Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

  1. Aspollah Sukari M, Wah TS, Saad SM, Rashid NY, Rahmani M, Lajis NH, et al.
    Nat Prod Res, 2010 May;24(9):838-45.
    PMID: 20461629 DOI: 10.1080/14786410903052951
    Curcuma ochrorhiza ('temu putih') and C. heyneana ('temu giring') are two Zingiberaceous species which are commonly used in traditional medicine in Malaysia and Indonesia. Phytochemical investigations on these Curcuma species have resulted in the isolation of six sesquiterpenes, namely zerumbone (1), furanodienone (2), zederone (3), oxycurcumenol epoxide (4), curcumenol (5) and isocurcumenol (6), along with phytosterols stigmasterol and alpha-sitosterol. Compounds 1 and 2 were obtained for the first time for C. ochrorhiza while 4 was new to C. heyneana. The hexane extract of C. ochrorhiza and sesquiterpenes 1 and 3 showed very strong cytotoxicity activity against T-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells (CEM-SS), with IC(50) values of 6.0, 0.6 and 1.6 microg mL(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, constituents from C. heyneana (4-6) demonstrated moderate inhibition against CEM-SS in cytotoxic assay, with IC(50) values of 11.9, 12.6 and 13.3 microg mL(-1), respectively. The crude extracts and sesquiterpenes isolated were moderately active against certain bacteria tested in antimicrobial screening.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology*
  2. Abdelwahab SI, Abdul AB, Mohan S, Taha MM, Syam S, Ibrahim MY, et al.
    Leuk. Res., 2011 Feb;35(2):268-71.
    PMID: 20708800 DOI: 10.1016/j.leukres.2010.07.025
    Zerumbone (ZER) is a potential anticancer natural compound, isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith. In this investigation, the anticancer properties of ZER were evaluated on cancer cells of T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, CEM-ss. The results showed that ZER has cytotoxic effect against CEM-ss cells with an IC(50) of 8.4 ± 1.9 μg/ml (coefficient of variation < 30%). Comparatively, 5-fluorouracil (positive control), imposed an inhibitory effect on CEM-ss cells with an IC(50) of 1.94 ± 0.06 μg/ml. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results revealed abnormalities such as membrane blebbing, holes and cytoplasmic extrusions, all of which are characteristics of apoptosis. In addition, ZER has increased the number of TUNEL-positive stain and the cellular level of caspase-3, the hallmarks of apoptosis, on treated CEM-ss cells. It could be concluded that, ZER was able to produce apoptosis on T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, CEM-ss. The current findings suggest that ZER might be helpful for improving the usefulness of anticancer agents in the therapy of leukemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology*
  3. Litaudon M, Bousserouel H, Awang K, Nosjean O, Martin MT, Dau ME, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2009 Mar 27;72(3):480-3.
    PMID: 19161318 DOI: 10.1021/np8006292
    In an effort to find potent inhibitors of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL, a systematic in vitro evaluation was undertaken on 1470 Malaysian plant extracts. The ethyl acetate extract obtained from the bark of Meiogyne cylindrocarpa was selected for its interaction with the Bcl-xL/Bak association. Bioassay-guided purification of this species led to the isolation of two new dimeric sesquiterpenoids (1 and 2) possessing an unprecedented substituted cis-decalin carbon skeleton. Meiogynin A (1) showed the strongest activity with a K(i) of 10.8 +/- 3.1 microM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology*
  4. Dahham SS, Tabana YM, Iqbal MA, Ahamed MB, Ezzat MO, Majid AS, et al.
    Molecules, 2015;20(7):11808-29.
    PMID: 26132906 DOI: 10.3390/molecules200711808
    The present study reports a bioassay-guided isolation of β-caryophyllene from the essential oil of Aquilaria crassna. The structure of β-caryophyllene was confirmed using FT-IR, NMR and MS. The antimicrobial effect of β-caryophyllene was examined using human pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains. Its anti-oxidant properties were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP scavenging assays. The cytotoxicity of β-caryophyllene was tested against seven human cancer cell lines. The corresponding selectivity index was determined by testing its cytotoxicity on normal cells. The effects of β-caryophyllene were studied on a series of in vitro antitumor-promoting assays using colon cancer cells. Results showed that β-caryophyllene demonstrated selective antibacterial activity against S. aureus (MIC 3 ± 1.0 µM) and more pronounced anti-fungal activity than kanamycin. β-Caryophyllene also displayed strong antioxidant effects. Additionally, β-caryophyllene exhibited selective anti-proliferative effects against colorectal cancer cells (IC50 19 µM). The results also showed that β-caryophyllene induces apoptosis via nuclear condensation and fragmentation pathways including disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Further, β-caryophyllene demonstrated potent inhibition against clonogenicity, migration, invasion and spheroid formation in colon cancer cells. These results prompt us to state that β-caryophyllene is the active principle responsible for the selective anticancer and antimicrobial activities of A. crassnia. β-Caryophyllene has great potential to be further developed as a promising chemotherapeutic agent against colorectal malignancies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology*
  5. Haque MA, Jantan I, Arshad L, Bukhari SNA
    Food Funct, 2017 Oct 18;8(10):3410-3431.
