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  1. Sirat HM, Jani NA
    Nat Prod Res, 2013;27(16):1468-70.
    PMID: 22946537 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2012.718772
    Hydrodistillation of the fresh leaves of Alpinia mutica afforded 0.005% colourless essential oil. GC and GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 33 components accounting for 92.9% of the total oil, dominated by 20 sesquiterpenes (76.7%) and 10 monoterpenes (8.3%). The major constituent was found to be β-sesquiphellandrene which was 29.2% of the total oil. Soxhlet extraction, followed by repeated column chromatography of the dried leaves yielded two phenolic compounds, identified as 5,6-dehydrokawain and aniba dimer A, together with one amide assigned as auranamide. The structures of these compounds were determined by using spectroscopic analysis. Antibacterial screening of the essential oil, the crude and isolated compounds showed weak to moderate inhibitory activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrones/chemistry
  2. Anouar el H, Weber JF
    PMID: 23880409 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2013.06.114
    Natural styrylpyrones isolated from fungi are known for various biological activities including antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals. UV/vis spectra play an important role in elucidating chemical structures of these compounds via identification of chromophore units. With the aim of predicting the UV/vis spectra of a series of natural styrylpyrones, we tested TD-DFT, CIS and ZINDO methods in gas and in PCM solvent. The results showed that the individual or combined B3P86 and B3LYP hybrid functionals are suitable to predict the maximum wavelength absorption bands (λmax) for styrylpyrones. The structure property relationship (SPR) study emphasized the role of (i) structural parameters (e.g., hydrogen bond and the length of conjugated double bonds) and (ii) electronic descriptors (e.g., ionization potential, electronic affinity, hardness and electrophilicity) in bathochromic and hypsochromic shifts of maximum wavelength absorption bands (λmax) of styrylpyrone derivatives.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrones/chemistry*
  3. El Hassane A, Shah SA, Hassan NB, El Moussaoui N, Ahmad R, Zulkefeli M, et al.
    Molecules, 2014;19(3):3489-507.
    PMID: 24662069 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19033489
    Hispidin oligomers are styrylpyrone pigments isolated from the medicinal fungi Inonotus xeranticus and Phellinus linteus. They exhibit diverse biological activities and strong free radical scavenging activity. To rationalize the antioxidant activity of a series of four hispidin oligomers and determine the favored mechanism involved in free radical scavenging, DFT calculations were carried out at the B3P86/6-31+G (d, p) level of theory in gas and solvent. The results showed that bond dissociation enthalpies of OH groups of hispidin oligomers (ArOH) and spin density delocalization of related radicals (ArO•) are the appropriate parameters to clarify the differences between the observed antioxidant activities for the four oligomers. The effect of the number of hydroxyl groups and presence of a catechol moiety conjugated to a double bond on the antioxidant activity were determined. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies showed that the PC-ET mechanism is the main mechanism involved in free radical scavenging. The spin density distribution over phenoxyl radicals allows a better understanding of the hispidin oligomers formation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrones/chemistry*
  4. Al-Qubaisi M, Rozita R, Yeap SK, Omar AR, Ali AM, Alitheen NB
    Molecules, 2011 Apr 06;16(4):2944-59.
    PMID: 21471934 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16042944
    Liver cancer has become one of the major types of cancer with high mortality and liver cancer is not responsive to the current cytotoxic agents used in chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxicity of goniothalamin on human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells and normal liver Chang cells. The cytotoxicity of goniothalamin against HepG2 and liver Chang cell was tested using MTT cell viability assay, LDH leakage assay, cell cycle flow cytometry PI analysis, BrdU proliferation ELISA assay and trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Goniothalamin selectively inhibited HepG2 cells [IC₅₀ = 4.6 (±0.23) µM in the MTT assay; IC₅₀ = 5.20 (±0.01) µM for LDH assay at 72 hours], with less sensitivity in Chang cells [IC₅₀ = 35.0 (±0.09) µM for MTT assay; IC₅₀ = 32.5 (±0.04) µM for LDH assay at 72 hours]. In the trypan blue dye exclusion assay, the Viability Indexes were 52 ± 1.73% for HepG2 cells and 62 ± 4.36% for Chang cells at IC₅₀ after 72 hours. Cytotoxicity of goniothalamin was related to inhibition of DNA synthesis, as revealed by the reduction of BrdU incorporation. At 72 hours, the lowest concentration of goniothalamin (2.3 µL) retained 97.6% of normal liver Chang cells proliferation while it reduced HepG2 cell proliferation to 19.8% as compared to control. Besides, goniothalamin caused accumulation of hypodiploid apoptosis and different degree of G2/M arrested as shown in cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry. Goniothalamin selectively killed liver cancer cell through suppression of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that goniothalamin shows potential cytotoxicity against hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrones/chemistry
  5. Ashari SE, Mohamad R, Ariff A, Basri M, Salleh AB
    J Oleo Sci, 2009;58(10):503-10.
