Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 580 in total

  1. Hospet R, Thangadurai D, Cruz-Martins N, Sangeetha J, Anu Appaiah KA, Chowdhury ZZ, et al.
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2023;63(17):2960-2969.
    PMID: 34592865 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2021.1983763
    Strains' improvement technology plays an essential role in enhancing the quality of industrial strains. Several traditional methods and modern techniques have been used to further improve strain engineering programs. The advances stated in strain engineering and the increasing demand for microbial metabolites leads to the invention of the genome shuffling technique, which ensures a specific phenotype improvement through inducing mutation and recursive protoplast fusion. In such technique, the selection of multi-parental strains with distinct phenotypic traits is crucial. In addition, as this evolutionary strain improvement technique involves combinative approaches, it does not require any gene sequence data for genome alteration and, therefore, strains developed by this elite technique will not be considered as genetically modified organisms. In this review, the different stages involved in the genome shuffling technique and its wide applications in various phenotype improvements will be addressed. Taken together, data discussed here highlight that the use of genome shuffling for strain improvement will be a plus for solving complex phenotypic traits and in promoting the rapid development of other industrially important strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenotype
  2. AlMatar M, Ramli ANM, Albarri O, Yi CX
    Comb Chem High Throughput Screen, 2023;26(11):1945-1959.
    PMID: 36366840 DOI: 10.2174/1386207326666221108095705
    SARS-CoV-2 is a disease that endangers both human life and the economy. There was an 11- month period of relative evolutionary standstill following the appearance of SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019. However, the emergence of clusters of mutations known as' variants of concern 'with variable viral properties such as transmissibility and antigenicity defined the evolution of SARS-CoV-2. Several efforts have been made in recent months to understand the atomic level properties of SARS-CoV-2. A review of the literature on SARS-CoV-2 mutations is offered in this paper. The critical activities performed by different domains of the SARS-CoV-2 genome throughout the virus's entry into the host and overall viral life cycle are discussed in detail. These structural traits may potentially pave the way for the development of a vaccine and medication to combat the SARS-CoV-2 sickness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenotype
  3. Singh R, Low EL, Ooi LC, Ong-Abdullah M, Ting NC, Nookiah R, et al.
    New Phytol, 2020 04;226(2):426-440.
    PMID: 31863488 DOI: 10.1111/nph.16387
    Oil palm breeding involves crossing dura and pisifera palms to produce tenera progeny with greatly improved oil yield. Oil yield is controlled by variant alleles of a type II MADS-box gene, SHELL, that impact the presence and thickness of the endocarp, or shell, surrounding the fruit kernel. We identified six novel SHELL alleles in noncommercial African germplasm populations from the Malaysian Palm Oil Board. These populations provide extensive diversity to harness genetic, mechanistic and phenotypic variation associated with oil yield in a globally critical crop. We investigated phenotypes in heteroallelic combinations, as well as SHELL heterodimerization and subcellular localization by yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and gene expression analyses. Four novel SHELL alleles were associated with fruit form phenotype. Candidate heterodimerization partners were identified, and interactions with EgSEP3 and subcellular localization were SHELL allele-specific. Our findings reveal allele-specific mechanisms by which variant SHELL alleles impact yield, as well as speculative insights into the potential role of SHELL in single-gene oil yield heterosis. Future field trials for combinability and introgression may further optimize yield and improve sustainability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenotype
  4. Blonder B, Both S, Jodra M, Xu H, Fricker M, Matos IS, et al.
    New Phytol, 2020 12;228(6):1796-1810.