    PMID: 28714500 DOI: 10.1039/c7fo00595d
    Plant-derived immunomodulators and anti-cancer agents have attracted a lot of interest from natural product scientists for their efficacy and safety and their significant contribution towards understanding targeted drug action and drug delivery mechanisms. Zerumbone, the main constituent of Zingiber zerumbet rhizomes, has been investigated for its wide-spectrum role in treating multitargeted diseases. The rhizomes have been used as food flavoring agents in various cuisines and in herbal medicine. Many in vivo and in vitro studies have provided evidence of zerumbone as a potent immunomodulator as well as a potential anti-cancer agent. This review is an interesting compilation of all those significant outcomes from investigations carried out to date to explore the immunomodulatory and anticancer properties of zerumbone. The ultimate objective of this comprehensive review is to provide updated information and a critical assessment on zerumbone including its chemistry and immunomodulating and anticancer properties, which may be of paramount importance to provide a new path for ensuing research to discover new agents to treat cancers and immune-related diseases. In addition, updated information on the toxicology of zerumbone has also been summarized to provide its safety profile.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology*
  6. Akhtar NMY, Jantan I, Arshad L, Haque MA
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Nov 21;19(1):331.
    PMID: 31752812 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2748-5
    BACKGROUND: Zingiber zerumbet rhizome and its bioactive metabolites have previously been reported to exhibit innumerable pharmacological properties particularly anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the 80% ethanol extract, essential oil and zerumbone of Z. zerumbet rhizomes were explored for their in vitro immunosuppressive properties on chemotaxis, CD11b/CD18 expression, phagocytosis and chemiluminescence of isolated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs).

    METHODS: The extract was analyzed quantitatively by performing a validated reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Zerumbone was isolated by chromatographic technique while the essential oil was acquired through hydro-distillation of the rhizomes and further analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-MS. Chemotaxis assay was assessed by using a 24-well cell migration assay kit, while CD18 integrin expression and phagocytic engulfment were measured using flow cytometry. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated by applying lucigenin- and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assays.

    RESULTS: Zerumbone was found to be the most abundant compound in the extract (242.73 mg/g) and the oil (58.44%). Among the samples tested, the oil revealed the highest inhibition on cell migration with an IC50 value of 3.24 μg/mL. The extract, oil and zerumbone showed moderate inhibition of CD18 integrin expression in a dose-dependent trend. Z. zerumbet extract showed the highest inhibitory effect on phagocytic engulfment with percentage of phagocytizing cells of 55.43% for PMN. Zerumbone exhibited strong inhibitory activity on oxidative burst of zymosan- and PMA-stimulated neutrophils. Zerumbone remarkably inhibited extracellular ROS production in PMNs with an IC50 value of 17.36 μM which was comparable to that of aspirin.

    CONCLUSION: The strong inhibition on the phagocytosis of neutrophils by Z. zerumbet extract and its essential oil might be due the presence of its chemical components particularly zerumbone which was capable of impeding phagocytosis at different stages.

    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology*
  7. Zahari Z, Jani NA, Amanah A, Latif MN, Majid MI, Adenan MI
    Phytomedicine, 2014 Feb 15;21(3):282-5.
    PMID: 24269185 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2013.09.011
    Methanolic extracts of 70 Malaysia plants were screened for their in vitro antitrypanosomal activity using Trypanosome brucei rhodesience, strain STIB 900 and mouse skeletal cell (L-6) in cytotoxicity activity assay. Results indicated that methanol extract from Elephantopus scaber Linn. (E. scaber) possessed the highest value of antitrypanosomal activity with good selectivity index (antitrypanosomal IC50 of 0.22±0.02 μg/ml, SI value of 204.55). Based on these results, E. scaber was chosen for further study by applying bioassay guided fractionation to isolate its antiprotozoal principle. The antiprotozoal principle was isolated from the ethyl acetate partition through solvent fractionation and crystallization process. The isolated active compound 1 was identified as deoxyelephantopin on the basis of its spectral analysis (FTIR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR).