    PMID: 19745577
    Kojic acid monooleate is a fatty acid derivative of kojic acid which can be widely used as a skin whitening agent in a cosmetic applications. In avoiding any possible harmful effects from chemically synthesized product, the enzymatic synthesis appears to be the best way to satisfy the consumer demand nowadays. The ability of immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor meihei (lipozyme RMIM) to catalyze the direct esterification of kojic acid and oleic acid was investigated. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and 5-level-4-factor central composite rotatable were employed to evaluate the effects of synthesis parameters such as enzyme amount (0.1-0.4 g), temperature (30-60 degrees C), substrate molar ratio (1-4 mmol, kojic acid:oleic acid) and reaction time (24-48 h) on percentage molar conversion to kojic acid monooleate. Analysis of the product using TLC, GC and FTIR showed the presence of kojic acid monooleate. The optimal conditions for the enzymatic reaction were obtained after analysis with backward elimination using 0.17 g of enzyme and 4 mmol of substrate at 52.50 degrees C for 42 h. Under these conditions the esterification percentage was 37.21%. The results demonstrated that response surface methodology can be applied effectively to optimize the lipase-catalysed synthesis of kojic acid monooleate. The optimum conditions can be used to scale up the process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrones/chemistry
  6. Ishak N, Lajis AFB, Mohamad R, Ariff AB, Mohamed MS, Halim M, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Feb 24;23(2).
    PMID: 29495254 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23020501
    The synthesis of kojic acid derivative (KAD) from kojic and palmitic acid (C16:0) in the presence of immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (commercially known as Lipozyme RMIM), was studied using a shake flask system. Kojic acid is a polyfunctional heterocycles that acts as a source of nucleophile in this reaction allowing the formation of a lipophilic KAD. In this study, the source of biocatalyst, Lipozyme RMIM, was derived from the lipase of Rhizomucor miehei immobilized on weak anion exchange macro-porous Duolite ES 562 by the adsorption technique. The effects of solvents, enzyme loading, reaction temperature, and substrate molar ratio on the reaction rate were investigated. In one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) experiments, a high reaction rate (30.6 × 10-3 M·min-1) of KAD synthesis was recorded using acetone, enzyme loading of 1.25% (w/v), reaction time of 12 h, temperature of 50 °C and substrate molar ratio of 5:1. Thereafter, a yield of KAD synthesis was optimized via the response surface methodology (RSM) whereby the optimized molar ratio (fatty acid: kojic acid), enzyme loading, reaction temperature and reaction time were 6.74, 1.97% (w/v), 45.9 °C, and 20 h respectively, giving a high yield of KAD (64.47%). This condition was reevaluated in a 0.5 L stirred tank reactor (STR) where the agitation effects of two impellers; Rushton turbine (RT) and pitch-blade turbine (PBT), were investigated. In the STR, a very high yield of KAD synthesis (84.12%) was achieved using RT at 250 rpm, which was higher than the shake flask, thus indicating better mixing quality in STR. In a rheological study, a pseudoplastic behavior of KAD mixture was proposed for potential application in lotion formulation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrones/chemistry*
  7. Al-Khdhairawi AAQ, Cordell GA, Thomas NF, Shivanagere Nagojappa NB, Weber JF
    Org Biomol Chem, 2019 10 28;17(40):8943-8957.
