Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 36 in total

  1. Wong WL, Tan WB, Lim LH
    J. Helminthol., 2006 Mar;80(1):87-90.
    PMID: 16469180
    Hard structures of helminths have often been used for taxonomic identification but are usually not clearly defined when treated with conventional methods such as ammonium picrate-glycerin for monogeneans and glycerin for nematodes. The present study reports a rapid and simple technique to better resolve the hard parts of selected monogeneans and nematodes using 5-10% alkaline sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). In comparison with established methods, SDS-treated worms become more transparent. In monogeneans treated with SDS, clear details of the hooks, hook filaments, anchors, bars and the sclerotized copulatory organs could be observed. In SDS-treated nematodes, spicules and ornamentations of the buccal capsules could be clearly seen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate*
  2. Lim YY, Lim KH
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 1997 Dec 01;196(1):116-9.
    PMID: 9441659
    Micellar properties of binary mixed surfactants of a surface active mixed copper(II) chelate, [Cu(C12-tmed)(acac)Cl] (where C12-tmed is N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-dodecylethylenediamine) with three common surfactants, viz. sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12E8), were investigated by surface tensiometry, ESR, and UV-visible absorption techniques. The surface tension data were treated with Rubingh's method for mixed micelle formation and Rosen's method for mixed monolayer formation at the aqueous solution/air interface. It was found that in the mixed micelle there is strong attractive interaction between cationic copper surfactant and anonic dodecyl sulfate while there is almost ideal mixing between copper surfactant and CTAB and C12E8. From the ESR and UV-visible studies, a mixed block-type arrangement of head groups is proposed. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
  3. Ibrahim WA, Hermawan D, Sanagi MM
    Methods Mol. Biol., 2013;970:349-61.
    PMID: 23283789 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-62703-263-6_22
    The separation of enantiomers is one of the important fields of modern analytical chemistry, especially for agrochemical and pharmaceutical products because the stereochemistry has a significant influence on the biological activities of compounds. Cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) has become an important capillary electrophoresis mode for enantioseparations. Here, we describe an example of a CD-MEKC method using hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin as chiral selector and sodium dodecyl sulfate as micellar solution for enantioseparation of triazole fungicides and the drug econazole.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/chemistry
  4. Ramimoghadam D, Hussein MZ, Taufiq-Yap YH
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(10):13275-93.
    PMID: 23202952 DOI: 10.3390/ijms131013275
    ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method using different molar ratios of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as structure directing agents. The effect of surfactants on the morphology of the ZnO crystals was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The results indicate that the mixture of cationic-anionic surfactants can significantly modify the shape and size of ZnO particles. Various structures such as flakes, sheets, rods, spheres, flowers and triangular-like particles sized from micro to nano were obtained. In order to examine the possible changes in other properties of ZnO, characterizations like powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG), FTIR, surface area and porosity and UV-visible spectroscopy analysis were also studied and discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/chemistry*
  5. Wan Ibrahim WA, Arsad SR, Maarof H, Sanagi MM, Aboul-Enein HY
    Chirality, 2015 Mar;27(3):223-7.
    PMID: 25523071 DOI: 10.1002/chir.22416
    This work aimed to develop a chiral separation method of ketoconazole enantiomers using electrokinetic chromatography. The separation was achieved using heptakis (2, 3, 6-tri-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (TMβCD), a commonly used chiral selector (CS), as it is relatively inexpensive and has a low UV absorbance in addition to an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The influence of TMβCD concentration, phosphate buffer concentration, SDS concentration, buffer pH, and applied voltage were investigated. The optimum conditions for chiral separation of ketoconazole was achieved using 10 mM phosphate buffer at pH 2.5 containing 20 mM TMβCD, 5 mM SDS, and 1.0% (v/v) methanol with an applied voltage of 25 kV at 25 °C with a 5-s injection time (hydrodynamic injection). The four ketoconazole stereoisomers were successfully resolved for the first time within 17 min (total analysis time was 28 min including capillary conditioning). The migration time precision of this method was examined to give repeatability and reproducibility with RSDs ≤5.80% (n =3) and RSDs ≤8.88% (n =9), respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/chemistry
  6. Wan Ibrahim WA, Abd Wahib SM, Hermawan D, Sanagi MM, Aboul-Enein HY
    Chirality, 2012 Mar;24(3):252-4.
