Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 154 in total

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  1. Wee LH, Chan CM, Yogarabindranath SN
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2016 06;71(Suppl 1):29-41.
    PMID: 27801386 MyJurnal
    Two hundred and seventy one original published materials related to tobacco use were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to Medicine and Health in Malaysia from 1996 - 2015. A total of 147 papers were selected and reviewed on the basis of their relevance and implications for future research. Findings were summarised, categorised and presented according to epidemiology, behaviour, clinical features and management of smoking. Most studies are cross-sectional with small sample sizes. Studies on smoking initiation and prevalence showed mixed findings with many small scale studies within the sub-groups. The majority of the studies were related to factors that contribute to initiation in adolescents. Nonetheless, there are limited studies on intervention strategies to curb smoking among this group. There is a lack of clinical studies to analyse tobacco use and major health problems in Malaysia. In addition, studies on the best treatment modalities on the use of pharmacotherapy and behavioural counselling have also remained unexplored. Reasons why smokers do not seek clinic help to quit smoking need further exploration. A finding on the extent of effort carried out by healthcare providers in assisting smokers to make quit attempts is not known. Studies on economic and government initiatives on policies and tobacco use focus mainly on the effects of cigarette bans, increased cigarettes taxes and the influence of the tobacco industry. Recommendations are given for the government to increase efforts in implementing smoke-free legislation, early and tailored interventions. Clinical studies in this area are lacking, as are opportunities to research on ways to reduce smoking initiation age and the most effective quit smoking strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology*
  2. Woodcock AA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1979 Sep;34(1):3-5.
    PMID: 542147
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology*
  3. Santhna LP, Khalid Z, Selamat S, Ho SE, Mat S
    Clin Ter, 2013;164(6):507-12.
    PMID: 24424214 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2013.1628
    BACKGROUND: Smoking has always been a huge problem in Malaysia and its surrounding nations. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and to identify the influencing factors associated with smoking habits among adolescents.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 226 respondents, using a questionnaire which had 4 sections: socio-demographic data, personal information, family information and social information. Data was analyzed using SPSS® version 16. For categorical variables, comparisons were made using Chi-square and for numerical variables a t-test was performed.

    RESULTS: The current smoker prevalence rate was 20.8% which showed a significant association between smoking and individual factors: level of knowledge on the effects of smoking (p < 0.05), significant association was seen between smoking and marital status of parents, smoking status of male siblings and various other aspects of the individuals themselves.

    CONCLUSIONS: Concerted efforts involving various parties should be taken to curb or prevent this problem or the number of teenage smokers in the country will increase. This in the long run will invite problems to the well being of the adolescents themselves, their families, community and the nation as a whole.

