METHOD: For this purpose, we employ fractal theory and analyze the variations of fractal dimension of GSR and EEG signals when subjects are exposed to different olfactory stimuli in the form of pleasant odors.
RESULTS: Based on the obtained results, the complexity of GSR signal changes with the complexity of EEG signal in case of different stimuli, where by increasing the molecular complexity of olfactory stimuli, the complexity of EEG and GSR signals increases. The results of statistical analysis showed the significant effect of stimulation on variations of complexity of GSR signal. In addition, based on effect size analysis, fourth odor with greatest molecular complexity had the greatest effect on variations of complexity of EEG and GSR signals.
CONCLUSION: Therefore, it can be said that human skin reaction changes with the variations in the activity of human brain. The result of analysis in this research can be further used to make a model between the activities of human skin and brain that will enable us to predict skin reaction to different stimuli.
CONCLUSION: This review will provide information on the causes and indicators of skin aging as well as examine studies that have used plants to produce anti-aging products.
METHODS: Four skin biophysical parameters - transepidermal water loss (TEWL), melanin content, elasticity, and collagen intensity - were assessed on the cheek of the subjects (20-60 years). Demographic background, daily habits, and skincare product use were gauged through a survey. Only 197 from the 213 subjects recruited initially were used for analysis after the data were screened for normality.
RESULTS: The biophysical parameters were similar in different races, except a higher melanin content in Indian female individuals. Elasticity and collagen intensity reduced with age, while melanin content increased in the older age-groups. But no difference was observed in TEWL at different ages. Evaluating the influence of daily habits, we observed that exercise significantly lowered TEWL and increased melanin content, which may be associated with UV radiation exposure. Facial skincare products are popular among the female subjects (>85% users). Products with moisturizing, sunscreening, and other skincare functions (astringent, antiaging, and anti-wrinkle) were preferred by subjects of all ages. These product functions significantly improve skin elasticity and reduce melanin content in the young adults. While aged women recognized the importance of having an additional skin-lightening function in their skincare routine. Although the influence of individual skincare function on skin biophysical parameters was mostly positive, the alteration of these parameters varied at different ages.
CONCLUSION: This is the first report of facial skin biophysical profile of Malaysian women. There is no difference among 3 major races saved for melanin content. This work demonstrated age-dependent influences on the biophysical parameters, except TEWL. The significance of skincare product use is well reflected in the improvement of these parameters at different age-groups based on individual skincare functions.
AIMS: To compare TEWL and skin hydration in patients with DM and controls, and to investigate associations between TEWL and skin hydration with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood sugar (FBS), treatment, peripheral neuropathy (PN) and age in patients with diabetes.
METHODS: This was a prospective, case-control study carried out at a tertiary medical centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. TEWL and skin hydration measurements were taken at six different body sites in both groups.
RESULTS: In total, 146 patients (73 cases, 73 controls) were included (24 men and 49 women in each group). No significant difference in TEWL or skin hydration was seen between patients with DM and controls, but there were significant reductions in skin hydration in patients with DM who had FBS > 7 mmol/L (P 6.5% (P 1 U/kg/day (P 45 years old, there was a significant reduction in TEWL (P = 0.04) and hydration (P skin hydration in patients with DM compared with controls. In the DM group, reduction in skin hydration was associated with uncontrolled FBS and PN but not with HbA1c or DM treatment, whereas TEWL was lower in patients with FBS > 8 mmol/L and increased in patients with higher insulin requirement.