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  1. Othman NE, Zaki SA, Rijal HB, Ahmad NH, Razak AA
    Int J Biometeorol, 2021 Apr;65(4):453-477.
    PMID: 33416948 DOI: 10.1007/s00484-020-02035-3
    Difficulties in controlling the effects of outdoor thermal environment on the human body are attracting considerable research attention. This study investigated the outdoor thermal comfort of urban pedestrians by assessing their perceptions of the tropical, micrometeorological, and physical conditions via a questionnaire survey. Evaluation of the outdoor thermal comfort involved pedestrians performing various physical activities (sitting, walking, and standing) in outdoor and semi-outdoor spaces where the data collection of air temperature, globe temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, metabolic activity, and clothing insulation data was done simultaneously. A total of 1011 participants were interviewed, and the micrometeorological data were recorded under outdoor and semi-outdoor conditions at two Malaysian university campuses. The neutral temperatures obtained which were 28.1 °C and 30.8 °C were within the biothermal acceptable ranges of 24-34 °C and 26-33 °C of the PET thermal sensation ranges for the outdoor and semi-outdoor conditions, respectively. Additionally, the participants' thermal sensation and preference votes were highly correlated with the PET and strongly related to air and mean radiant temperatures. The findings demonstrated the influence of individuals' thermal adaptation on the outdoor thermal comfort levels. This knowledge could be useful in the planning and designing of outdoor environments in hot and humid regions to create better thermal environments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pedestrians*
  2. Melisa Anak Adeh, Mohd Ibrahim Shapiai, Ayman Maliha, Muhammad Hafiz Md Zaini
    MyJurnal
    Nowadays, the applications of tracking moving object are commonly used in various
    areas especially in computer vision applications. There are many tracking algorithms
    have been introduced and they are divided into three groups which are generative
    trackers, discriminative trackers and hybrid trackers. One of the methods is TrackingLearning-Detection
    (TLD) framework which is an example of the hybrid trackers where
    combination between the generative trackers and the discriminative trackers occur. In
    TLD, the detector consists of three stages which are patch variance, ensemble classifier
    and KNearest Neighbor classifier. In the second stage, the ensemble classifier depends
    on simple pixel comparison hence, it is likely fail to offer a better generalization of the
    appearances of the target object in the detection process. In this paper, OnlineSequential
    Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM) was used to replace the ensemble
    classifier in the TLD framework. Besides that, different types of Haar-like features were
    used for the feature extraction process instead of using raw pixel value as the features.
    The objectives of this study are to improve the classifier in the second stage of detector
    in TLD framework by using Haar-like features as an input to the classifier and to get a
    more generalized detector in TLD framework by using OS-ELM based detector. The
    results showed that the proposed method performs better in Pedestrian 1 in terms of
    F-measure and also offers good performance in terms of Precision in four out of six
    videos.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pedestrians
  3. Rahman K, Abdul Ghani N, Kamil AA, Mustafa A, Chowdhury MA
    PLoS One, 2015;10(7):e0133229.
    PMID: 26196124 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133229
    Pedestrian overflow causes queuing delay and in turn, is controlled by the capacity of a facility. Flow control or blocking control takes action to avoid queues from building up to extreme values. Thus, in this paper, the problem of pedestrian flow control in open outdoor walking facilities in equilibrium condition is investigated using M/M/c/K queuing models. State dependent service rate based on speed and density relationship is utilized. The effective rate of the Poisson arrival process to the facility is determined so as there is no overflow of pedestrians. In addition, the use of the state dependent queuing models to the design of the facilities and the effect of pedestrian personal capacity on the design and the traffic congestion are discussed. The study does not validate the sustainability of adaptation of Western design codes for the pedestrian facilities in the countries like Bangladesh.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pedestrians*
  4. Oviedo-Trespalacios O, Çelik AK, Marti-Belda A, Włodarczyk A, Demant D, Nguyen-Phuoc DQ, et al.
    Accid Anal Prev, 2021 Sep;159:106212.