    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology*
  4. Lim KH, Amal NM, Hanjeet K, Mashod MY, Wan Rozita WM, Sumarni MG, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2006 Jun;23(1):75-84.
    PMID: 17041555 MyJurnal
    Smoking among adolescent is a public health concern in Malaysia. Multiple studies on smoking prevalence and its related factors have been conducted in Malaysia, however, they were specific to either urban or rural areas alone. Studies in mixed settlement areas (urban, rural, land development area) had not been intensively investigated. This study reports the prevalence, demographic and factors related to smoking amongst form four students in the district of Kota Tinggi, Johor. A cross-sectional study of 16-year old secondary school students in Kota Tinggi district was conducted using two-stage stratified, proportionate sampling in July 2005. The study instrument used was a validated structured questionnaire on smoking and its related factors. Smoking prevalence was found to be 29.7%. More than 50% of male students were smokers. Prevalence was highest in FELDA (Federal Land Development Authority) settlement areas. Smoking was associated with having a brother or friend who smokes and poor academic performance. The study revealed that smoking prevalence was high, especially among male students in land development schemes. This situation will contribute to high smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken accordingly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology*
  5. Navaratnam V, Foong K
    Curr Med Res Opin, 1990;11(10):611-9.
    PMID: 2311417
    In a study of 249 opiate (mainly heroin) addicts special attention was paid to adjunctive drug use. Generally, nicotine (cigarette smoking), alcohol and cannabis preceded the use of heroin, and continued to be used as adjunctive drugs after the establishment of heroin addiction. Nicotine was the most common substance used together with opiates. Alcohol and cannabis were used as adjunctive drugs in about two-thirds of the cases. In the late stages of heroin addiction, benzodiazepines were also used concomitantly with opiates. The most frequently reported reason for the use of adjunctive drugs was to intensify the effect of the opiate. Three-quarters or more of the addicts had used different adjunctive drugs to boost the euphoric feeling derived from the primary drug, i.e. heroin. Attempt at self-treatment of withdrawal symptoms was a less frequently reported reason for adjunctive drug use. The findings show that heroin addiction is the major problem. The use of adjunctive drugs, especially benzodiazepines, can be partly explained on economic grounds. They must be clearly distinguished from the primary drug of abuse, heroin. For policy-making decisions, it is important that the elimination of heroin abuse through effective prevention measures would ultimately wipe out the problem of adjunctive drug use, while reduction of the overall supply of heroin without reduction in actual demand might result in an increasing trend to adjunctive drug use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Marijuana Smoking/epidemiology*; Smoking/epidemiology*
  6. Ashraf H
    Lancet, 2002 Aug 24;360(9333):627.
    PMID: 12241947
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology
  7. Naing NN, Ahmad Z
    PMID: 11556602
    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of secondary school teachers in Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of 180 male teachers and trainee teachers from four secondary schools in Kelantan and a Teachers' Training College were interviewed by using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied. The significant findings found were current smokers were found as high as 40.56%. Mean duration of smoking was 6.8 years and mean initiation age was 16.5 years. Trainee teachers had a significantly higher proportion of current smokers. There was a significant association between smoking status of teachers and their fathers' and perception of the hazards of smoking on health. Peer influence was found to be the major reason for smoking among smokers. Religious belief and care for health attitude prevented non-smokers from smoking. About 3/5 of smokers thought of quitting smoking and of these 1/4 had tried at least once. There was a significant difference of proportion of attempted quitting between regular and occasional smokers. Mass media was the best source of information on knowledge about smoking hazards. Anti-smoking campaigns should start as early as possible in schools. Lectures and talks on smoking should be included in the curriculum of teachers' training courses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology*
  8. Sirirassamee T, Sirirassamee B, Borland R, Omar M, Driezen P
    PMID: 21323185
    The objective of this study was to examine the smoking behavior among adolescents in Thailand and Malaysia. Population-based, national surveys were conducted among 1,704 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 from Thailand (n = 927) and Malaysia (n = 777). Respondents were selected using multistage cluster sampling. Respondents were asked to complete self-administered questionnaires. Approximately 5% of Thai and Malaysian adolescents were current smokers, while an additional 8.6% of Thai and 8.1% of Malaysian adolescents reported being beginning smokers. On average, Thai smokers reported first smoking a whole cigarette at 14.6 years old (SD = 1.9), while Malaysian smokers at age 13.9 years (SD = 2.2). More than half of Thai smokers (60.4%) reported they bought cigarettes themselves and 29.9% got cigarettes from friends. In Malaysia, most smokers (68.3%) reported they bought cigarettes themselves, only 20.7% got cigarettes from friends. Seventy-six percent of Thai adolescent smokers smoked factory-made brands as their usual brand compared to 27.7% of Malaysian adolescent smokers. Eight percent of Thai adolescents and 10% of Malaysian adolescents reported smoking hand-rolled cigarettes. Approximately half of Thais and more than 40% of Malaysian smokers reported they tried to quit smoking within the past month. The smoking prevalence of Thai adolescents is close to that of Malaysian adolescents. Factory-made cigarette consumption is an important problem in Thai adolescents and needs to be targeted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology*
  9. Hashami B, Abdul Halim O, Yusoff K
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1994 Jun;49(2):149-57.
    PMID: 8090094
    A total of 209 randomly selected Malaysian university students (128 from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 81 from the University of New South Wales) completed a self-filled questionnaire enquiring about their smoking behaviour and psychosocial characteristics. The prevalence of smoking was 26.6 per cent among students in Malaysia and 18.8 per cent among students in Australia (average 23.4%). Both samples have similar patterns in terms of age of starting smoking, time of the day when they smoked, family and peer history of smoking, and whether or not they inhaled deeply during smoking. The smokers tend to be male, studying beyond the first year, staying with peers outside the hostel, having financial sources other than a scholarship, and abnormal mental health score. However, the smokers from the Australian samples were noted to smoke less and made fewer attempts at quitting the habit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology*
  10. Liber AC, Ross H, Omar M, Chaloupka FJ
    Tob Control, 2015 Jul;24 Suppl 3:iii83-iii87.
    PMID: 25808666 DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-052028
    Study the effects of the 2011 Malaysian minimum price law (MPL) on prices of licit and illicit cigarette brands. Identify barriers to the MPL achieving positive public health effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology
  11. Kabir MA, Goh KL, Khan MH
    BMC Public Health, 2013;13:379.
    PMID: 23617464 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-379
    BACKGROUND:
    Tobacco consumption (TC) among youths poses significant public health problem in developing countries. This study utilized the data of Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), 2007 to examine and compare youth TC behavior in Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka.