    PMID: 31482157 DOI: 10.1039/c9ob01501a
    Diterpene pyrones (DTPs) are a group of well-known, mainly fungal, natural products, first isolated in 1966. As the name indicates, they are composed of two main structural features: a diterpenyl moiety and a pyrone ring. Various names have been given to this class of metabolites; however, biogenetic evidence indicates that they originate through the same metabolic pathway. Based on their biosynthesis, which leads to differences in their structural architecture, the DTPs can be classified into three main types. In addition to their intriguing chemistry, these compounds demonstrate a wide range of biological activities rendering them a desirable target for total synthesis. To date, sixty-seven DTPs have been isolated from various fungal species, with one example originating from the plant kingdom. This review aims at unifying the classification of these compounds, in addition to presenting a detailed description of their isolation, bioactivities, biosynthesis, and total synthesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrones/chemistry*
  8. Yokoyama Y, Ohtaki A, Jantan I, Yohda M, Nakamoto H
    J. Biochem., 2015 Mar;157(3):161-8.
    PMID: 25294885 DOI: 10.1093/jb/mvu061
    Hsp90 is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that is involved in important cellular pathways such as signal transduction pathways. It is a potential cancer drug target because it plays a critical role for stabilization and activation of oncoproteins. Thus, small molecule compounds that control the Hsp90 function are useful to elucidate potential lead compounds against cancer. We studied effect of a naturally occurring styryl-lactone goniothalamin on the activity of Hsp90. Although many drugs targeting Hsp90 inhibit the ATPase activity of Hsp90, goniothalamin enhanced rather than inhibited the ATPase activity of a cyanobacterial Hsp90 (HtpG) and a yeast Hsp90. It increased both K(m) and k(cat) of the Hsp90s. Domain competition assays and tryptophan fluorescence measurements with various truncated derivatives of HtpG indicated that goniothalamin binds to the N-terminal domain of HtpG. Goniothalamin did not influence on the interaction of HtpG with a non-native protein or the anti-aggregation activity of HtpG significantly. However, it inhibited the activity of HtpG that assists refolding of a non-native protein in cooperation with the Hsp70 chaperone system. This is the first report to show that a small molecule that binds to the N-terminal domain of Hsp90 activates its ATPase activity, while inhibiting the chaperone function of Hsp90.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrones/chemistry*
  9. El-Boulifi N, Ashari SE, Serrano M, Aracil J, Martínez M
    Enzyme and microbial technology, 2014 Feb 5;55:128-32.
    PMID: 24411455 DOI: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2013.10.009
    The aim of this work was the synthesis of a novel hydroxyl-fatty acid derivative of kojic acid rich in kojic acid monoricinoleate (KMR) which can be widely used in the cosmetic and food industry. The synthesis of KMR was carried out by lipase-catalysed esterification of ricinoleic and kojic acids in solvent-free system. Three immobilized lipases were tested and the best KMR yields were attained with Lipozyme TL IM and Novozym 435. Since Lipozyme TL IM is the cheapest, it was selected to optimize the reaction conditions. The optimal reaction conditions were 80 °C for the temperature, 1:1 for the alcohol/acid molar ratio, 600 rpm for stirring speed and 7.8% for the catalyst concentration. Under these conditions, the reaction was scaled up in a 5×10⁻³ m³ stirred tank reactor. ¹H-¹³C HMBC-NMR showed that the primary hydroxyl group of kojic acid was regioselectively esterified. The KMR has more lipophilicity than kojic acid and showed antioxidant activity that improves the oxidation stability of biodiesel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrones/chemistry
  10. Hussein-Al-Ali SH, El Zowalaty ME, Hussein MZ, Ismail M, Dorniani D, Webster TJ
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2014;9:351-62.