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology*
  8. Wijesinghe WA, Kim EA, Kang MC, Lee WW, Lee HS, Vairappan CS, et al.
    Environ Toxicol Pharmacol, 2014 Jan;37(1):110-7.
    PMID: 24317194 DOI: 10.1016/j.etap.2013.11.006
    5β-Hydroxypalisadin B, a halogenated secondary metabolite isolated from red seaweed Laurencia snackeyi was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced zebrafish embryo. Preliminary studies suggested the effective concentrations of the compound as 0.25, 0.5, 1 μg/mL for further in vivo experiments. 5β-Hydroxypalisadin B, exhibited profound protective effect in the zebrafish embryo as confirmed by survival rate, heart beat rate, and yolk sac edema size. The compound acts as an effective agent against reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation induced by LPS and tail cut. Moreover, 5β-hydroxypalisadin B effectively inhibited the LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in zebrafish embryo. All the tested protective effects of 5β-hydroxypalisadin B were comparable to the well-known anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone. According to the results obtained, 5β-hydroxypalisadin B isolated from red seaweed L. snackeyi could be considered as an effective anti-inflammatory agent which might be further developed as a functional ingredient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology*
  9. Wong KC, Hamid A, Eldeen IM, Asmawi MZ, Baharuddin S, Abdillahi HS, et al.
    Nat Prod Res, 2012;26(9):850-8.
    PMID: 21999629 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2010.551770
    A new sesquiterpenoid, 1α,4β,7β-eudesmanetriol (1), was isolated together with the known compounds 1β,4β,7β-eudesmanetriol (2) and oplopanone (3) from the rhizomes of Homalomena sagittifolia. The structures of these compounds were determined by extensive spectral analyses. The compounds 1 and 2 inhibited growth of Pseudomonas stutzeri with a MIC value of 117 µM when evaluated for antibacterial activity using the minimum concentration assay. Both these compounds showed remarkable activities against acetylcholinesterase enzyme with IC(50) values ranging between 25 and 26 µM. The isolation of these sesquiterpenoids and their biological activities observed in this study support the reported traditional uses of H. sagittifolia for the treatment of microbial related diseases and central nervous system disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
  10. Keong YS, Alitheen NB, Mustafa S, Abdul Aziz S, Abdul Rahman M, Ali AM
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2010 Jan;23(1):75-82.
    PMID: 20067871
    In this study, the immunomodulatory effects of zerumbone isolated from Zingiber zerumbet were investigated by evaluating the effects of this compound towards the lymphocytes proliferation (mice thymocytes, mice splenocytes and human human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMC), cell cycle progression and cytokine (interleukin 2 and 12) induction. Lymphocyte proliferation assay showed that zerumbone was able to activate mice thymocytes, splenocytes and PBMC at dosage dependent pattern where the best concentration was 7.5 microg/ml. Flow cytometry analysis showed the highest population of PBMC entered into G2/M phase after treatment for 72 h with 7.5 microg/ml zerumbone. The production of human interleukin-2 and human interleukin-12 cytokines in culture supernatant from zerumbone activated lymphocytes was prominently upregulated at 24 hour and decreased from 48 h to 72 h. The above results indicate that zerumbone can be used as immunomodulatory agent which can react toward the immune cell cytokine production in dosage dependent pattern.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology*
  11. Vairappan CS, Suzuki M, Ishii T, Okino T, Abe T, Masuda M
    Phytochemistry, 2008 Oct;69(13):2490-4.
    PMID: 18718619 DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.06.015
    During our studies on Malaysian Laurencia species, brominated metabolites, tiomanene, acetylmajapolene B, and acetylmajapolene A were isolated from an unrecorded species collected at Pulau Tioman, Pahang along with known majapolene B and majapolene A. Acetylmajapolene A was a mixture of diastereomers as in the case of majapolene A. Tiomanene may be a plausible precursor for acetylmajapolenes B and A. In addition, three known halogenated sesquiterpenes and two known halogenated C(15) acetogenins were found from other two unrecorded species collected at Pulau Karah, Terengganu and Pulau Nyireh, Terengganu, respectively. Some of these halogenated metabolites showed moderate antibacterial activity against some marine bacteria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology*
  12. Chan WK, Tan LT, Chan KG, Lee LH, Goh BH
    Molecules, 2016 Apr 28;21(5).