    METHODS:
    The GYTS covered a total of 2,242 Bangladeshi, 1,444 Nepalese and 1,377 Sri-Lankan youths aged 13-15 years. They represented response rates of 88.9%, 94.6%, and 85.0% for the three countries, respectively. Socioeconomic, environmental, motivating, and programmatic predictors of TC were examined using cross tabulations and logistic regressions.

    RESULTS:
    Prevalence of TC was 6.9% (9.1% in males, 5.1% in females) in Bangladesh, 9.4% (13.2% in males, 5.3% in females) in Nepal and 9.1% (12.4% in males, 5.8% in females) in Sri Lanka. The average tobacco initiation age was 9.6, 10.24 and 8.61 years, respectively. Cross tabulations showed that gender, smoking among parents and friends, exposure to smoking at home and public places, availability of free tobacco were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with TC in all three countries. The multivariable analysis [odds ratio (95% confidence interval)] indicated that the common significant predictors for TC in the three countries were TC among friends [1.9 (1.30-2.89) for Bangladesh, 4.10 (2.64-6.38) for Nepal, 2.34 (1.36-4.02) for Sri Lanka], exposure to smoking at home [1.7 (1.02-2.81) for Bangladesh, 1.81 (1.08-2.79) for Nepal, 3.96 (1.82-8.62) for Sri Lanka], exposure to smoking at other places [2.67 (1.59-4.47) for Bangladesh, 5.22 (2.76-9.85) for Nepal, 1.76 (1.05-2.88) for Sri Lanka], and the teaching of smoking hazards in schools [0.56 (0.38-0.84) for Bangladesh, 0.60 (0.41-0.89) for Nepal, 0.58 (0.35-0.94) for Sri Lanka].

