Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 266 in total

  1. Ghazali FB
    Malays J Med Sci, 2003 Jan;10(1):27-36.
    PMID: 23365497 MyJurnal
    This is an update on the present integrated knowledge regarding dentine permeability that assumed a role in dentine sensitivity and contribute clinically to the effective bonding properties of restorative dental materials. This paper will attempt to refer to in vivo and in vitro studies of dentine permeability and the various interrelated factors governing it.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin Permeability; Permeability
  2. Wu Y, Liang Y, Mei C, Cai L, Nadda A, Le QV, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2022 Jan;286(Pt 3):131891.
    PMID: 34416587 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131891
    Nanocellulose based gas barrier materials have become an increasingly important subject, since it is a widespread environmentally friendly natural polymer. Previous studies have shown that super-high gas barrier can be achieved with pure and hierarchical nanocellulose films fabricated through simple suspension or layer-by-layer technique either by itself or incorporating with other polymers or nanoparticles. Improved gas barrier properties were observed for nanocellulose-reinforced composites, where nanocellulose partially impermeable nanoparticles decreased gas permeability effectively. However, for nanocellulose-based materials, the higher gas barrier performance is jeopardized by water absorption and shape deformation under high humidity conditions which is a challenge for maintaining properties in material applications. Thus, numerous investigations have been done to solve the problem of water absorption in nanocellulose-based materials. In this literature review, gas barrier properties of pure, layer-by-layer and composite nanocellulose films are investigated. The possible theoretical gas barrier mechanisms are described, and the prospects for nanocellulose-based materials are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Permeability
  3. Wan Mohtar WH, ElShafie A
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:683537.
    PMID: 25250384 DOI: 10.1155/2014/683537
    Shear-free turbulence generated from an oscillating grid in a water tank impinging on an impermeable surface at varying Reynolds number 74 ≤ Re(l) ≤ 570 was studied experimentally, where the Reynolds number is defined based on the root-mean-square (r.m.s) horizontal velocity and the integral length scale. A particular focus was paid to the turbulence characteristics for low Re(l) < 150 to investigate the minimum limit of Re l obeying the profiles of rapid distortion theory. The measurements taken at near base included the r.m.s turbulent velocities, evolution of isotropy, integral length scales, and energy spectra. Statistical analysis of the velocity data showed that the anisotropic turbulence structure follows the theory for flows with Re(l) ≥ 117. At low Re(l) < 117, however, the turbulence profile deviated from the prediction where no amplification of horizontal velocity components was observed and the vertical velocity components were seen to be constant towards the tank base. Both velocity components sharply decreased towards zero at a distance of ≈ 1/3 of the integral length scale above the base due to viscous damping. The lower limit where Re(l) obeys the standard profile was found to be within the range 114 ≤ Re(l) ≤ 116.
    Matched MeSH terms: Permeability*
  4. Berkathullah M, Farook MS, Mahmoud O
    Biomed Res Int, 2018;2018:4072815.
    PMID: 30276206 DOI: 10.1155/2018/4072815
    The effectiveness of remineralizing agents in reducing dentine permeability by tubule occlusion using fluid filtration device functioning at 100 cmH2O (1.4 psi) pressure and SEM/EDX analysis were evaluated and compared. Seventy (n = 70) dentine discs of 1±0.2 mm width were prepared from sound permanent human molars. Fifty (n = 50) dentine discs were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10): Group 1: GC Tooth Mousse Plus (Recaldent GC Corporation Tokyo, Japan), Group 2: Clinpro™ White Varnish (3M ESPE, USA), Group 3: Duraphat® Varnish (Pharbil Waltrop GmbH, Germany), Group 4: Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief™ dentifrice (Colgate Palmolive, Thailand), and Group 5: Biodentine™ (Septodont/UK). Dentine permeability was measured after treatment application at 10 minutes, artificial saliva immersion at 7 days, and citric acid challenge for 3 minutes. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measures ANOVA. Dentine specimens (n = 20) were used for SEM/EDX analyses to obtain qualitative results on dentine morphology and surface deposits. Each treatment agent significantly reduced dentine permeability immediately after treatment application and created precipitates on treated dentine surfaces. All agents increased permeability values after 7 days of artificial saliva immersion except Clinpro White Varnish and Biodentine. Clinpro White Varnish exhibited significant resistance to acid challenge compared to others. Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief dentifrice has a dual mechanism of action in reducing the dentine sensitivity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin Permeability*
  5. Farook MS, Mahmoud O, Ibrahim MA, Berkathullah M
    Biomed Res Int, 2021;2021:6652250.
