Hard structures of helminths have often been used for taxonomic identification but are usually not clearly defined when treated with conventional methods such as ammonium picrate-glycerin for monogeneans and glycerin for nematodes. The present study reports a rapid and simple technique to better resolve the hard parts of selected monogeneans and nematodes using 5-10% alkaline sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). In comparison with established methods, SDS-treated worms become more transparent. In monogeneans treated with SDS, clear details of the hooks, hook filaments, anchors, bars and the sclerotized copulatory organs could be observed. In SDS-treated nematodes, spicules and ornamentations of the buccal capsules could be clearly seen.
Micellar properties of binary mixed surfactants of a surface active mixed copper(II) chelate, [Cu(C12-tmed)(acac)Cl] (where C12-tmed is N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-dodecylethylenediamine) with three common surfactants, viz. sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12E8), were investigated by surface tensiometry, ESR, and UV-visible absorption techniques. The surface tension data were treated with Rubingh's method for mixed micelle formation and Rosen's method for mixed monolayer formation at the aqueous solution/air interface. It was found that in the mixed micelle there is strong attractive interaction between cationic copper surfactant and anonic dodecyl sulfate while there is almost ideal mixing between copper surfactant and CTAB and C12E8. From the ESR and UV-visible studies, a mixed block-type arrangement of head groups is proposed. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press
A bacterium capable of biodegrading surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was isolated from Antarctic soil. The isolate was tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain DRY15 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GN plates and partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny. Growth characteristic studies showed that the bacterium grew optimally at 10 degrees C, 7.25 pH, 1 g l(-1) SDS as a sole carbon source and 2 g l(-1) ammonium sulphate as nitrogen source. Growth was completely inhibited at 5 g l(-1) SDS. At a tolerable initial concentration of 2 g l(-1), approximately 90% of SDS was degraded after an incubation period of eight days. The best growth kinetic model to fit experimental data was the Haldane model of substrate inhibition with a correlation coefficient value of 0.97. The maximum growth rate was 0.372 hr(-1) while the saturation constant or half velocity constant (Ks) and inhibition constant (Ki), were 0.094% and 11.212 % SDS, respectively. Other detergent tested as carbon sources at 1 g l(-1) was Tergitol NP9, Tergitol 15S9, Witconol 2301 (methyl oleate), sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), benzethonium chloride, and benzalkonium chloride showed Tergitol NP9, Tergitol 15S9, Witconol 2301 and the anionic SDBS supported growth with the highest growth exhibited by SDBS.
The separation of enantiomers is one of the important fields of modern analytical chemistry, especially for agrochemical and pharmaceutical products because the stereochemistry has a significant influence on the biological activities of compounds. Cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) has become an important capillary electrophoresis mode for enantioseparations. Here, we describe an example of a CD-MEKC method using hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin as chiral selector and sodium dodecyl sulfate as micellar solution for enantioseparation of triazole fungicides and the drug econazole.
ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method using different molar ratios of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as structure directing agents. The effect of surfactants on the morphology of the ZnO crystals was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The results indicate that the mixture of cationic-anionic surfactants can significantly modify the shape and size of ZnO particles. Various structures such as flakes, sheets, rods, spheres, flowers and triangular-like particles sized from micro to nano were obtained. In order to examine the possible changes in other properties of ZnO, characterizations like powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG), FTIR, surface area and porosity and UV-visible spectroscopy analysis were also studied and discussed.
A cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) technique has been developed for enantioseparation of vinpocetine using an inexpensive 2-hydroxypropyl-β-CD (HP-β-CD) as the chiral selector (CS). The best chiral separation was achieved using 40 mM HP-β-CD as the CS in 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) consisting of 40 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at a separation temperature and separation voltage of 25°C and 25 kV, respectively. To the author's best knowledge, this is the first CD-MEKC study able to successfully separate the four stereoisomer of vinpocetine in separation time of 9.5 min and resolution of 1.04-3.87.
This work aimed to develop a chiral separation method of ketoconazole enantiomers using electrokinetic chromatography. The separation was achieved using heptakis (2, 3, 6-tri-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (TMβCD), a commonly used chiral selector (CS), as it is relatively inexpensive and has a low UV absorbance in addition to an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The influence of TMβCD concentration, phosphate buffer concentration, SDS concentration, buffer pH, and applied voltage were investigated. The optimum conditions for chiral separation of ketoconazole was achieved using 10 mM phosphate buffer at pH 2.5 containing 20 mM TMβCD, 5 mM SDS, and 1.0% (v/v) methanol with an applied voltage of 25 kV at 25 °C with a 5-s injection time (hydrodynamic injection). The four ketoconazole stereoisomers were successfully resolved for the first time within 17 min (total analysis time was 28 min including capillary conditioning). The migration time precision of this method was examined to give repeatability and reproducibility with RSDs ≤5.80% (n =3) and RSDs ≤8.88% (n =9), respectively.