    PMID: 32712991 DOI: 10.1111/nph.16830
    Leaf venation networks evolved along several functional axes, including resource transport, damage resistance, mechanical strength, and construction cost. Because functions may depend on architectural features at different scales, network architecture may vary across spatial scales to satisfy functional tradeoffs. We develop a framework for quantifying network architecture with multiscale statistics describing elongation ratios, circularity ratios, vein density, and minimum spanning tree ratios. We quantify vein networks for leaves of 260 southeast Asian tree species in samples of up to 2 cm2 , pairing multiscale statistics with traits representing axes of resource transport, damage resistance, mechanical strength, and cost. We show that these multiscale statistics clearly differentiate species' architecture and delineate a phenotype space that shifts at larger scales; functional linkages vary with scale and are weak, with vein density, minimum spanning tree ratio, and circularity ratio linked to mechanical strength (measured by force to punch) and elongation ratio and circularity ratio linked to damage resistance (measured by tannins); and phylogenetic conservatism of network architecture is low but scale-dependent. This work provides tools to quantify the function and evolution of venation networks. Future studies including primary and secondary veins may uncover additional insights.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenotype
  5. Ahmed QN, Hussain PZ, Othman AS
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2012 Dec;23(2):17-25.
    PMID: 24575230
    This study was conducted to examine the variabilities in the chronology of vegetative and reproductive development of weedy rice (Oryza spp.) in comparison with commercial varieties. Data at different growth stages of 14 weedy rice morphotypes and 4 commercial rice varieties were recorded and analysed. Plant height of all weedy rice morphotypes were observed to be significantly higher compared to the commercial varieties at every growth stages; increase in height was between 10-37 cm for weedy rice morphotype, for every 2 weeks. Initial tillering ability at 14 days after planting (DAP) was higher in weedy morphotypes, however all the commercial rice varieties produced significantly higher number of tillers throughout the rest of the vegetative phases. Correlation between plant height and tiller number detected that taller plants produce fewer tillers than shorter plants. Higher leaf area index (LAI) of all weedy morphotypes except PWR01 at early growth stages indicated the vigorous growth of the morphotypes. Weedy rice morphotypes showed a wide range of anthesis and maturity duration. Accessions from the same weedy rice morphotypes were more heterogeneous in the flowering, anthesis and maturity period than the commercial varieties. These traits enables identification of weedy rice morphotypes at their different growth stages in the field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenotype
  6. Blake NM, Kirk RL, Matsumoto H
    Jinrui Idengaku Zasshi, 1969 Mar;13(4):243-8.
    PMID: 5815017
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenotype*
  7. Chan KG, Chen JW, Tee KK, Chang CY, Yin WF, Chan XY
    Genome Announc, 2015;3(2).
    PMID: 25745000 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00063-15
    Burkholderia spp. rely on N-acyl homoserine lactone as quorum-sensing signal molecules which coordinate their phenotype at the population level. In this work, we present the whole genome of Burkholderia sp. strain A9, which enables the discovery of its N-acyl homoserine lactone synthase gene.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenotype
  8. Perger R
    Zookeys, 2013.
    PMID: 23794868 DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.293.5133
    The genera Parandrocephalus Heller, 1916 and Hexamitodera Heller, 1896 are reviewed and redescribed. Based on the combination of chromatic sexual dimorphism, velvety pubescence on the whole dorsal body and distinctly developed carina on the elytra, Parandrocephalus blairi Bentanachs & Vives, 2009 is transferred to Hexamitodera. A new subgenus, Sulcognatha Perger, is instituted to accommodate mandible, head and metasternal modifications in Hexamitodera blairi comb. n. that are lacking in the type species of Hexamitodera, Hexamitodera semivelutina. As indicated by fundamental structural differences in the mandibles of Parandrocephalus and Hexamitodera (Sulcognatha) blairi comb. n., the exaggerated secondary sexual traits and open procoxal cavities in both taxa are presumably the result of convergent evolution. Contrary to Bentanachs & Vives (2009), the presence of the two Parandrocephalus species in Sundaland and the endemism of Hexamitodera on Sulawesi agree well with the zoogeographical separation of both areas by the Wallace line.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenotype
  9. Ramli AB, Rafii MY, Latif MA, Saleh GB, Omar OB, Puteh AB
    J Sci Food Agric, 2016 Mar;96(5):1593-600.