    PMID: 33628801 DOI: 10.1155/2021/6652250
    Objectives: To evaluate the in vitro effectiveness of desensitizing agents in reducing dentine permeability.

    Methods: The efficacy of desensitizing agents in reducing dentine permeability by occluding dentine tubules was evaluated using a fluid filtration device that conducts at 100 cmH2O (1.4 psi) pressure, and SEM/EDX analyses were evaluated and compared. Forty-two dentine discs (n = 42) of 1 ± 0.2 mm width were obtained from caries-free permanent human molars. Thirty dentine discs (n = 30) were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 10): Group 1: 2.7% wt. monopotassium-monohydrogen oxalate (Mp-Mh oxalate), Group 2: RMGI XT VAR, and Group 3: LIQ SiO2. Dentine permeability was measured following treatment application after 10 minutes, storage in artificial saliva after 10 minutes and 7 days, and citric acid challenge for 3 minutes. Data were analysed with a repeated measures ANOVA test. Dentine discs (n = 12) were used for SEM/EDX analyses to acquire data on morphological changes on dentine surface and its mineral content after different stages of treatment.

    Results: Desensitizing agents' application on the demineralized dentine discs exhibited significant reduction of permeability compared to its maximum acid permeability values. Mp-Mh oxalate showed a significant reduction in dentine permeability (p < 0.05) when compared to RMGI XT VAR and LIQ SiO2. On SEM/EDX analysis, all the agents formed mineral precipitates that occluded the dentine tubules.

    Conclusions: 2.7% wt. monopotassium-monohydrogen oxalate was significantly effective in reducing dentine permeability compared to RMGI XT VAR and LIQ SiO2.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin Permeability/drug effects*
  6. Lee EH, Lim SS, Yuen KH, Lee CY
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2019 May;71(5):860-868.
    PMID: 30515807 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.13052
    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of curcumin analogues with shortened linkers and their ability to protect against amyloid-beta toxicity in a whole organism model.

    METHOD: Four curcumin analogues were synthesized. These analogues and curcumin were evaluated for their BBB permeability in the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay. The transgenic Caenorhabditis elegansGMC101 that expresses human Aβ1-42 was treated with the compounds to evaluate their ability to delay Aβ-induced paralysis. Expression of skn-1mRNA was examined on nematodes treated with selected efficacious compounds. In vitro Aβ aggregation in the presence of the compounds was performed.

    KEY FINDINGS: The four analogues showed improved BBB permeability vs curcumin in the PAMPA with the hemi-analogue C4 having the highest permeability coefficient. At 100 μm, analogues C1 and C4 as well as curcumin significantly prolonged the survival of the nematodes protecting against Aβ toxicity. However, only curcumin and C4 showed protection at lower concentrations. skn-1mRNA was significantly elevated in nematodes treated with curcumin and C4 indicating SKN-1/Nrf activation as a possible mode of action.

    CONCLUSIONS: Analogue C4 provides a new lead for the development of a curcumin-based compound for protection against Aβ toxicity with an improved BBB permeability.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane Permeability; Permeability
  7. Zaimi K, Ishak A, Pop I
    PLoS One, 2014;9(11):e111743.
    PMID: 25365118 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111743
    The steady two-dimensional flow and heat transfer over a stretching/shrinking sheet in a nanofluid is investigated using Buongiorno's nanofluid model. Different from the previously published papers, in the present study we consider the case when the nanofluid particle fraction on the boundary is passively rather than actively controlled, which make the model more physically realistic. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by a similarity transformation, before being solved numerically by a shooting method. The effects of some governing parameters on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are graphically presented and discussed. Dual solutions are found to exist in a certain range of the suction and stretching/shrinking parameters. Results also indicate that both the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number increase with increasing values of the suction parameter.