    PMID: 22271616 DOI: 10.1002/chir.21990
    A cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) technique has been developed for enantioseparation of vinpocetine using an inexpensive 2-hydroxypropyl-β-CD (HP-β-CD) as the chiral selector (CS). The best chiral separation was achieved using 40 mM HP-β-CD as the CS in 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) consisting of 40 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at a separation temperature and separation voltage of 25°C and 25 kV, respectively. To the author's best knowledge, this is the first CD-MEKC study able to successfully separate the four stereoisomer of vinpocetine in separation time of 9.5 min and resolution of 1.04-3.87.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/chemistry
  7. Shukor MY, Husin WS, Rahman MF, Shamaan NA, Syed MA
    J Environ Biol, 2009 Jan;30(1):129-34.
    PMID: 20112874
    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is one of the main components in the detergent and cosmetic industries. Its bioremediation by suitable microorganism has begun to receive greater attention as the amount of SDS usage increases to a point where treatment plants would not be able to cope with the increasing amount of SDS in wastewater. The purpose of this work was to isolate local SDS-degrading bacteria. Screening was carried out by the conventional enrichment-culture technique. Six SDS-degrading bacteria were isolated. Of these isolates, isolate S14 showed the highest degradation of SDS with 90% degradation after three days of incubation. Isolate S14 was tentatively identified as Klebsiella oxytoca strain DRY14 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GN plates and partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny. SDS degradation by the bacterium was optimum at 37 degrees 0. Ammonium sulphate; at 2.0 g l(-1), was found to be the best nitrogen source for the growth of strain DRY14. Maximum growth on SDS was observed at pH 7.25. The strain exhibited optimum growth at SDS concentration of 2.0 g l(-1) and was completely inhibited at 10 g l(-1) SDS. At the tolerable initial concentration of 2.0 g l(-1), almost 80% of 2.0 g l(-1) SDS was degraded after 4 days of incubation concomitant with increase in cellular growth. The K(m(app) and V(max(app)) values calculated for the alkylsulfatase from this bacterium were 0.1 mM SDS and 1.07 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/metabolism*
  8. Mukhopadhyay S, Mukherjee S, Hashim MA, Sen Gupta B
    Chemosphere, 2015 Jan;119:355-362.
    PMID: 25061940 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.06.087
    Colloidal gas aphron dispersions (CGAs) can be described as a system of microbubbles suspended homogenously in a liquid matrix. This work examines the performance of CGAs in comparison to surfactant solutions for washing low levels of arsenic from an iron rich soil. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and saponin, a biodegradable surfactant, obtained from Sapindus mukorossi or soapnut fruit were used for generating CGAs and solutions for soil washing. Column washing experiments were performed in down-flow and up flow modes at a soil pH of 5 and 6 using varying concentration of SDS and soapnut solutions as well as CGAs. Soapnut CGAs removed more than 70% arsenic while SDS CGAs removed up to 55% arsenic from the soil columns in the soil pH range of 5-6. CGAs and solutions showed comparable performances in all the cases. CGAs were more economical since it contains 35% of air by volume, thereby requiring less surfactant. Micellar solubilization and low pH of soapnut facilitated arsenic desorption from soil column. FT-IR analysis of effluent suggested that soapnut solution did not interact chemically with arsenic thereby facilitating the recovery of soapnut solution by precipitating the arsenic. Damage to soil was minimal arsenic confirmed by metal dissolution from soil surface and SEM micrograph.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/chemistry
  9. Halmi MI, Hussin WS, Aqlima A, Syed MA, Ruberto L, MacCormack WP, et al.
    J Environ Biol, 2013 Nov;34(6):1077-82.
    PMID: 24555340
    A bacterium capable of biodegrading surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was isolated from Antarctic soil. The isolate was tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain DRY15 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GN plates and partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny. Growth characteristic studies showed that the bacterium grew optimally at 10 degrees C, 7.25 pH, 1 g l(-1) SDS as a sole carbon source and 2 g l(-1) ammonium sulphate as nitrogen source. Growth was completely inhibited at 5 g l(-1) SDS. At a tolerable initial concentration of 2 g l(-1), approximately 90% of SDS was degraded after an incubation period of eight days. The best growth kinetic model to fit experimental data was the Haldane model of substrate inhibition with a correlation coefficient value of 0.97. The maximum growth rate was 0.372 hr(-1) while the saturation constant or half velocity constant (Ks) and inhibition constant (Ki), were 0.094% and 11.212 % SDS, respectively. Other detergent tested as carbon sources at 1 g l(-1) was Tergitol NP9, Tergitol 15S9, Witconol 2301 (methyl oleate), sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), benzethonium chloride, and benzalkonium chloride showed Tergitol NP9, Tergitol 15S9, Witconol 2301 and the anionic SDBS supported growth with the highest growth exhibited by SDBS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/metabolism*
  10. Kong H, Saman N, Tee PN, Cheu SC, Song ST, Johari K, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Apr;26(11):11140-11152.