    PMID: 25982124 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7260
    Genetic analysis using generation mean analysis is a tool for designing the most appropriate breeding approaches to developing varieties of rice. It estimates the gene actions that control quantitative traits, as well as the additive, dominance and epistatic effects. This study was conducted using three rice populations that were derived from parental lines with different amylose content. The aim was to partition the gene actions using generation mean analysis for the selected populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenotype
  10. Wan Nurhayati Wan Hanaf, Farida Zuraina Mohd Yusof, Rajinder Singh, Ahmad Kushairi Din, Rajanaidu Nookiah, Maizura Ithnin
    Scientific Research Journal, 2017;14(1):54-63.
    Elaeis oleifera serves as a source of genetic foundation in oil palm improvement programme, as it possess several interesting agronomic traits such as slow growth, higher oil unsaturation and disease resistance. Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) has developed a collection of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from Elaeis oleifera genome (E. oleifera-gSSRs). A total of 21 polymoprhic SSR markers were evaluated in the attempt to assess the population structure of E. oleifera populations. The appropriate common ancestry (K) value was determined to be seven from the likelihood scores. The profile from STRUCTURE analysis indicates considerable sharing of genetic components among E. oleifera population with an exception for Population 01 from Columbia and Population 02 from Costa Rica. The present study provides information on population structure of MPOB E. oleifera collection via model-based method for germplasm conservation and utilisation in breeding programmes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenotype
  11. Ajmal Iqbal, Shahen Shah, Mohammad Nisar, Abdul Ghafoor
    Sains Malaysiana, 2017;46:1727-1734.
    Twenty lines of Pisum sativum particularly developed for high yield and resistant to powdery mildew were evaluated along with two parents (Falloner and 11760-3ER) and two checks (Climex and a local cultivar) with the objectives to determine morphological characterization, yield potential and resistance to powdery mildew. On the basis of one way cluster, the 24 lines were mainly grouped into four clusters, especially on the vegetative and yield contributing traits. It was observed that the tall and high yielding lines were grouped in cluster-III while the dwarf and high yielding lines were grouped in cluster-IV. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant difference (p<0.05) in the yield of 24 pea lines. The average grain yield of the 24 pea lines ranged from 22.87 to 102.54 g. The highest grain yield was produced by PL-4 (102.54 g plant-1) followed by PL-5 (82.14 g plant-1). Of the 24 pea lines, two lines (PL-4 and PL-5) were highly resistant to powdery mildew disease. Therefore, the newly developed PL-4 and PL-5 lines were high yielding and highly resistant. Among the 19 morphological traits, six (Eigenvalue >1.0) contributed more than 80% variability among the materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenotype
  12. Ishak NA, Tahir NI, Mohd Sa'id SN, Gopal K, Othman A, Ramli US
    Heliyon, 2021 Feb;7(2):e06048.
    PMID: 33553773 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06048
    Recent advances in phytochemical analysis have allowed the accumulation of data for crop researchers due to its capacity to footprint and distinguish metabolites that are present within an organisms, tissues or cells. Apart from genotypic traits, slight changes either by biotic or abiotic stimuli will have significant impact on the metabolite abundances and will eventually be observed through physicochemical characteristics. Apposite data mining to interpret the mounds of phytochemical information from such a dynamic system is thus incumbent. In this investigation, several statistical software platforms ranging from exploratory and confirmatory technique of multivariate data analysis from four different statistical tools of COVAIN, SIMCA-P+, MetaboAnalyst and RIKEN Excel Macro were appraised using an oil palm phytochemical data set. As different software tool encompasses its own advantages and limitations, the insights gained from this assessment were documented to enlighten several aspects of functions and suitability for the adaptation of the tools into the oil palm phytochemistry pipeline. This comparative analysis will certainly provide scientists with salient notes on data assessment and data mining that will later allow the depiction of the overall oil palm status in-situ and ex-situ.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenotype
  13. Hussain Z, Man A, Othman AS
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2011 Dec;22(2):1-11.