    PMID: 34098429 DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106212
    Alcohol is a global risk factor for road trauma. Although drink driving has received most of the scholarly attention, there is growing evidence of the risks of alcohol-impaired walking. Alcohol-impaired pedestrians are over-represented in fatal crashes compared to non-impaired pedestrians. Additionally, empirical evidence shows that alcohol intoxication impairs road-crossing judgements. Besides some limited early research, much is unknown about the global prevalence and determinants of alcohol-impaired walking. Understanding alcohol-impaired walking will support health promotion initiatives and injury prevention. The present investigation has three aims: (1) compare the prevalence of alcohol-impaired walking across countries; (2) identify international groups of pedestrians based on psychosocial factors (i.e., Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and perceptions of risk); and (3) investigate how segments of pedestrians form their intention for alcohol-impaired walking using the extended TPB (i.e. subjective norm, attitudes, perceived control, and perceived risk). A cross-sectional design was applied. The target behaviour question was "have you been a pedestrian when your thinking or physical ability (balance/strength) is affected by alcohol?" to ensure comparability across countries. Cluster analysis based on the extended TPB was used to identify groups of countries. Finally, regressions were used to predict pedestrians' intentions per group. A total of 6,166 respondents (Age M(SD) = 29.4 (14.2); Males = 39.2%) completed the questionnaire, ranging from 12.6% from Russia to 2.2% from Finland. The proportion of participants who reported never engaging in alcohol-impaired walking in the last three months ranged from 30.1% (Spain) to 83.1% (Turkey). Four groups of countries were identified: group-1 (Czech Republic, Spain, and Australia), group-2 (Russia and Finland), group-3 (Japan), and group-4 (final ten countries including Colombia, China, and Romania). Pedestrian intentions to engage in alcohol- impaired walking are predicted by perceptions of risk and TPB-psychosocial factors in group-1 and group-4. Favourable TPB-beliefs and low perceived risk increased alcohol-impaired walking intentions. Conversely, subjective norms were not significant in group-2 and only perceived risk predicted intention in group-3. The willingness of pedestrians to walk when alcohol-impaired differs significantly across the countries in this study. Perceived risk was the only common predictor among the 16 countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pedestrians*
  5. Ahmed T, Moeinaddini M, Almoshaogeh M, Jamal A, Nawaz I, Alharbi F
    PMID: 34444563 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18168813
    Crosswalks are critical locations in the urban transport network that need to be designed carefully as pedestrians are directly exposed to vehicular traffic. Although various methods are available to evaluate the level of service (LOS) at pedestrian crossings, pedestrian crossing facilities are frequently ignored in assessing crosswalk conditions. This study attempts to provide a comprehensive framework for evaluating crosswalks based on several essential indicators adopted from different guidelines. A new pedestrian crossing level of service (PCLOS) method is introduced in this research, with an aimto promote safe and sustainable operations at such locations. The new PCLOS employs an analytical point system to compare existing street crossing conditions to the guidelines' standards, taking into account the scores and coefficients of the indicators. The quantitative scores and coefficients of indicators are assigned based on field observations and respondent opinions. The method was tested to evaluate four pedestrian crosswalks in the city of Putrajaya, Malaysia. A total of 17 indicators were selected for the study after a comprehensive literature review. Survey results show that the provision of a zebra crossing was the most critical indicator at the pedestrian crossings, while drainage near crosswalks was regarded as the least important. Four indicators had a coefficient value above 4, indicating that these are very critical pedestrian crossing facilities and significantly impact the calculation of LOS for pedestrian crossings. Four crosswalks were evaluated using the proposed method in Putrajaya, Malaysia. The crosswalk at the Ministry of Domestic Trade Putrajaya got the "PCLOS A". In contrast, the midblock crossing in front of the Putrajaya Corporation was graded "PCLOS C". While the remaining two crosswalks were graded as "PCLOS B" crosswalks. Based on the assigned PCLOS grade, the proposed method could also assist in identifying current design and operation issues in existing pedestrian crossings and providing sound policy recommendations for improvements to ensure pedestrian safety.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pedestrians*
  6. Islam KT, Raj RG
    Sensors (Basel), 2017 Apr 13;17(4).