    Matched MeSH terms: Permeability
  8. Imran HM, Akib S, Karim MR
    Environ Technol, 2013 Sep-Oct;34(17-20):2649-56.
    PMID: 24527626
    Uncontrolled stormwater runoff not only creates drainage problems and flash floods but also presents a considerable threat to water quality and the environment. These problems can, to a large extent, be reduced by a type of stormwater management approach employing permeable pavement systems (PPS) in urban, industrial and commercial areas, where frequent problems are caused by intense undrained stormwater. PPS could be an efficient solution for sustainable drainage systems, and control water security as well as renewable energy in certain cases. Considerable research has been conducted on the function of PPS and their improvement to ensure sustainable drainage systems and water quality. This paper presents a review of the use of permeable pavement for different purposes. The paper focuses on drainage systems and stormwater runoff quality from roads, driveways, rooftops and parking lots. PPS are very effective for stormwater management and water reuse. Moreover, geotextiles provide additional facilities to reduce the pollutants from infiltrate runoff into the ground, creating a suitable environment for the biodegradation process. Furthermore, recently, ground source heat pumps and PPS have been found to be an excellent combination for sustainable renewable energy. In addition, this study has identified several gaps in the present state of knowledge on PPS and indicates some research needs for future consideration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Permeability
  9. Haron DE, Chik Z, Noordin MI, Mohamed Z
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2015 Dec;18(12):1167-75.
    PMID: 26877845
    Transdermal preparations for testosterone are becoming popular because of their unique advantages such as avoidance of first-pass effect, convenience, improved bioavailability, and reduction of systemic side effects. A novel testosterone transdermal delivery system (TDDS) was developed using a palm oil base called HAMIN™ (a commercial product) and tested using in vitro and in vivo skin permeability test methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Permeability
  10. Teddy, T., Irwan, J.M., Othman, N.
    Strength and durability are important characteristics of concrete and desired engineering properties. Exposure to aggressive environment threatens durability of concrete. Previous studies on bio-concrete using several types of bacteria, including sulphate reduction bacteria (SRB), had to increase durability of concrete have shown promising results. This study used mixtures designed according to concrete requirement for sea water condition with SRB composition of 3%, 5% and 7% respectively. The curing time were 28, 56 and 90 days respectively. The mechanical properties, namely compressive strength and water permeability, were tested using cube samples. The results showed compressive strength had higher increase than the control at 53.9 Mpa. The SRB with 3%composition had maximum water permeability. Thus, adding SRB in concrete specimens improves compressive strength and water permeability. This is particularly suitable for applications using chloride ion penetration (sea water condition) where corrosion tends to affect durability of concrete constructions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Permeability
  11. Islam MM, Islam MT, Samsuzzaman M, Faruque MRI, Misran N, Mansor MF
    Materials (Basel), 2015 Jan 23;8(2):392-407.
    PMID: 28787945 DOI: 10.3390/ma8020392
    A miniaturized antenna employing a negative index metamaterial with modified split-ring resonator (SRR) and capacitance-loaded strip (CLS) unit cells is presented for Ultra wideband (UWB) microwave imaging applications. Four left-handed (LH) metamaterial (MTM) unit cells are located along one axis of the antenna as the radiating element. Each left-handed metamaterial unit cell combines a modified split-ring resonator (SRR) with a capacitance-loaded strip (CLS) to obtain a design architecture that simultaneously exhibits both negative permittivity and negative permeability, which ensures a stable negative refractive index to improve the antenna performance for microwave imaging. The antenna structure, with dimension of 16 × 21 × 1.6 mm³, is printed on a low dielectric FR4 material with a slotted ground plane and a microstrip feed. The measured reflection coefficient demonstrates that this antenna attains 114.5% bandwidth covering the frequency band of 3.4-12.5 GHz for a voltage standing wave ratio of less than 2 with a maximum gain of 5.16 dBi at 10.15 GHz. There is a stable harmony between the simulated and measured results that indicate improved nearly omni-directional radiation characteristics within the operational frequency band. The stable surface current distribution, negative refractive index characteristic, considerable gain and radiation properties make this proposed negative index metamaterial antenna optimal for UWB microwave imaging applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Permeability
  12. Islam SS, Faruque MRI, Islam MT
    Materials (Basel), 2014 Jul 02;7(7):4994-5011.