Colloidal gas aphron dispersions (CGAs) can be described as a system of microbubbles suspended homogenously in a liquid matrix. This work examines the performance of CGAs in comparison to surfactant solutions for washing low levels of arsenic from an iron rich soil. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and saponin, a biodegradable surfactant, obtained from Sapindus mukorossi or soapnut fruit were used for generating CGAs and solutions for soil washing. Column washing experiments were performed in down-flow and up flow modes at a soil pH of 5 and 6 using varying concentration of SDS and soapnut solutions as well as CGAs. Soapnut CGAs removed more than 70% arsenic while SDS CGAs removed up to 55% arsenic from the soil columns in the soil pH range of 5-6. CGAs and solutions showed comparable performances in all the cases. CGAs were more economical since it contains 35% of air by volume, thereby requiring less surfactant. Micellar solubilization and low pH of soapnut facilitated arsenic desorption from soil column. FT-IR analysis of effluent suggested that soapnut solution did not interact chemically with arsenic thereby facilitating the recovery of soapnut solution by precipitating the arsenic. Damage to soil was minimal arsenic confirmed by metal dissolution from soil surface and SEM micrograph.
Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is one of the main components in the detergent and cosmetic industries. Its bioremediation by suitable microorganism has begun to receive greater attention as the amount of SDS usage increases to a point where treatment plants would not be able to cope with the increasing amount of SDS in wastewater. The purpose of this work was to isolate local SDS-degrading bacteria. Screening was carried out by the conventional enrichment-culture technique. Six SDS-degrading bacteria were isolated. Of these isolates, isolate S14 showed the highest degradation of SDS with 90% degradation after three days of incubation. Isolate S14 was tentatively identified as Klebsiella oxytoca strain DRY14 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GN plates and partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny. SDS degradation by the bacterium was optimum at 37 degrees 0. Ammonium sulphate; at 2.0 g l(-1), was found to be the best nitrogen source for the growth of strain DRY14. Maximum growth on SDS was observed at pH 7.25. The strain exhibited optimum growth at SDS concentration of 2.0 g l(-1) and was completely inhibited at 10 g l(-1) SDS. At the tolerable initial concentration of 2.0 g l(-1), almost 80% of 2.0 g l(-1) SDS was degraded after 4 days of incubation concomitant with increase in cellular growth. The K(m(app) and V(max(app)) values calculated for the alkylsulfatase from this bacterium were 0.1 mM SDS and 1.07 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, respectively.
The aim of this work is to convert agroforestry residue to a novel adsorbent (M-1CTA-SDS-BT) used for adsorptive benzene sequestration from aqueous solution. In this study, the anionic surfactant-coated-cationized banana trunk was synthesized and characterized for batch adsorption of benzene from aqueous solution. The surface morphology, surface chemistry, surface area, and pore properties of the synthesized adsorbents were examined. It was proven that surface cationization successfully increased the benzene adsorption capacity of sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated adsorbents. The Langmuir isotherm model satisfactorily described the equilibrium adsorption data. The maximum benzene adsorption capacity (qmax) of 468.19 μmol/g was attained. The kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model in which the rate-limiting step was proven to be the film diffusion. The batch-adsorbent regeneration results indicated that the M-1CTA-SDS-BT could withstand at least five adsorption/desorption cycles without drastic adsorption capacity reduction. The findings demonstrated the adsorptive potential of agroforestry-based adsorbent as a natural and cheap material for benzene removal from contaminated water.
The aim was to examine the protein profiles of whole and parotid saliva using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The banding patterns of proteins exhibited by the unstimulated whole saliva samples on the gel remained quite constant but the intensity of the protein bands were slightly different from one sample to another. Comparison of the protein profiles of unstimulated whole saliva and stimulated parotid saliva showed almost similar banding pattern. The exception is the presence of a pink protein band in the 65-67 kD region in the stimulated parotid saliva samples which was also observed in the unstimulated whole saliva sample contributed by a cerebral palsy patient. Analysis of the saliva samples using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry also revealed that the stimulated parotid saliva samples exhibited some peaks that were in the same region as those for the unstimulated whole saliva sample of the cerebral palsy subject. This may imply that there is ineffective control of the parotid secretion in cerebral palsy subject under unstimulated condition. The SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analyses may provide more information on the profiles of the salivary proteins which could be beneficial in the diagnosis of salivary gland dysfunction.
