9):650-9.
    PMID: 20934607 DOI: 10.1016/j.nutres.2010.08.008
    Natural honey has been used in traditional medicine of different cultures throughout the world. This study looked into the extraction of Malaysian honey and the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of these extracts. It was hypothesized that honey extracts contain varying amounts of phenolic compounds and that they possess different in vitro anti-inflammatory activities. Honey extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify and compare phenolic compounds, whereas high-performance liquid chromatography was used for their quantification. Subsequently, honey methanol extract (HME) and honey ethyl acetate extract (HEAE) were tested in vitro for their effect on nitric oxide production in stimulated macrophages. The extracts were also tested for their effects on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) cytotoxicity in L929 cells. The major phenolics in the extracts were ellagic, gallic, and ferulic acids; myricetin; chlorogenic acid; and caffeic acid. Other compounds found in lower concentrations were hesperetin, p-coumaric acid, chrysin, quercetin, luteolin, and kaempferol. Ellagic acid was the most abundant of the phenolic compounds recorded, with mean concentrations of 3295.83 and 626.74 μg/100 g of honey in HME and HEAE, respectively. The median maximal effective concentrations for in vitro nitric oxide inhibition by HEAE and HME were calculated to be 37.5 and 271.7 μg/mL, respectively. The median maximal effective concentrations for protection from TNF cytotoxicity by HEAE and HME were 168.1 and 235.4 μg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, HEAE exhibited greater activity in vitro, whereas HME contained a higher concentration of phenolic compounds per 100 g of honey.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors*
  10. Yoke Keong Y, Arifah AK, Sukardi S, Roslida AH, Somchit MN, Zuraini A
    Med Princ Pract, 2011;20(2):142-6.
    PMID: 21252569 DOI: 10.1159/000319907
    The present study was conducted to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of a crude aqueous extract of Bixa orellana leaves (AEBO) and to examine the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in its anti-inflammatory mechanism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors*
  11. Harasstani OA, Moin S, Tham CL, Liew CY, Ismail N, Rajajendram R, et al.
    Inflamm. Res., 2010 Sep;59(9):711-21.
    PMID: 20221843 DOI: 10.1007/s00011-010-0182-8
    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated several flavonoid combinations for synergy in the inhibition of proinflammatory mediator synthesis in the RAW 264.7 cellular model of inflammation.

    METHODS: The inhibitory effect of chrysin, kaempferol, morin, silibinin, quercetin, diosmin and hesperidin upon nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion from the LPS-induced RAW 264.7 monocytic macrophage was assessed and IC(50) values obtained. Flavonoids that showed reasonable inhibitory effects in at least two out of the three assays were combined in a series of fixed IC(50) ratios and reassessed for inhibition of NO, PGE(2) and TNF-alpha. Dose-response curves were generated and interactions were analysed using isobolographic analysis.

    RESULTS: The experiments showed that only chrysin, kaempferol, morin, and silibinin were potent enough to produce dose-response effects upon at least two out of the three mediators assayed. Combinations of these four flavonoids showed that several combinations afforded highly significant synergistic effects.