    PMID: 24453486 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S53847
    Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by the coprecipitation of iron salts in sodium hydroxide followed by coating separately with chitosan (CS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to form CS-MNPs and PEG-MNPs nanoparticles, respectively. They were then loaded with kojic acid (KA), a pharmacologically bioactive natural compound, to form KA-CS-MNPs and KA-PEG-MNPs nanocomposites, respectively. The MNPs and their nanocomposites were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, vibrating sample magnetometry, and scanning electron microscopy. The powder X-ray diffraction data suggest that all formulations consisted of highly crystalline, pure magnetite Fe3O4. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the presence of both polymers and KA in the nanocomposites. Magnetization curves showed that both nanocomposites (KA-CS-MNPs and KA-PEG-MNPs) were superparamagnetic with saturation magnetizations of 8.1 emu/g and 26.4 emu/g, respectively. The KA drug loading was estimated using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, which gave a loading of 12.2% and 8.3% for the KA-CS-MNPs and KA-PEG-MNPs nanocomposites, respectively. The release profile of the KA from the nanocomposites followed a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The agar diffusion test was performed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity for both KA-CS-MNPs and KA-PEG-MNPs nanocomposites against a number of microorganisms using two Gram-positive (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and one Gram-negative (Salmonella enterica) species, and showed some antibacterial activity, which could be enhanced in future studies by optimizing drug loading. This study provided evidence for the promise for the further investigation of the possible beneficial biological activities of KA and both KA-CS-MNPs and KA-PEG-MNPs nanocomposites in nanopharmaceutical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrones/chemistry*
  11. Yamamoto T, Tsunematsu Y, Noguchi H, Hotta K, Watanabe K
    Org. Lett., 2015 Oct 16;17(20):4992-5.
    PMID: 26414728 DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.5b02435
    Successful activation of the pyranonigrin biosynthetic gene cluster and gene knockout in Aspergillus niger plus in vivo and in vitro assays led to isolation of six new products, including a spiro cyclobutane-containing dimeric compound, which served as the basis for the proposed comprehensive pyranonigrin biosynthetic pathway. Two redox enzymes are key to forming the characteristic fused γ-pyrone core, and a protease homologue performs the exo-methylene formation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrones/chemistry*
  12. Kwong HC, Chidan Kumar CS, Mah SH, Chia TS, Quah CK, Loh ZH, et al.
    PLoS One, 2017;12(2):e0170117.
    PMID: 28241010 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170117
    Biphenyl-based compounds are clinically important for the treatments of hypertension and inflammatory, while many more are under development for pharmaceutical uses. In the present study, a series of 2-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-2-oxoethyl benzoates, 2(a-q), and 2-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-2-oxoethyl pyridinecarboxylate, 2(r-s) were synthesized by reacting 1-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-2-bromoethan-1-one with various carboxylic acids using potassium carbonate in dimethylformamide at ambient temperature. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed a more closely packed crystal structure can be produced by introduction of biphenyl moiety. Five of the compounds among the reported series exhibited significant anti-tyrosinase activities, in which 2p, 2r and 2s displayed good inhibitions which are comparable to standard inhibitor kojic acid at concentrations of 100 and 250 μg/mL. The inhibitory effects of these active compounds were further confirmed by computational molecular docking studies and the results revealed the primary binding site is active-site entrance instead of inner copper binding site which acted as the secondary binding site.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrones/chemistry
  13. Alabsi AM, Ali R, Ali AM, Harun H, Al-Dubai SA, Ganasegeran K, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(11):6273-80.
    PMID: 24377517
    Goniothalamin, a natural compound extracted from Goniothalamus sp. belonging to the Annonacae family, possesses anticancer properties towards several tumor cell lines. This study focused on apoptosis induction by goniothalamin (GTN) in the Hela cervical cancer cell line. Cell growth inhibition was measured by MTT assay and the IC50 value of goniothalamin was 3.2 ± 0.72 μg/ml. Morphological changes and biochemical processes associated with apoptosis were evident on phase contrast microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. DNA fragmentation, DNA damage, caspase-9 activation and a large increase in the sub-G1 and S cell cycle phases confirmed the occurrence of apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. It could be concluded that goniothalamin show a promising cytotoxicity effect against cervical cancer cells (Hela) and the cell death mode induced by goniothalamin was apoptosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrones/chemistry*
  14. Meragelman TL, Scudiero DA, Davis RE, Staudt LM, McCloud TG, Cardellina JH, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2009 Mar 27;72(3):336-9.