    PMID: 28406471 DOI: 10.3390/s17040853
    Road sign recognition is a driver support function that can be used to notify and warn the driver by showing the restrictions that may be effective on the current stretch of road. Examples for such regulations are 'traffic light ahead' or 'pedestrian crossing' indications. The present investigation targets the recognition of Malaysian road and traffic signs in real-time. Real-time video is taken by a digital camera from a moving vehicle and real world road signs are then extracted using vision-only information. The system is based on two stages, one performs the detection and another one is for recognition. In the first stage, a hybrid color segmentation algorithm has been developed and tested. In the second stage, an introduced robust custom feature extraction method is used for the first time in a road sign recognition approach. Finally, a multilayer artificial neural network (ANN) has been created to recognize and interpret various road signs. It is robust because it has been tested on both standard and non-standard road signs with significant recognition accuracy. This proposed system achieved an average of 99.90% accuracy with 99.90% of sensitivity, 99.90% of specificity, 99.90% of f-measure, and 0.001 of false positive rate (FPR) with 0.3 s computational time. This low FPR can increase the system stability and dependability in real-time applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pedestrians
  7. Mohd Syazwan, S., Aqbal, H.A., Azhar, H., Zulhadi, M., Sharifah Allyana, S.M.R., Baba M.D.
    MyJurnal
    Pedestrians' fatality trend in road crashes has been improving in recent years though it remains third in rank behind
    motorcyclists and car occupants. Based on the statistics, young pedestrians were the most affected group and the
    commonest injury regions were head and legs. Pedestrian crashes occurred primarily in rural areas and straight roads
    and at low light environment, and often involve cars and motorcycles. In addition to existing issues of careless and
    illegal crossing practices, there are potential new hazards face by pedestrian, which are mobile electronic device use
    and electric vehicle, especially when crossing roads. Road safety programs and interventions shall consider these new
    issues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pedestrians
  8. Sia, Chin Chin, Duraisingam T. J.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: The obesity rate in Malaysia is increasing exponentially. This is alarming as obesity in a population is likely to lead to health complications and negatively impact national economic productivity. The quality of health of our country is of paramount importance to a sustainable nation. To safeguard the health of our population in this country, there are current laws and potential laws to be implemented to combat obesity. In Malaysia, the government have introduced ‘soft policies’ approach such as Healthy life style programmes and campaigns as means to curb obesity yet its impact is questionable. ‘Hard policies’, such as regulations (e.g. imposing a tax, removal of subsidies, reduction of operational hours of eateries, menu-labelling, curbing of marketing of unhealthy food, implementation of pedestrian and bicycle paths, metabo laws) may be used as legitimate interventions to combat obesity in Malaysia. The aims of this paper is to (i) analyse the legal justifications for implementation of obesity prevention regulations, (ii) to compare and contrast the pros and cons of current and potential obesity prevention regulations to reduce obesity. Results and Conclusion: The law could be used to facilitate promotion of public health. In light of new scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory framework, and the increasingly obesogenic environment, this paper proposes
    potential legal approaches to address obesity in Malaysia. It is important for legal scholars to devise innovative strategies to address obesity from new perspectives. The great potential for the law to rectify the status quo has yet to be fully explored. With reduction of obesity, the fiscal burden of the nation on medical bills could be reduced and productivity could be increased.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pedestrians
  9. Hasan R, Napiah M
    Traffic Inj Prev, 2018 04 03;19(3):292-297.
    PMID: 28898110 DOI: 10.1080/15389588.2017.1373768
    OBJECTIVE: The footbridge is a vital structure in the road network and a cornerstone among crossing facilities. Yet, it suffers from low usage by pedestrians as they try to cross the street on the level. This study aims to analyze the perceptions of Malaysian pedestrians toward the use of footbridges with the consideration of different factors.

    METHOD: The study was carried out by collecting data from field observation and questionnaire distribution on the street among the public. The data were statistically analyzed by applying multiple linear regression models and a series of chi-square tests.