    PMID: 27136520 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21050529
    Nerolidol (3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol) is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alcohol that is present in various plants with a floral odor. It is synthesized as an intermediate in the production of (3E)-4,8-dimethy-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), a herbivore-induced volatile that protects plants from herbivore damage. Chemically, nerolidol exists in two geometric isomers, a trans and a cis form. The usage of nerolidol is widespread across different industries. It has been widely used in cosmetics (e.g., shampoos and perfumes) and in non-cosmetic products (e.g., detergents and cleansers). In fact, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also permitted the use of nerolidol as a food flavoring agent. The fact that nerolidol is a common ingredient in many products has attracted researchers to explore more medicinal properties of nerolidol that may exert beneficial effect on human health. Therefore, the aim of this review is to compile and consolidate the data on the various pharmacological and biological activities displayed by nerolidol. Furthermore, this review also includes pharmacokinetic and toxicological studies of nerolidol. In summary, the various pharmacological and biological activities demonstrated in this review highlight the prospects of nerolidol as a promising chemical or drug candidate in the field of agriculture and medicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology*
  13. Suzuki M, Daitoh M, Vairappan CS, Abe T, Masuda M
    J Nat Prod, 2001 May;64(5):597-602.
    PMID: 11374951
    In connection with our chemotaxonomic studies of Malaysian species of the red algal genus Laurencia, the chemical composition of Laurencia pannosa Zanardini was examined. Two halogenated sesquiterpenoids, named pannosanol (1) and pannosane (2), have been isolated along with a halogenated C15-acetogenin, (3Z)-chlorofucin (3). The structures of these compounds were determined from their spectroscopic data (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR, and MS). Pannosanol and pannosane are novel halometabolites with an unusual rearranged chamigrane framework. Antibacterial activities of these metabolites against marine bacteria are also described.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology*
  14. Abdelwahab SI, Abdul AB, Zain ZN, Hadi AH
    Int Immunopharmacol, 2012 Apr;12(4):594-602.
    PMID: 22330084 DOI: 10.1016/j.intimp.2012.01.014
    Interleukin-6 is one of the factors affecting sensitivity to cytotoxic agents. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the role of IL-6 and IL6 receptors in the cytotoxic effects of zerumbone in ovarian and cervical cancer cell lines (Caov-3 and HeLa, respectively). Exposure of both cancer cells to zerumbone or cisplatin demonstrated growth inhibition at a dose-dependent manner as determined by the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,Sdiphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction assay. Both laser scanning confocal microscopy and TUNEL assay showed typical apoptotic features in treated cells. The studies conducted seems to suggest that zerumbone induces cell death by stimulating apoptosis better than cisplatin, based on the significantly higher percentage of apoptotic cells in zerumbone's treated cancer cells as compared to cisplatin. In addition, zerumbone and cisplatin arrest cancer cells at G2/M phase as analyzed by flow cytometry. Our results indicated that zerumbone significantly decreased the levels of IL-6 secreted by both cancer cells. In contrast, HeLa and Caov-3 cells were still sensitive to cisplatin and zerumbone, even in the presence of exogenous IL-6. However, membrane-bound IL-6 receptor is still intact after zerumbone treatment as demonstrated using an immune-fluorescence technique. This study concludes that the compound, zerumbone inhibits both cancer cell growth through the induction of apoptosis, arrests cell cycle at G2/M phase and inhibits the secretion levels of IL-6 in both cancer cells. Therefore, zerumbone is a potential candidate as a useful chemotherapeutic agent in treating both cervical and ovarian cancers in future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology*
  15. Hitora Y, Takada K, Ise Y, Woo SP, Inoue S, Mori N, et al.
    Bioorg Med Chem, 2020 01 15;28(2):115233.
    PMID: 31848114 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2019.115233
    New sesquiterpene quinones, metachromins X (1) and Y (2), together with the known metachromins C (3), J (4), and T (5), were isolated as inhibitors of cell cycle progression in the HeLa/Fucci2 cells. The structure of 1 was assigned by spectroscopic data and confirmed by a total synthesis. The planar structure of 2 was determined by interpretation of spectroscopic data, whereas its absolute configuration was analyzed by a combination of chiral HPLC and CD spectroscopy. Metachromins X (1) and C (3) arrested the cell cycle progression of HeLa/Fucci2 cells at S/G2/M phase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology*
  16. Teah YF, Abduraman MA, Amanah A, Adenan MI, Sulaiman SF, Tan ML
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2017 Sep;107(Pt A):293-301.