    CONCLUSIONS: Some flavonoids are synergistic in their anti-inflammatory effects when combined. In particular chrysin and kaempferol significantly synergised in their inhibitory effect upon NO, PGE(2) and TNF-alpha secretion. These findings open further avenues of research into combinatorial therapeutics of inflammatory-related diseases and the pharmacology of flavonoid synergy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors*
  12. Zakaria ZA, Sulaiman MR, Somchit MN, Jais AM, Ali DI
    J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2005;8(2):199-206.
    PMID: 16124931
    To determine the involvement of nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/cGMP) pathway in aqueous supernatant of haruan (Channa striatus) fillet (ASH) antinociception using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors
  13. Yousefi S, Bayat S, Rahman MB, Ibrahim Z, Abdulmalek E
    Chem. Biodivers., 2017 Apr;14(4).
    PMID: 28036129 DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600362
    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the main risk factor for developing colorectal cancer which is common in patients of all ages. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), structurally related to the salicylates, is highly active in the treatment of IBD with minor side effects. In this study, the synthesis of galactose and fructose esters of 5-ASA was planned to evaluate the role of glycoconjugation on the bioactivity of the parent drug. The antibacterial activity of the new compounds were evaluated against two Gram-negative and two Gram-positive species of bacteria, with a notable effect observed against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in comparisons with the 5-ASA. Cytotoxicity testing over HT-29 and 3T3 cell lines indicated that the toxicity of the new products against normal cells was significantly reduced compared with the original drug, whereas their activity against cancerous cells was slightly decreased. The anti-inflammatory activity test in RAW264.7 macrophage cells indicated that the inhibition of nitric oxide by both of the monosaccharide conjugated derivatives was slightly improved in comparison with the non-conjugated drug.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors
  14. Chia TY, Sattar MA, Abdulla MH, Rathore HA, Ahmad Fu, Kaur G, et al.
    Ren Fail, 2013 Aug;35(7):978-88.
    PMID: 23822648 DOI: 10.3109/0886022X.2013.809563
    This study investigated the effects of tempol, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic and L-NAME, a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor on the renal function and hemodynamics in cyclosporine A (CsA) induced renal insufficiency rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either vehicle (C), tempol (T, 1 mmol/L in drinking fluid), L-NAME (L, 1 mmol/L in drinking fluid), CsA (Cs, 25 mg/kg/day via gavage), CsA plus tempol (TCs), CsA plus L-NAME (LCs) or CsA plus a combination of tempol and L-NAME (TLCs) for 21 consecutive days. At the end of treatment regimen, the renal responses to noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE), methoxamine and angiotensin II (Ang II) were determined. Cs and LCs rats had lower creatinine clearance (0.7 ± 0.1 and 0.6 ± 0.5 vs. 1.3 ± 0.2 mL/min/kg) and fractional excretion of sodium (0.12 ± 0.02 and 0.17 ± 0.01 vs. 0.67 ± 0.04%) but higher systolic blood pressure (145 ± 2 and 178 ± 4 vs. 116 ± 2) compared to the control (all p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors
  15. Kadhum AA, Al-Amiery AA, Musa AY, Mohamad AB
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(9):5747-61.
    PMID: 22016624 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12095747
    The antioxidant activity of two synthesized coumarins namely, N-(4,7-dioxo-2- phenyl-1,3-oxazepin-3(2H,4H,7H)-yl)-2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetamide 5 and N-(4-oxo-2-phenylthiazolidin-3-yl)-2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetamide 6 were studied with the DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide radical methods and compared with the known antioxidant ascorbic acid. Compounds 5 and 6 were synthesized in a good yield from the addition reaction of maleic anhydride or mercaptoacetic acid to compound 4, namely N'-benzylidene-2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetohydrazide. Compound 4 was synthesized by the condensation of compound 3, namely 2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy) acetohydrazide, with benzaldehyde. Compound 3, however, was synthesized from the addition of hydrazine to compound 2, namely ethyl 2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetate, which was synthesized from the reaction of ethyl bromoacetate with 4-hydroxycoumarin 1. Structures for the synthesized coumarins 2-6 are proposed on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors
  16. Perimal EK, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Khalid MH, Ming OH, Khalid S, et al.
    Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2011 Mar;108(3):155-62.
    PMID: 20955360 DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2010.00635.x
    This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of zerumbone in chemical behavioural models of nociception in mice. Zerumbone given through intraperitoneal route (i.p.) produced dose-related antinociception when assessed on acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test in mice. In addition, the i.p. administration of zerumbone exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic pain induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of capsaicin and bradykinin. Likewise, zerumbone given by i.p. route reduced the nociception produced by i.pl. injection of glutamate and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The antinociception caused by zerumbone in the acetic acid test was significantly attenuated by i.p. pre-treatment of mice with l-arginine (nitric oxide precursor) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel inhibitor). However, the antinociception of zerumbone was enhanced by methylene blue (non-specific gyanylyl cyclase inhibitor). Together, these results indicate that zerumbone produces pronounced antinociception against chemical models of nociception in mice. It also strongly suggests that the l-arginine-nitric oxide-cGMP-PKC-K(+) ATP channel pathways, the TRPV1 and kinin B2 receptors play an important role in the zerumbone-induced antinociception.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors
  17. Liew CY, Tham CL, Lam KW, Mohamad AS, Kim MK, Cheah YK, et al.
    Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol, 2010 Sep;32(3):495-506.
    PMID: 20109039 DOI: 10.3109/08923970903575708
    HMP [3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(5-methyl-furan-2-y-l) propenone] was evaluated for its ability to inhibit the synthesis of major proinflammatory mediators and cytokines in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-differentiated/LPS-induced U937 cells. HMP suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) with significant inhibitory effects at doses as low as 0.78 microM (P < 0.05). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion was also inhibited at doses of 12.5 microM and above (P < 0.01). The secretion of both TNF-alpha and IL-6 were only inhibited at the highest dose used (25 microM; P < 0.001). IL-1beta secretion was also inhibited from 12.5 microM onwards (P < 0.01). This inhibition was demonstrated to be caused by down-regulation of inducible enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), without direct effect upon iNOS or COX-2 enzyme activity. HMP only inhibited iNOS (P < 0.001) and IL-1beta (P < 0.05) gene expression at the highest tested concentration. HMP did not affect the secretion of chemokines IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The most striking effect of HMP was its NO inhibitory activity and therefore we conclude that HMP is a selective inhibitor of iNOS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors*
  18. Iman V, Mohan S, Abdelwahab SI, Karimian H, Nordin N, Fadaeinasab M, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2017;11:103-121.
    PMID: 28096658 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S115135
    Therapy that directly targets apoptosis and/or inflammation could be highly effective for the treatment of cancer. Murraya koenigii is an edible herb that has been traditionally used for cancer treatment as well as inflammation. Here, we describe that girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from M. koenigii, induced apoptosis and inhibited inflammation in vitro as well as in vivo. Induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer cells (HT-29) by girinimbine revealed decreased cell viability in HT-29, whereas there was no cytotoxic effect on normal colon cells. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, nuclear condensation, cell permeability, and cytochrome c translocation in girinimbine-treated HT-29 cells demonstrated involvement of mitochondria in apoptosis. Early-phase apoptosis was shown in both acridine orange/propidium iodide and annexin V results. Girinimbine treatment also resulted in an induction of G0/G1 phase arrest which was further corroborated with the upregulation of two cyclin-dependent kinase proteins, p21 and p27. Girinimbine treatment activated apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway by activation of caspases 3 and 9 as well as cleaved caspases 3 and 9 which ended by triggering the execution pathway. Moreover, apoptosis was confirmed by downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax in girinimbine-treated cells. In addition, the key tumor suppressor protein, p53, was seen to be considerably upregulated upon girinimbine treatment. Induction of apoptosis by girinimbine was also evidenced in vivo in zebrafish embryos, with results demonstrating significant distribution of apoptotic cells in embryos after a 24-hour treatment period. Meanwhile, anti-inflammatory action was evidenced by the significant dose-dependent girinimbine inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide/interferon-gamma-induced cells along with significant inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B translocation from the cytoplasm to nucleus in stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Girinimbine was also shown to have considerable antioxidant activity whereby 20 μg/mL of girinimbine was equivalent to 82.17±1.88 μM of Trolox. In mice with carrageenan-induced peritonitis, oral pretreatment with girinimbine helped limit total leukocyte migration (mainly of neutrophils), and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in the peritoneal fluid. These findings strongly suggest that girinimbine could act as a chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent by inducing apoptosis while suppressing inflammation. There is a potential for girinimbine to be further investigated for its applicability in treating early stages of cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors
  19. Khoo LW, Kow ASF, Maulidiani M, Ang MY, Chew WY, Lee MT, et al.
    Phytochem Anal, 2019 Jan;30(1):46-61.
    PMID: 30183131 DOI: 10.1002/pca.2789
    INTRODUCTION: Clinacanthus nutans, a small shrub that is native to Southeast Asia, is commonly used in traditional herbal medicine and as a food source. Its anti-inflammation properties is influenced by the metabolites composition, which can be determined by different binary extraction solvent ratio and extraction methods used during plant post-harvesting stage.