    RESULTS: The study found that the most influential factor cited by pedestrians in decision making regarding using a footbridge is the existence of an escalator. Being in a hurry and the fear of heights were significantly associated with choosing not to use a footbridge. Zebra crossing was chosen as the most favorable type of crossing facility by the majority of respondents. In addition, installation of a fence and barriers was proposed as an effective procedure to prevent jaywalking. To construct new and efficient footbridges in the future, the study suggests consideration of traffic volume, posted speed limit, and the number of lanes, because these are the most influential factors to predict the usage rate.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study encourages decision makers and stakeholders to consider providing escalators for new footbridges to enhance the safety of pedestrians.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pedestrians/psychology*; Pedestrians/statistics & numerical data
  10. Subramaniam K, Mohd Shah M, Fatin Farisha F, Poh SL, Nor Fadhilah M, Hilmi S
    Med J Malaysia, 2018 10;73(5):272-275.
    PMID: 30350803 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: The role of pathologist not only confined in performing post mortem but also can assist in prevention. The aim of this study to determine the prevalence and association of drug of abuse (DoA) in road traffic collision (RTC) at Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    METHODS: This is a retrospective study of post mortem cases at Hospital Kuala Lumpur from 2014 to 2016. Deaths from RTC were included while decomposed and homicide cases were excluded. We performed Spearman Correlation statistical test to relate RTC and positive DoA results.

    RESULTS: A total of 523 RTC cases were identified in which either blood or urine or both samples were taken for toxicology. 93 cases were positive for both DoA and therapeutic drugs. A total of 37 cases were positive for DoA. Alcohol was present in 5 out of 37 DoA positive cases. Most of the cases seen among 16 to 45 years old (69%) and predominantly in males (93.1%). 29 out of 37 were motorcyclist and the rest were pillion rider and pedestrian. Spearman Correlation statistical test showed a negative relationship between RTC and positive DoA results.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Majority of the DoA cases in RTC were identified in the younger age group and among the motorcyclist. Spearman Correlation statistical test showed that more cases of DoA died in natural or suicidal manner compared to RTC. However, this doesn't reflect the true association of DoA in RTC. This is because of mainly two factors which the delayed effect of DoA that gives negative toxicology test and also the influence of other road users on DoA.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pedestrians
  11. Naser MM, Zulkiple A, Al Bargi WA, Khalifa NA, Daniel BD
    J Safety Res, 2017 12;63:91-98.
    PMID: 29203029 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsr.2017.08.005
    INTRODUCTION: There are a variety of challenges faced by pedestrians when they walk along and attempt to cross a road, as the most recorded accidents occur during this time. Pedestrians of all types, including both sexes with numerous aging groups, are always subjected to risk and are characterized as the most exposed road users. The increased demand for better traffic management strategies to reduce the risks at intersections, improve quality traffic management, traffic volume, and longer cycle time has further increased concerns over the past decade.

    METHOD: This paper aims to develop a sustainable pedestrian gap crossing index model based on traffic flow density. It focusses on the gaps accepted by pedestrians and their decision for street crossing, where (Log-Gap) logarithm of accepted gaps was used to optimize the result of a model for gap crossing behavior. Through a review of extant literature, 15 influential variables were extracted for further empirical analysis. Subsequently, data from the observation at an uncontrolled mid-block in Jalan Ampang in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was gathered and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Binary Logit Model (BLM) techniques were employed to analyze the results.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: From the results, different pedestrian behavioral characteristics were considered for a minimum gap size model, out of which only a few (four) variables could explain the pedestrian road crossing behavior while the remaining variables have an insignificant effect. Among the different variables, age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and crossing were the most influential variables. The study concludes that pedestrians' decision to cross the street depends on the pedestrian age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and size of traffic gap before crossing.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The inferences from these models will be useful to increase pedestrian safety and performance evaluation of uncontrolled midblock road crossings in developing countries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pedestrians*
  12. Ramakreshnan L, Fong CS, Sulaiman NM, Aghamohammadi N
    Sci Total Environ, 2020 Dec 20;749:141457.