    PMID: 28788116 DOI: 10.3390/ma7074994
    This paper presents the design and analysis of a novel split-H-shaped metamaterial unit cell structure that is applicable in a multi-band frequency range and that exhibits negative permeability and permittivity in those frequency bands. In the basic design, the separate split-square resonators are joined by a metal link to form an H-shaped unit structure. Moreover, an analysis and a comparison of the 1 × 1 array and 2 × 2 array structures and the 1 × 1 and 2 × 2 unit cell configurations were performed. All of these configurations demonstrate multi-band operating frequencies (S-band, C-band, X-band and Ku-band) with double-negative characteristics. The equivalent circuit model and measured result for each unit cell are presented to validate the resonant behavior. The commercially available finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)-based simulation software, Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio, was used to obtain the reflection and transmission parameters of each unit cell. This is a novel and promising design in the electromagnetic paradigm for its simplicity, scalability, double-negative characteristics and multi-band operation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Permeability
  13. Seah MQ, Lau WJ, Goh PS, Tseng HH, Wahab RA, Ismail AF
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Nov 27;12(12).
    PMID: 33261079 DOI: 10.3390/polym12122817
    In this paper, we review various novel/modified interfacial polymerization (IP) techniques for the fabrication of polyamide (PA) thin film composite (TFC)/thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes in both pressure-driven and osmotically driven separation processes. Although conventional IP technique is the dominant technology for the fabrication of commercial nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, it is plagued with issues of low membrane permeability, relatively thick PA layer and susceptibility to fouling, which limit the performance. Over the past decade, we have seen a significant growth in scientific publications related to the novel/modified IP techniques used in fabricating advanced PA-TFC/TFN membranes for various water applications. Novel/modified IP lab-scale studies have consistently, so far, yielded promising results compared to membranes made by conventional IP technique, in terms of better filtration efficiency (increased permeability without compensating solute rejection), improved chemical properties (crosslinking degree), reduced surface roughness and the perfect embedment of nanomaterials within selective layers. Furthermore, several new IP techniques can precisely control the thickness of the PA layer at sub-10 nm and significantly reduce the usage of chemicals. Despite the substantial improvements, these novel IP approaches have downsides that hinder their extensive implementation both at the lab-scale and in manufacturing environments. Herein, this review offers valuable insights into the development of effective IP techniques in the fabrication of TFC/TFN membrane for enhanced water separation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Permeability
  14. Jamil D, Roslan R, Abdulhameed M, Hashim I
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:2581-2587.
    The unsteady blood flow in the stenosed porous artery subjected to a magnetic field was studied analytically. Oscillating
    pressure gradient and periodic body acceleration were imposed on the flow field. The effects of the magnetic field and
    the permeability of the stenosed artery on the blood velocity were studied. The results showed that the magnetic field
    affected the flow field significantly which can be beneficial for some practical problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Permeability
  15. Shakoor A, Khan AL, Akhter P, Aslam M, Bilad MR, Maafa IM, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Mar;28(10):12397-12405.