The study examined the protein profile of Pectoralis major muscle in broiler chickens subjected to different freezing and thawing methods. Pectoralis major muscle was excised from the carcasses of twenty broiler chickens and split into left and right halves. The left half was subjected to slow freezing (-20oC) while the right half was rapidly frozen (-80oC). The samples were stored at their respective temperature for 2 weeks and assigned to either of tap water (27oC, 30 min), room temperature (26oC, 60 min), microwave (750W, 10 min) or chiller (4oC, 6 h) thawing. Changes in myofibrillar proteins following the thawing methods were monitored through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The electrophoretic profile indicated differences (p < 0.05) in intensities of the components of myofibrillar proteins among the thawing methods in both slow and rapidly frozen samples. Chiller thawing had significantly higher (p < 0.05) protein concentration than other methods in rapidly frozen samples. However, in slow freezing, there were no significant differences in protein concentration among the thawing methods. In rapidly frozen samples, the protein optical densities at molecular weight of 21, 27, 55 and 151kDa in tap water, chiller and room temperature thawing did not differ (p < 0.05). Similarly, in slowly frozen samples, protein optical densities at molecular weight of 21, 27, 85 and 151 kDa were not significantly different among chill, tap water and room temperature thawing. Microwave thawing consistently caused higher protein degradation resulting in significantly lower (p < 0.05) protein quality and quantity in both freezing methods.
Gelatin is widely used in food and pharmaceutical products. However, the addition of gelatin especially in food products becomes a controversial issue among Muslims due to its animal origin. Thus, the present study was aimed to detect and differentiate the origin of gelatin added in processed foods using a combination method of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Porcine gelatin had exhibited 11 prominent polypeptides compared to bovine gelatin with 2 prominent polypeptides. Polypeptides of both gelatin sources at molecular weight ranged from 53 to 220 kDa can be used to differentiate between porcine and bovine gelatins using PCA. The efficiency in extracting gelatin from processed foods by different solutions was also evaluated. Extraction of gelatin in processed foods by cold acetone and deionised water had exhibited a similar polypeptide patterns, suggesting both solutions are suitable. The study indicated that approach of a simple gelatin extraction combined with SDS-PAGE and PCA, may provide robust information for gelatin species differentiation of processed foods.
Oil palm is the major crop grown and cultivated in various Asian countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand.
The core of oil palm trunk (COPT) consists of high sugar content, hence suitable for synthesis of fine chemicals and
biofuels. Increase of sugar content was reported previously during prolonged COPT storage. However, until now, there
has been no report on protein profiles during storage. Therefore, in this study, protein expression of the COPT during the
storage period of one to six weeks was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
(SDS-PAGE) coupled with optical density quantification and multivariate analyses for measuring differentially expressed
proteins. Accordingly, protein bands were subjected to tryptic digestion followed by tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLCMS/MS)
protein identification. The results from SDS-PAGE showed consistent protein bands appearing across the biological
replicates ranging from 10.455 to 202.92 kDa molecular weight (MW) regions. The findings from the principal component
analysis (PCA) plot illustrated the separation pattern of the proteins at weeks 4 and 5 of storage, which was influenced
mainly by the molecular weights of 14.283, 25.543, 29.757, 30.549, 31.511, 34.585 and 84.395 kDa, respectively. The
majority of these proteins are identified as those involved in stress- and defense-related, disease resistance, as well
as gene/protein expression processes. Indeed, these proteins were mostly upregulated during the later storage period
suggesting that long-term storage may influence the molecular regulation of COPT sap.
Environmental monitoring is important to determine the extent of eco-system pollution and degradation so that effective remedial strategies can be formulated. In this study, an environmentally friendly and cost-effective sensor made up of novel carbon electrode modified with cellulose and hydroxyapatite was developed for the detection of trace lead ions in aqueous system and palm oil mill effluent. Zinc, cadmium, and copper with lead were simultaneously detected using this method. The electrode exhibited high tolerance towards twelve common metal ions and three model surface active substances - sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Under optimum conditions, the sensor detected lead ions in palm oil mill effluent in the concentration range of 10-50 μg/L with 0.11 ± 0.37 μg/L limit of detection and 0.37 ± 0.37 μg/L limit of quantification. The validation using tap water, blood serum and palm oil mill effluent samples and compared with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, suggested excellent sensitivity of the sensor to detect lead ions in simple and complex matrices. The cellulose produced based on "green" techniques from agro-lignocellulosic wastes, in combination with hydroxyapatite, were proven effective as components in the carbon electrode composite. It has great potential in both clinical and environmental use.