    PMID: 33370890 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141457
    Recognizing and mainstreaming pertinent walkability elements into the university campus planning is crucial to materialise green mandates of the campus, while enhancing social and economic sustainability. In one of such attempts, this transverse study investigated the walking motivations, built environment factors associated with campus walkability and the relative importance of the studied built environment factors in reference to the sociodemographic attributes from the viewpoint of the campus community in a tropical university campus in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. An online survey using a structured questionnaire was conducted between May and September 2019. The built environment factors associated with campus walkability were expressed and ranked as adjusted scores (AS). Meanwhile, multivariable logistic regression was deployed to examine the relative importance of the studied built environment factors in reference to the sociodemographic attributes of the campus community. Among 504 total responses acquired, proximity between complementary land uses (90.7%) was reported as the main motivation for walking. On the other hand, street connectivity and accessibility (AS: 97.62%) was described as the most opted built environment factor, followed by land use (AS: 96.76%), pedestrian infrastructure (AS: 94.25%), walking experience (AS: 87.07%), traffic safety (AS: 85.28%) and campus neighbourhood (AS: 59.62%), respectively. Among the sociodemographic attributes, no regular monthly income (OR = 3.162; 95% CI = 1.165-8.379; p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Pedestrians
  13. Kareem A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2003 Jul;10(2):31-9.
    PMID: 23386795
    Road accident is 'a global tragedy' with ever-rising trend. The goal of this article includes review of the causes and nature of accidents, statistical data regarding road accidents and the economical impact. 1.17 million deaths occur each year worldwide due to road accidents 70 % of which occur in developing countries. 65% of deaths involve pedestrians, 35 % of which are children. Estimates suggest that 23-34 million people are injured worldwide every year in road crashes - a value almost twice that previously estimated. It is estimated that more than 200 U.S. citizens die each year due to road accidents abroad. Every year in Europe, more than 50,000 peoples are killed in road accidents, and more than 150,000 remain disabled. It is a sad fact that the total number of road accidents in Malaysia exceeded 223,000 in 1999. On the average, 16 persons died from these road accidents, every single day in 1999. Lack of attention, reckless driving, lack of proper protection, speeding, bad personal habits, social and behavioral misconduct and inconsiderate drivers of larger vehicles are some of the problems that cause accidents. In Malaysia, motorcycle fatal accidents (60%) warrant a high degree of concern. Young children and senior citizens are found to be in the vulnerable age group. In Malaysia, in 1999 alone, general insurers paid RM1.67 billion or an average of RM4.6 million a day on motor claims. It is now recognized that road traffic accidents represent a major public health problem, because of the high number of victims involved and because of the seriousness of the consequences for themselves and for their families.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pedestrians
  14. Moe, H.
    JUMMEC, 2008;11(1):22-26.
    MyJurnal
    A retrospective cross-sectional study of injury patients who attended the Accident and Emergency Unit was conducted at the University of Malaya Medical Centre. Demographic data with regards to age, sex, race, occupation and the relevant data such as type of accident, type of injury sustained and also severity seen during the month of January 2005 were selected retrospectively from medical record. The objectives were to review road traffic accidents and their severity of injuries among the patients. There were two hundred and forty-three (197 males and 46 females) patients involved: 60% Malays, 16% Chinese, 21% Indians and 3% other ethnic groups. Peak accidents occurred among the 21 to 30 years age group. Among the type of accidents, 65.8% involved motorbike riders, 10.3% car drivers, 8.6% pillion riders, 7.8% car passengers, 5.8% pedestrians and 1.6% were bicycle rider injuries. About 57.6% sustained minor injuries and 42.4% major injuries. There was no significant association between outcome of road traffic accidents and sex, age group and race. However, there was a significant association between type of accidents and severity of injuries (p = 0.014). Males sustained more major injuries and motorbike accidents were the highest among road injuries. Therefore, further prevention and control with emphasis on behavioural changes, education and law enforcement may reduce the number of road traffic accidents in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pedestrians
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