    PMID: 19093800 DOI: 10.1021/np800350x
    The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway is constitutively active in many types of cancers and is a potential therapeutic target. Using a cell-based assay for stability of inhibitor of kappa B (IkappaB), a critical regulator of NF-kappaB activity, we found that an organic solvent extract of the plant Cryptocarya rugulosa inhibited constitutive NF-kappaB activity in human lymphoma cell lines. The active components were identified as rugulactone, a new alpha-pyrone (1), and the known cryptocaryone (2). Rugulactone was the more active compound, exhibiting up to 5-fold induction of IkappaB at 25 microg/mL; maximal activity was observed with 10 h exposure of test cells to 1 or 2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrones/chemistry
  15. Zahra MH, Salem TAR, El-Aarag B, Yosri N, El-Ghlban S, Zaki K, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 08;24(13).
    PMID: 31288458 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24132495
    BACKGROUND/AIM: Plants play an important role in anti-cancer drug discovery, therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the biological activity of Alpinia zerumbet (A. zerumbet) flowers.

    METHODS: The phytochemical and biological criteria of A. zerumbet were in vitro investigated as well as in mouse xenograft model.

    RESULTS: A. zerumbet extracts, specially CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts, exhibited the highest potent anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. The most active CH2Cl2 extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation leading to isolatation of the naturally occurring 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK) which was characterized by IR, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. A. zerumbet extracts, specially MeOH and CH2Cl2 extracts, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards tumor volume (TV). Furthermore, A. zerumbet extracts declined the high level of malonaldehyde (MDA) as well as elevated the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver tissue homogenate. Moreover, DK showed anti-proliferative action on different human cancer cell lines. The recorded IC50 values against breast carcinoma (MCF-7), liver carcinoma (Hep-G2) and larynx carcinoma cells (HEP-2) were 3.08, 6.8, and 8.7 µg/mL, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings open the door for further investigations in order to explore the potential medicinal properties of A. zerumbet.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrones/chemistry*
  16. Abdullah N, Sahibul-Anwar H, Ideris S, Hasuda T, Hitotsuyanagi Y, Takeya K, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2013 Jul;88:1-6.
    PMID: 23570840 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2013.03.028
    Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume) Hook. f. & Thoms. is a plant widely distributed in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to identify compounds from the roots of G. macrophyllus. The ground roots were extracted with aqueous methanol and partitioned sequentially with n-hexane, chloroform and butanol. Purification from this extracts afforded six compounds with two new compounds, namely goniolandrene-A (1), -B (2). The absolute configuration of goniolandrene B (2) was established by circular dichrosim. The compounds were cytotoxic against the P388 cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.42 to 160 μM. Goniothalamin (3) exhibited the highest inhibition of 0.42 μM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrones/chemistry
  17. Chin LF, Kong SM, Seng HL, Khoo KS, Vikneswaran R, Teoh SG, et al.
    J Inorg Biochem, 2011 Mar;105(3):339-47.
    PMID: 21421121 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2010.11.018
    The synthesis and characterization of two cobalt(II) complexes, Co(phen)(ma)Cl 1 and Co(ma)(2)(phen) 2, (phen=1,10-phenanthroline, ma(-)=maltolate or 2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-pyran-3-olate) are reported herein. The complexes have been characterized by FTIR, CHN analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, conductivity measurement and X-ray crystallography. The number of chelated maltolate ligands seems to influence their DNA recognition, topoisomerase I inhibition and antiproliferative properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrones/chemistry*
  18. Moharam BA, Jantan I, Jalil J, Ahmad F
    Phytother Res, 2012 May;26(5):687-91.
    PMID: 22002630 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.3620
    Phytochemical investigation on the bark of Goniothalamus tapis Miq. and G. uvaroides King has resulted in the isolation of eight styryl-lactones, (-)-cryptomeridiol, liriodenine, 3-methyl-1H-benz[f]indole-4,9-dione, (-)-stigmasterol and dimethyl terephthalate. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. The compounds were evaluated for their effect on platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor binding on rabbit platelets using (3) H-PAF as a ligand. Among the compounds tested, (-)-cryptomeridiol, (+)-goniothalamin and (+)-isoaltholactone exhibited a significant and concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on PAF receptor binding, with inhibitory concentration (IC)(50) values of 17.5, 19.7 and 46.5 µm, respectively. The inhibitory effects of the first two compounds were comparable to that obtained from the positive control, cedrol. The results indicated that these compounds were strong PAF receptor binding inhibitors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrones/chemistry
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