    PMID: 32651793 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-10044-3
    Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were fabricated by the hydrothermal synthesis of ordered mesoporous KIT-6 type silica and incorporating in polyimide (P84). KIT-6 and MMMs were characterized to evaluate morphology, thermal stability, surface area, pore volume, and other characteristics. SEM images of synthesized MMMs and permeation data of CO2 suggested homogenous dispersion of mesoporous fillers and their adherence to the polymer matrix. The addition of KIT-6 to polymer matrix improved the permeability of CO2 due to the increase in diffusivity through porous particles. The permeability was 3.2 times higher at 30% loading of filler. However, selectivity showed a slight decrease with the increase in filler loadings. The comparison of gas permeation results of KIT-6 with the well-known MCM-41 revealed that KIT-6 based MMMs showed 14% higher permeability than that of MMMs composed of mesoporous MCM-41. The practical commercial viability of synthesized membranes was examined under different operating temperatures and mixed gas feeds. Mesoporous KIT-6 silica is an attractive additive for gas permeability enhancement without compromising the selectivity of MMMs. Graphical abstract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Permeability
  16. Ding SH, Ng TYS, Chew TL, Oh PC, Ahmad AL, Ho CD
    Polymers (Basel), 2019 Oct 23;11(11).
    PMID: 31652828 DOI: 10.3390/polym11111732
    Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) separation is a promising technology for gas permeation and separation involving carbon dioxide (CO2). However, finding a suitable type of filler for the formation of defect-free MMMs with enhancement in gas permeability remains a challenge. Current study focuses on synthesis of KIT-6 silica and followed by the incorporation of KIT-6 silica as filler into polysulfone (PSF) polymer matrix to fabricate MMMs, with filler loadings of 0-8 wt %. The effect of KIT-6 incorporation on the properties of the fabricated MMMs was evaluated via different characterization techniques. The MMMs were investigated for gas permeability and selectivity with pressure difference of 5 bar at 25 °C. KIT-6 with typical rock-like morphology was synthesized. Incorporation of 2 wt % of KIT-6 into PSF matrix produced MMMs with no void. When KIT-6 loadings in the MMMs were increased from 0 to 2 wt %, the CO2 permeability increased by ~48%, whereas the ideal CO2/CH4 selectivity remained almost constant. However, when the KIT-6 loading in PSF polymer matrix was more than 2 wt %, the formation of voids in the MMMs increased the CO2 permeability but sacrificed the ideal CO2/CH4 selectivity. In current study, KIT-6 was found to be potential filler for PSF matrix under controlled KIT-6 loading for gas permeation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Permeability
  17. Muhammad Khurram Zahoor
    Sains Malaysiana, 2015;44:1407-1415.
    A number of relative permeability models were present in the literature, which were used to generate relative permeability data for the fluids, present in the porous medium. Some models were more significant to reservoir geology and displacement system (imbibitions and drainage system), while developing the correlations. Similarly, the same is kept in mind while performing reservoir studies. Therefore, in this study different models based on displacement system and formation geology have been compared, while including the effect of fluid saturation distribution/end point saturation in a reservoir. The generated relative permeability data by using these models have been further used to predict the reservoir performance for gas and water-displacement systems. The results based on this study showed that at lower saturations of displacing fluid (gas and/or water), the generated reservoir performance curves based on relative permeability data generated by using Corey and Wylie and Gardner models, gives higher degree of deviation on comparative basis. The behavior of these error or deviation curves for displacing phase is opposite in case of gas and water-oil displacement systems. While in case of displaced phase (oil), generally analogous behavior can be observed for both systems in terms of deviation/ error profiles trends. These reservoir performance curve(s) are of utmost significance in developing reservoir in an appropriate manner and a slight variation in relative permeability data can have a significant impact at macroscopic level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Permeability
  18. Ying Wang, Yonghui Chen, Zhenhua Hu, Qiang Feng, Desen Kong
    Sains Malaysiana, 2017;46:2231-2239.