    CONCLUSIONS:
    An understanding of the influencing factors of youth TC provides helpful insights for the formulation of tobacco control policies in the South-Asian region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology*
  12. Lee LK, Paul CY, Kam CW, Jagmohni K
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2005;17(2):130-6.
    PMID: 16425658 DOI: 10.1177/101053950501700212
    This study was done to determine the prevalence of smoking and factors influencing cigarette smoking among secondary school students in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional school survey conducted on 4500 adolescent students based on a structured questionnaire. Data was collected using the supervised self-administered questionnaire the Youth Risk Behaviour Surveillance in the Malaysian National Language Bahasa Malaysia. The prevalence of smoking among the students was 14.0%. About a third of the students (37.8%) started smoking at 13 to 14 years of age. The prevalence of smoking among the male students was higher (26.6%) compared to the female students (3.1%). Adolescent smoking was associated with (1) sociodemographic factors (age, ethnicity, rural/urban status); (2) environmental factors (parental smoking, staying with parents); (3) behavioural factors (playing truant and risk-taking behaviours such as physical fighting, drug use, alcohol use, sexual activity, lack of seatbelt use, riding with a drunk driver); (4) lifestyle behaviours (being on diet and lack of exercise); (5) personal factors (feeling sad and suicidal behaviours). In conclusion, smoking is a major problem among Malaysian adolescents. Certain groups of adolescents tend to be at higher risk of smoking. This problem should be curbed early by targeting these groups of high risk adolescents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology*
  13. Ngamwong Y, Tangamornsuksan W, Lohitnavy O, Chaiyakunapruk N, Scholfield CN, Reisfeld B, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(8):e0135798.
    PMID: 26274395 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135798
    Smoking and asbestos exposure are important risks for lung cancer. Several epidemiological studies have linked asbestos exposure and smoking to lung cancer. To reconcile and unify these results, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a quantitative estimate of the increased risk of lung cancer associated with asbestos exposure and cigarette smoking and to classify their interaction. Five electronic databases were searched from inception to May, 2015 for observational studies on lung cancer. All case-control (N = 10) and cohort (N = 7) studies were included in the analysis. We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs), relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model for the association of asbestos exposure and smoking with lung cancer. Lung cancer patients who were not exposed to asbestos and non-smoking (A-S-) were compared with; (i) asbestos-exposed and non-smoking (A+S-), (ii) non-exposure to asbestos and smoking (A-S+), and (iii) asbestos-exposed and smoking (A+S+). Our meta-analysis showed a significant difference in risk of developing lung cancer among asbestos exposed and/or smoking workers compared to controls (A-S-), odds ratios for the disease (95% CI) were (i) 1.70 (A+S-, 1.31-2.21), (ii) 5.65; (A-S+, 3.38-9.42), (iii) 8.70 (A+S+, 5.8-13.10). The additive interaction index of synergy was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.26-1.77) and the multiplicative index = 0.91 (95% CI = 0.63-1.30). Corresponding values for cohort studies were 1.11 (95% CI = 1.00-1.28) and 0.51 (95% CI = 0.31-0.85). Our results point to an additive synergism for lung cancer with co-exposure of asbestos and cigarette smoking. Assessments of industrial health risks should take smoking and other airborne health risks when setting occupational asbestos exposure limits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology*
  14. Elkalmi RM, Alkoudmani RM, Elsayed TM, Ahmad A, Khan MU
    J Relig Health, 2016 Dec;55(6):1869-75.
    PMID: 26429730 DOI: 10.1007/s10943-015-0136-0
    The Malaysian official Islamic authorities have issued a "fatwa" (Islamic ruling) regarding smoking practice which prohibits Muslims from smoking because of its potential harm to health. Since the prevalence of smoking among Malaysian students is high, this study was designed to explore the perceptions and opinions of Malaysian Muslim students towards smoking in International Islamic University of Malaysia. A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted among School of Science students in International Islamic University Malaysia. Convenience sampling approach was used to recruit 323 students based on sample size calculation. A content- and face-validated questionnaire was used to collect the data from the participants. Non-smokers highly supported the fatwa on smoking forbiddance than smokers (94 vs 64.3 %, p = 0.001). A significant proportion of non-smokers believed that Islam prohibits smoking because of its potential harm (94.9 vs 71.4 %, p = 0.001). Majority of smokers agreed that addiction is the main barrier towards smoking cessation (78.6 vs 61.5 %, p = 0.019). The results showed positive influences of Islamic beliefs on the non-smokers. Further studies are required to validate these findings by surveying other universities of Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology*
  15. Fransen HP, Peeters PH, Beulens JW, Boer JM, de Wit GA, Onland-Moret NC, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(5):e0156609.
    PMID: 27244088 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156609
    BACKGROUND: A healthy diet is important for normal growth and development. Exposure to undernutrition during important developmental periods such as childhood and adolescence can have effects later in life. Inhabitants of the west of the Netherlands were exposed to severe undernutrition during the famine in the last winter of the second World War (1944-1945).