    PMID: 28689918 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2017.07.011
    Elephantopus scaber Linn and its major bioactive component, deoxyelephantopin are known for their medicinal properties and are often reported to have various cytotoxic and antitumor activities. This plant is widely used as folk medicine for a plethora of indications although its safety profile remains unknown. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the cardiac IKr current which is a determinant of the duration of ventricular action potentials and QT interval. The hERG potassium channel is an important antitarget in cardiotoxicity evaluation. This study investigated the effects of deoxyelephantopin on the current, mRNA and protein expression of hERG channel in hERG-transfected HEK293 cells. The hERG tail currents following depolarization pulses were insignificantly affected by deoxyelephantopin in the transfected cell line. Current reduction was less than 40% as compared with baseline at the highest concentration of 50 μM. The results were consistent with the molecular docking simulation and hERG surface protein expression. Interestingly, it does not affect the hERG expression at both transcriptional and translational level at most concentrations, although higher concentration at 10 μM caused protein accumulation. In conclusion, deoxyelephantopin is unlikely a clinically significant hERG channel and Ikr blocker.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology*
  17. Al Muqarrabun LM, Ahmat N, Aris SR, Shamsulrijal N, Baharum SN, Ahmad R, et al.
    Nat Prod Res, 2014;28(9):597-605.
    PMID: 24568340 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2014.886211
    A new sesquiterpenoid, malayscaphiol (1), and three known compounds, lupeol (2), lupenone (3) and stigmasterol (4), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the stem bark of Scaphium macropodum. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined using several spectroscopic methods, including UV-vis, FT-IR, 1D and 2D NMR, and mass spectrometer. Major isolated compounds were assayed for cytotoxicity and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities. The chemotaxonomy significance of this plant was also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
  18. Rahman HS, Rasedee A, How CW, Abdul AB, Zeenathul NA, Othman HH, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2013;8:2769-81.
    PMID: 23946649 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S45313
    Zerumbone, a natural dietary lipophilic compound with low water solubility (1.296 mg/L at 25°C) was used in this investigation. The zerumbone was loaded into nanostructured lipid carriers using a hot, high-pressure homogenization technique. The physicochemical properties of the zerumbone-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (ZER-NLC) were determined. The ZER-NLC particles had an average size of 52.68 ± 0.1 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.29 ± 0.004 μm. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the particles were spherical in shape. The zeta potential of the ZER-NLC was -25.03 ± 1.24 mV, entrapment efficiency was 99.03%, and drug loading was 7.92%. In vitro drug release of zerumbone from ZER-NLC was 46.7%, and for a pure zerumbone dispersion was 90.5% over 48 hours, following a zero equation. Using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Jurkat) cells, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of ZER-NLC was 5.64 ± 0.38 μg/mL, and for free zerumbone was 5.39 ± 0.43 μg/mL after 72 hours of treatment. This study strongly suggests that ZER-NLC have potential as a sustained-release drug carrier system for the treatment of leukemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
  19. Sulaiman MR, Perimal EK, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Khalid MH, Tasrip NA, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2010 Oct;81(7):855-8.
    PMID: 20546845 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2010.05.009
    The anti-inflammatory activity of zerumbone (1), a natural cyclic sesquiterpene isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma tissue formation test in mice. It was demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of 1 at a dose of 5, 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg produced significant dose-dependent inhibition of paw edema induced by carrageenan. It was also demonstrated that 1 at similar doses significantly suppressed granulomatous tissue formation in cotton pellet-induced granuloma test.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
  20. Sulaiman MR, Perimal EK, Zakaria ZA, Mokhtar F, Akhtar MN, Lajis NH, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2009 Jun;80(4):230-2.
    PMID: 19535012 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2009.02.002
    We have investigated the antinociceptive activity of zerumbone (1), a natural cyclic sesquiterpene isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test and hot plate test in mice. 1 given by intraperitoneal route produced significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in all the test models used. In addition, the antinociceptive effect of 1 in the hot plate test was reversed by the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, suggesting that the opioid system is involved in its analgesic mechanism of action.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (tengcl@gmail.com)

External Links