    PMID: 24575213 MyJurnal
    Weedy rice (WR) is the most significant weed in direct-seeded fields. It has morphological characteristics similar to those of cultivated rice varieties. WR is more difficult to control than other weeds. We collected WR accessions from four sites within the Pulau Pinang rice growing areas. Thirty six different accessions were collected from each site: B, the northern site; P, the central site; A, the southern site; and N, the southwestern site. Wild rice (Oryza rufipogon), which grows in the sampled areas, was also collected together with four varieties (MR84, MR185, MR211 and MR219) that have been widely planted in these areas for a long period of time. The objective of this study was to compare the morphological characteristics of the WR accessions and cultivated rice. Twenty characteristics were observed for the comparison of WR accessions and rice cultivars. Morpho-matrix analyses allowed the specimens to be grouped to two main groups (A and B), based on a 95% dissimilarity matrix. Group A was subdivided into 7 subgroups consisting of a few WR accessions, wild rice and MR211 (control), and group B was subdivided to 10 subgroups consisting of other WR accessions and the 3 other control varieties. Dendrogram analysis indicated that the morphological traits used in this study were able to differentiate among the WR accessions and the cultivars, except for rice cultivar MR211 and WRA8, which grouped together in subgroup A2. STRUCTURE program analysis indicated that all individuals were distinguishable and were divided into 18 clusters. These results suggest that some genes of the WR accessions have been influenced by commercial varieties. The information gained from this study will be useful to develop rice weed management protocols and good agricultural practices to control WR in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenotype
  14. Siti Yazmin Zahari Sham, Nor Aini Umar, Khalidah Mazlan
    With advancement in genetic studies, familial phaeochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL)
    are increasingly being recognized. Characteristically, correlations exist between genotypes and clinical
    and biochemical phenotypes. We report a phaeochromocytoma in a young patient with intriguing family
    histories, raising the possibility of his being a familial case.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenotype
  15. Rafii M, Zakiah M, Asfaliza R, Iffah Haifaa M, Latif M, Malek M
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:1-7.
    A total of 17 rice genotypes consisted of 12 F1 progenies and five parental lines were evaluated for performance of grain qualities, yield and yield components and vegetative traits at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Research Station in Seberang Perai, Penang. Except grain length, all other grain quality characters, yield components and vegetative traits varied significantly among the genotypes. Among the studied characters, the highest heritability value was observed in plant height with 99.75% followed by panicle length having 96.90% and grain shape with 56.70% which could be successfully inherited to the next generations. The rest of the traits had low heritability values and ranged from 20.24 to 35.88%. This indicates that the characters are mainly influenced by environmental factors such as geographical effects and climate. However, in the quantitative traits such as grain qualities and yield components, they are usually difficult to inherit to the next generation due to low heritability values. The combinations of Q76 and MR84 had the highest in amylose content while Q76 and MRQ74 had the lowest. Several selected F1 indica rice genotypes from this evaluation are useful for future breeding programme and biotechnological research for the improvement of valuable grain quality traits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenotype
  16. Garibian PG, Sanoamuang LO, Kotov AA
    Zootaxa, 2021 Oct 14;5052(2):111-129.
    PMID: 34810875 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.5052.2.6
    It is widely accepted among the Cladocera (Crustacea) taxonomists that almost all cosmopolitan taxa are represented by some un-revised complexes of cryptic species. But many macro taxa of the cladocerans are still unrevised. The aim of this work is to analyze the taxonomic status of Oriental populations of the genus Bosminopsis Richard, 1895 (Anomopoda: Bosminidae) based on morphological characters. We have studied populations from India, Myanmar, Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia and Papua New Guinea and concluded that Oriental populations belong to a single species, Bosminopsis africanus (Daday, 1908), initially described from Africa. Analysis of literature data confirms that is widely distributed through whole Oriental zone. A single large mucro, or the mucro accompanied by an additional small spine in both sexes, is the main trait which differentiates B. africanus from B. zernowi Linko, 1901 distributed in more northern regions of Eurasia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenotype
  17. Bhuiyan MSH, Malek MA, Emon RM, Khatun MK, Khandaker MM, Alam MA
    Braz J Biol, 2022;84:e255235.