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated if exposure of women to the Dutch famine during childhood and adolescence was associated with an unhealthy lifestyle later in life.

    DESIGN: We studied 7,525 women from the Prospect-EPIC cohort, recruited in 1993-97 and aged 0-18 years during the Dutch famine. An individual famine score was calculated based on self-reported information about experience of hunger and weight loss. We investigated the association between famine exposure in early life and four lifestyle factors in adulthood: smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity level and a Mediterranean-style diet.

    RESULTS: Of the 7,525 included women, 46% were unexposed, 38% moderately exposed and 16% severely exposed to the Dutch famine. Moderately and severely exposed women were more often former or current smokers compared to women that did not suffer from the famine: adjusted prevalence ratio 1.10 (95% CI: 1.05; 1.14) and 1.18 (1.12; 1.25), respectively. They also smoked more pack years than unexposed women. Severely exposed women were more often physically inactive than unexposed women, adjusted prevalence ratio 1.32 (1.06; 1.64). Results did not differ between exposure age categories (0-9 and 10-17 years). We found no associations of famine exposure with alcohol consumption and no dose-dependent relations with diet.

    CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to famine early in female life may be associated with higher prevalence of smoking and physical inactivity later in life, but not with unhealthy diet and alcohol consumption.

    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology*
  16. Seo DC, Torabi MR, Kim N, Lee CG, Choe S
    Am J Health Behav, 2013 Mar;37(2):199-207.
    PMID: 23026101 DOI: 10.5993/AJHB.37.2.7
    OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among East Asian college students.
    METHODS: Data were collected from college students (N=16,558) in China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan (response rate: 78%).
    RESULTS: Religion was independently associated with college students' smoking in China (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.82) and South Korea (AOR = 0.80). Being a heavy drinker and having a higher exposure to secondhand smoke were associated with higher smoking rates (Ps < .001).
    CONCLUSIONS: The East Asian economies show a varied prevalence of college smoking but a similar pattern of relationship with its correlates.
    Study site: 21 institutions in 6 East Asian economies: 3 colleges each from Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, and South Korea; 4 colleges from Taiwan; and 5 colleges from China.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology*
  17. Al-Kubaisy W, Abdullah NN, Al-Nuaimy H, Halawany G, Kurdy S
    East. Mediterr. Health J., 2012 Jul;18(7):723-7.
    PMID: 22891520
    There is a lack of data on tobacco use in the Syrian Arab Republic. This cross-sectional questionnaire survey estimated the prevalence of smoking among university students in Damascus and identified factors related to smoking. Among the 583 respondents, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking was 20.8%. The mean age of smokers [25 (SD 2.2) years] was significantly higher than non-smokers [21 (SD 1.8) years]. Smoking prevalence among males (26.1%) was significantly higher than among females (9.5%). However, female students consumed a significantly higher number of cigarettes per day than did males [mean 21 (SD 5) versus 9 (SD 2)]. The smoking prevalence among students in non-health faculties (27.8%) was significantly higher than that of health professional students (14.5%) and was higher among students living away from their families (27.8%) than those living with their families (16.2%). The study raised concerns about smoking in student residences and women's smoking patterns.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology*
  18. Muthupalaniappen L, Omar J, Omar K, Iryani T, Hamid SN
    PMID: 23431837