    Ground improvement using artificial crust composite foundation, consisting of stabilization of soft clay and composite foundation, is an effective technique for the treatment of deep soft soil layers under infrastructure embankments. In this study, the load responses and settlement performance of this improvement technique were investigated using two centrifuge model tests to compare the variations of the vertical deformation, pore water pressure, axial force of the piles and tensile stress at the bottom of the artificial crust in the crust composite foundation with those in pile-supported embankment. The results of centrifuge model tests showed that the load responses and settlement performance of artificial crust composite foundation was different from the pile-supported embankment, which displayed mainly that the final middle settlement of crust composite foundation can be reduced by about 15% compared with those of pile-supported embankment with the same length of pile and construction cost. The deformation of the crust with the characteristics of the plate was found based on the change of the tensile stress. Additionally, the excess pore water pressure in the crust composite foundation was lower owing to the stress diffusion effect of the crust during the loading period and the dissipation rate of excess pore water pressure was slower due to lower permeability of the crust at the same loading period. Eventually, the axial force of the middle piles was reduced. At the same time, the boundary stress was functioned with the crust, the axial force of the side piles was improved. The comparison of measured and calculated results was carried out using the stress reduction ratio, the result shows that the bearing capacity of the subsoil in the crust composite was improved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Permeability
  19. Alakbari FS, Mohyaldinn ME, Muhsan AS, Hasan N, Ganat T
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 May 07;12(5).
    PMID: 32392770 DOI: 10.3390/polym12051069
    The chemical sand consolidation methods involve pumping of chemical materials, like furan resin and silicate non-polymer materials into unconsolidated sandstone formations, in order to minimize sand production with the fluids produced from the hydrocarbon reservoirs. The injected chemical material, predominantly polymer, bonds sand grains together, lead to higher compressive strength of the rock. Hence, less amounts of sand particles are entrained in the produced fluids. However, the effect of this bonding may impose a negative impact on the formation productivity due to the reduction in rock permeability. Therefore, it is always essential to select a chemical material that can provide the highest possible compressive strength with minimum permeability reduction. This review article discusses the chemical materials used for sand consolidation and presents an in-depth evaluation between these materials to serve as a screening tool that can assist in the selection of chemical sand consolidation material, which in turn, helps optimize the sand control performance. The review paper also highlights the progressive improvement in chemical sand consolidation methods, from using different types of polymers to nanoparticles utilization, as well as track the impact of the improvement in sand consolidation efficiency and production performance. Based on this review, the nanoparticle-related martials are highly recommended to be applied as sand consolidation agents, due to their ability to generate acceptable rock strength with insignificant reduction in rock permeability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Permeability
  20. You X, Liu S, Dai C, Zhong G, Duan Y, Guo Y, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Nov;27(33):41623-41638.
    PMID: 32691313 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-10149-9
    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) can serve as a washing agent in the remediation of low-permeability layers contaminated by heavy metals (HMs). Therefore, batch adsorption experiments, where pure quartz (SM1) and mineral mixtures (SM2) were used as typical soil minerals (SMs) in low-permeability layers, were implemented to explore the effects of different EDTA concentrations, pH, and exogenous chemicals on the HM-SM-EDTA adsorption system. As the EDTA concentration increased, it gradually cut down the maximum Cd adsorption capacities of SM1 and SM2 from approximately 135 to 55 mg/kg and 2660 to 1453 mg/kg; and the maximum Pb adsorption capacities of SM1 and SM2 were reduced from 660 to 306 mg/kg and 19,677 to 19,262 mg/kg, respectively. When the initial mole ratio (MR = moles of HM ions/sum of moles of HM ions and EDTA) was closer to 0.5, the effect of EDTA was more effective. Additionally, EDTA worked well at pH below 7.0 and 4.0 for Cd and Pb, respectively. Low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) affected the system mainly by bridging, complexation, adsorption site competition, and reductive dissolution. Cu2+, Fe2+ ions could significantly increase the Cd and Pb adsorption onto SM2. Notably, there were characteristic changes in mineral particles, including attachment of EDTA and microparticles, agglomeration, connection, and smoother surfaces, making the specific surface area (SSA) decrease from 16.73 to 12.59 m2/g. All findings indicated that EDTA could effectively and economically reduce the HM adsorption capacity of SMs at the reasonable MR value, contact time, and pH; EDTA reduced the HM adsorption capacity of SMs not only by complexation with HM ions but also by decreasing SSA and blocking active sites. Hence, the acquired insight from the presented study can help to promote the remediation of contaminated low-permeability layers in groundwater.
    Matched MeSH terms: Permeability
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