Extracellular matrix (ECM) based bioscaffolds prepared by decellularization has increasingly emerged in tissue engineering application because it has structural, biochemical, and biomechanical cues that have dramatic effects upon cell behaviors. Therefore, we developed a closed sonication decellularization system to prepare ideal bioscaffolds with minimal adverse effects on the ECM. The decellularization was achieved at 170 kHz of ultrasound frequency in 0.1% and 2% Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) solution for 10 hours. The immersion treatment as control was performed to compare the decellularization efficiency with our system. Cell removal and ECM structure were determined by histological staining and biochemical assay. Biomechanical properties were investigated by the indentation testing to test the stiffness, a residual force and compression of bioscaffolds. Additionally, in vivo implantation was performed in rat to investigate host tissue response. Compared to native tissues, histological staining and biochemical assay confirm the absence of cellularity with preservation of ECM structure. Moreover, sonication treatment has not affected the stiffness [N/mm] and a residual force [N] of the aortic scaffolds except for compression [%] which 2% SDS significantly decreased compared to native tissues showing higher SDS has a detrimental effect on ECM structure. Finally, minimal inflammatory response was observed after 1 and 5 weeks of implantation. This study reported that the novelty of our developed closed sonication system to prepare ideal bioscaffolds for tissue engineering applications.
This is a review article on the rheological properties of mixed solutions of sulfonated methyl esters (SME) and cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB), which are related to the synergistic growth of giant micelles. Effects of additives, such as fatty alcohols, cocamide monoethanolamine (CMEA) and salt, which are expected to boost the growth of wormlike micelles, are studied. We report and systematize the most significant observed effects with an emphasis on the interpretation at molecular level and understanding the rheological behavior of these systems. The experiments show that the mixing of SME and CAPB produces a significant rise of viscosity, which is greater than in the mixed solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate and CAPB. The addition of fatty alcohols, CMEA and cationic polymer, leads to broadening of the synergistic peak in viscosity without any pronounced effect on its height. The addition of NaCl leads to a typical salt curve with high maximum, but in the presence of dodecanol this maximum is much lower. At lower salt concentrations, the fatty alcohol acts as a thickener, whereas at higher salt concentrations - as a thinning agent. Depending on the shape of the frequency dependences of the measured storage and loss moduli, G' and G", the investigated micellar solutions behave as systems of standard or nonstandard rheological behavior. The systems with standard behavior obey the Maxwell viscoelastic model (at least) up to the crossover point (G' = G") and can be analyzed in terms of the Cates reptation-reaction model. The systems with nonstandard rheological behavior obey the Maxwell model only in a restricted domain below the crossover frequency; they can be analyzed in the framework of an augmented version of the Maxwell model. The methodology for data analysis and interpretation could be applied to any other viscoelastic micellar system.
Bacteria with the ability to tolerate, remove, and/or degrade several xenobiotics simultaneously are urgently needed for remediation of polluted sites. A previously isolated bacterium with sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS-) degrading capacity was found to be able to reduce molybdenum to the nontoxic molybdenum blue. The optimal pH, carbon source, molybdate concentration, and temperature supporting molybdate reduction were pH 7.0, glucose at 1.5% (w/v), between 25 and 30 mM, and 25°C, respectively. The optimum phosphate concentration for molybdate reduction was 5 mM. The Mo-blue produced exhibits an absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. None of the respiratory inhibitors tested showed any inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing activity suggesting that the electron transport system of this bacterium is not the site of molybdenum reduction. Chromium, cadmium, silver, copper, mercury, and lead caused approximately 77, 65, 77, 89, 80, and 80% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity, respectively. Ferrous and stannous ions markedly increased the activity of molybdenum-reducing activity in this bacterium. The maximum tolerable concentration of SDS as a cocontaminant was 3 g/L. The characteristics of this bacterium make it a suitable candidate for molybdenum bioremediation of sites cocontaminated with detergent pollutant.
Extraction of protease from a local ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale var. Bentong) was carried out. The effect of extraction pH (6.4, 6.8, 7.0, 7.2, 7.6, 8.0, 8.4, and 8.8) and stabilizers (0.2% ascorbic acid, 0.2% ascorbic acid and 5 mM EDTA, or 10 mM cysteine and 5 mM EDTA) on protease activity during extraction was examined. pH 7.0 potassium phosphate buffer and 10 mM cysteine in combination with 5 mM EDTA as stabilizer were found to be the most effective conditions. The extraction procedure yielded 0.73% of Bentong ginger protease (BGP) with a specific activity of 24.8±0.2 U/mg protein. Inhibitory tests with some protease inhibitors classified the enzyme as a cysteine protease. The protease showed optimum activity at 60 °C and pH 6-8, respectively. The enzyme was completely inhibited by heavy metal cations such as Cu2+, and Hg2+. SDS stimulated the activity of enzyme, while emulsifiers (Tween 80 and Tween 20) slightly reduced its activity. The kinetic analysis showed that the protease has Km and Vmax values of 0.21 mg mL-1 and 34.48 mg mL-1 min-1, respectively. The dried enzyme retained its activity for 22 months when stored at -20 °C.