    PMID: 35019108 DOI: 10.1590/1519-6984.255235
    In soybean breeding program, continuous selection pressure on traits response to yield created a genetic bottleneck for improvements of soybean through hybridization breeding technique. Therefore an initiative was taken to developed high yielding soybean variety applying mutation breeding techniques at Plant Breeding Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Bangladesh. Locally available popular cultivar BARI Soybean-5 was used as a parent material and subjected to five different doses of Gamma ray using Co60. In respect to seed yield and yield attributing characters, twelve true breed mutants were selected from M4 generation. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) for plant height, branch number and pod number were considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement that ensure expected yield. The mutant SBM-18 obtained from 250Gy provided stable yield performance at diversified environments. It provided maximum seed yield of 3056 kg ha-1 with highest number of pods plant-1 (56). The National Seed Board of Bangladesh (NSB) eventually approved SBM-18 and registered it as a new soybean variety named 'Binasoybean-5' for large-scale planting because of its superior stability in various agro-ecological zones and consistent yield performance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenotype
  18. Yong Y, Hiu JJ, Yap MKK
    Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol, 2023;133:193-230.
    PMID: 36707202 DOI: 10.1016/bs.apcsb.2022.08.001
    Snake envenomation is listed as Category A Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) by World Health Organization, indicates a severe public health problem. The global figures for envenomation cases are estimated to be more than 1.8 million annually. Even if the affected victims survive the envenomation, they might suffer from permanent morbidity due to local envenomation. One of the most prominent local envenomation is dermonecrosis. Dermonecrosis is a pathophysiological outcome of envenomation that often causes disability in the victims due to surgical amputations, deformities, contracture, and chronic ulceration. The key venom toxins associated with this local symptom are mainly attributed to substantial levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic toxins as well as their possible synergistic actions. Despite so, the severity of the local tissue damage is based on macroscopic observation of the bite areas. Furthermore, limited knowledge is known about the key biomarkers involved in the pathogenesis of dermonecrosis. The current immunotherapy with antivenom is also ineffective against dermonecrosis. These local effects eventually end up as sequelae. There is also a global shortage of toxins-targeted therapeutics attributed to inadequate knowledge of the actual molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity. This chapter discusses the characterization of secretory phenotypes of dermonecrosis as an advanced tool to indicate its severity and pathogenesis in envenomation. Altogether, the secretory phenotypes of envenomed cells and tissues represent the precise characteristics of dermonecrosis caused by venom toxins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenotype
  19. Leong SW, Bos S, Lordan JL, Nair A, Fisher AJ, Meachery G
    BMJ Open Respir Res, 2023 Feb;10(1).
    PMID: 36854571 DOI: 10.1136/bmjresp-2022-001387
    BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) has emerged as the most common indication for lung transplantation globally. However, post-transplant survival varies depending on the underlying disease phenotype and comorbidities. This study aimed to describe the demographics, disease classification, outcomes and factors associated with post-transplant survival in a large single-centre cohort.

    METHODS: Data were retrospectively assessed for 284 recipients who underwent lung transplantation for ILD in our centre between 1987 and 2020. Patient characteristics and outcomes were stratified by three eras: 1987-2000, 2001-2010 and 2011-2020.

    RESULTS: Median patients' age at time of transplantation was significantly higher in the most recent decade (56 (51-61) years, p<0.0001). Recipients aged over 50 years had worse overall survival compared with younger patients (adjusted HR, aHR 2.36, 95% CI 1.55 to 3.72, p=0.0001). Better survival was seen with bilateral versus single lung transplantation in patients younger than 50 years (log-rank p=0.0195). However, this survival benefit was no longer present in patients aged over 50 years. Reduced survival was observed in fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, which remained the most common indication throughout (aHR 2.61, 95% CI 1.40 to 4.60, p=0.0015).

    CONCLUSION: In patients transplanted for end-stage ILD, older age and fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia were associated with poorer post-transplant survival. The benefit of bilateral over single lung transplantation diminished with increasing age, suggesting that single lung transplantation might still be a feasible option in older candidates.

    Matched MeSH terms: Phenotype
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