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between the chemical composition of C. nutans and its anti-inflammatory properties using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics approach.

    METHODOLOGY: The anti-inflammatory effect of C. nutans air-dried leaves extracted using five different binary extraction solvent ratio and two extraction methods was determined based on their nitric oxide (NO) inhibition effect in lipopolysaccharide-interferon-gamma (LPS-IFN-γ) activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The relationship between extract bioactivity and metabolite profiles and quantifications were established using 1 H-NMR metabolomics and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The possible metabolite biosynthesis pathway was constructed to further strengthen the findings.

    RESULTS: Water and sonication prepared air-dried leaves possessed the highest NO inhibition activity (IC50  = 190.43 ± 12.26 μg/mL, P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors
  20. Sosroseno W, Barid I, Herminajeng E, Susilowati H
    Oral Microbiol. Immunol., 2002 Apr;17(2):72-8.
    PMID: 11929552
    The aim of this study was to determine whether Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans) could stimulate a murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells) to produce nitric oxide (NO). The cells were treated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans or Escherichia coli LPS (LPS-Ec) for 24 h. The effects of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA), polymyxin B and cytokines (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-4 and IL-12) on the production of NO were also determined. The role of protein tyrosine kinase, protein kinase C and microtubulin organization on NO production were assessed by incubating RAW264.7 cells with genistein, bisindolylmaleide and colchicine prior to LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans stimulation, respectively. NO levels from the culture supernatants were determined by the Griess reaction. The results showed that LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans stimulated NO production by RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, but was slightly less potent than LPS-Ec. NMMA and polymyxin B blocked the production of NO. IFN-gamma and IL-12 potentiated but IL-4 depressed NO production by LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. TNF-alpha had no effects on NO production. Genistein and bisindolylmalemaide, but not colchicine, reduced the production of NO in a dose-dependent mechanism. The results of the present study suggest that A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS, via the activation of protein tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C and the regulatory control of cytokines, stimulates NO production by murine macrophages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors
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