    We carried out a cross sectional study to detect emotional and behavioral problems among adolescents who smoke and their help-seeking behavior. This study was conducted in Sarawak, East Malaysia, between July and September 2006. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured using the Youth Self-Report (YSR/11-18) questionnaire; help seeking behavior was assessed using a help-seeking questionnaire. Three hundred ninety-nine students participated in the study; the smoking prevalence was 32.8%. The mean scores for emotional and behavioral problems were higher among smokers than non-smokers in all domains (internalizing, p = 0.028; externalizing, p = 0.001; other behavior, p = 0.001). The majority of students who smoked (94.7%) did not seek help from a primary health care provider for their emotional or behavioral problems. Common barriers to help-seeking were: the perception their problems were trivial (60.3%) and the preference to solve problems on their own (45.8%). Our findings suggest adolescent smokers in Sarawak, East Malaysia were more likely to break rules, exhibit aggressive behavior and have somatic complaints than non-smoking adolescents. Adolescent smokers preferred to seek help for their problems from informal sources. Physicians treating adolescents should inquire about smoking habits, emotional and behavioral problems and offer counseling if required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology*
  19. Sidek NN, Azmi IK, Hamidon BB, Looi I, Zariah AA, Hanip MR
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Jun;67(3):302-4.
    PMID: 23082422 MyJurnal
    The National Stroke Registry (NSR) was established in 2009 under National Neurology Registry (NNeuR) . The main objectives of NSR were to describe the demographic and disease pattern of stroke patients in Malaysia, to examine the risk factors and evaluate the specified treatment and outcomes. This prospective observational study was carried out from August 2009 until December 2010 using a standardized case report form which involved two participating hospital, namely Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah, Kuala Terengganu and Hospital Seberang Jaya, Pulau Pinang. There were 1018 patients registered. Ischemic stroke accounted for the majority of cases (73.3%). The most common risk factor was hypertension (75.5 %), followed by diabetes mellitus, previous stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA), hyperlipidemia and active smoker: 45.6%, 25.1%, 22.4%, and 19.4%, respectively. Overall, our stroke management, based on nine stroke key performance indicators (KPI) still needs to be improved. There was a total of 121 mortality cases with the main contributing factor was massive cerebral bleed (21.6%). In conclusion, the findings highlight the important of primary and secondary stroke management. Further and continuous observation with more site date provider (SDP) involvement is needed to get a more comprehensive data on stroke in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology
  20. Al-Naggar RA, Bobryshev YV
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(11):5627-32.
    PMID: 23317228
    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of shisha smoking and associated factors among medical students in Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Management and Science University from December 2011 until March 2012. The questionnaire consisted of five sections including socio-demographic, social environment, knowledge about shisha, psychosocial factors, and personal shisha smoking behavior. Obtained data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 13). T-test was used to determine the relationships between shisha smoking and socio-demographic characteristic.

    RESULTS: A total number of 300 medical students participated in this study. Mean age was 22.5±2.5 years. The majority were female, Malay, single, from urban areas (67%, 54%, 97%, 73%; respectively). The prevalence of shisha smoking among medical students was found to be 20%. The study revealed that many students believed that shisha does not contains nicotine, carbon monoxide, does not lead to lung cancer, dental problems and does not lead to cardiovascular diseases (25%, 20.7%, 22.3%, 29%, 26.7%; respectively). Age and sex were found to be significantly associated with smoking shisha status among medical students (p=0.029, p<0.001; respectively). Furthermore, having parents, siblings and friends smokers of shisha were found to be significantly associated with shisha smoking status (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001; respectively). Furthermore, family problems, problems with friends, financial problems and university life were found to significantly associated with shisha smoking status among medical students (p<0.001, p=0.002, p<0.001, p=0.002; respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of shisha smoking and a poor knowledge about its impact on health among medical students. More attention is needed to focus on medical education in this regard. The policies that are currently employed in order to reduce the cigarettes smoking should be applied to shisha smoking and shisha products.

    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology*
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