    PMID: 30796666 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-04248-5
    The aim of this work is to convert agroforestry residue to a novel adsorbent (M-1CTA-SDS-BT) used for adsorptive benzene sequestration from aqueous solution. In this study, the anionic surfactant-coated-cationized banana trunk was synthesized and characterized for batch adsorption of benzene from aqueous solution. The surface morphology, surface chemistry, surface area, and pore properties of the synthesized adsorbents were examined. It was proven that surface cationization successfully increased the benzene adsorption capacity of sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated adsorbents. The Langmuir isotherm model satisfactorily described the equilibrium adsorption data. The maximum benzene adsorption capacity (qmax) of 468.19 μmol/g was attained. The kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model in which the rate-limiting step was proven to be the film diffusion. The batch-adsorbent regeneration results indicated that the M-1CTA-SDS-BT could withstand at least five adsorption/desorption cycles without drastic adsorption capacity reduction. The findings demonstrated the adsorptive potential of agroforestry-based adsorbent as a natural and cheap material for benzene removal from contaminated water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/chemistry*
  11. Huq, N.L., DeAngelis, A., Rahim, Z.H.A., Ung, M., Lucas, J., Cross, K.J., et al.
    Ann Dent, 2004;11(1):-.
    The aim was to examine the protein profiles of whole and parotid saliva using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The banding patterns of proteins exhibited by the unstimulated whole saliva samples on the gel remained quite constant but the intensity of the protein bands were slightly different from one sample to another. Comparison of the protein profiles of unstimulated whole saliva and stimulated parotid saliva showed almost similar banding pattern. The exception is the presence of a pink protein band in the 65-67 kD region in the stimulated parotid saliva samples which was also observed in the unstimulated whole saliva sample contributed by a cerebral palsy patient. Analysis of the saliva samples using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry also revealed that the stimulated parotid saliva samples exhibited some peaks that were in the same region as those for the unstimulated whole saliva sample of the cerebral palsy subject. This may imply that there is ineffective control of the parotid secretion in cerebral palsy subject under unstimulated condition. The SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analyses may provide more information on the profiles of the salivary proteins which could be beneficial in the diagnosis of salivary gland dysfunction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
  12. Nur Azira, T., Amin, I., Che Man, Y. B.
    Gelatin is widely used in food and pharmaceutical products. However, the addition of gelatin especially in food products becomes a controversial issue among Muslims due to its animal origin. Thus, the present study was aimed to detect and differentiate the origin of gelatin added in processed foods using a combination method of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Porcine gelatin had exhibited 11 prominent polypeptides compared to bovine gelatin with 2 prominent polypeptides. Polypeptides of both gelatin sources at molecular weight ranged from 53 to 220 kDa can be used to differentiate between porcine and bovine gelatins using PCA. The efficiency in extracting gelatin from processed foods by different solutions was also evaluated. Extraction of gelatin in processed foods by cold acetone and deionised water had exhibited a similar polypeptide patterns, suggesting both solutions are suitable. The study indicated that approach of a simple gelatin extraction combined with SDS-PAGE and PCA, may provide robust information for gelatin species differentiation of processed foods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
  13. Adeyemi, K.D., Mislan, N., Aghwan, Z.A., Sarah, S.A., Sazili, A.Q.
    The study examined the protein profile of Pectoralis major muscle in broiler chickens subjected to different freezing and thawing methods. Pectoralis major muscle was excised from the carcasses of twenty broiler chickens and split into left and right halves. The left half was subjected to slow freezing (-20oC) while the right half was rapidly frozen (-80oC). The samples were stored at their respective temperature for 2 weeks and assigned to either of tap water (27oC, 30 min), room temperature (26oC, 60 min), microwave (750W, 10 min) or chiller (4oC, 6 h) thawing. Changes in myofibrillar proteins following the thawing methods were monitored through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The electrophoretic profile indicated differences (p < 0.05) in intensities of the components of myofibrillar proteins among the thawing methods in both slow and rapidly frozen samples. Chiller thawing had significantly higher (p < 0.05) protein concentration than other methods in rapidly frozen samples. However, in slow freezing, there were no significant differences in protein concentration among the thawing methods. In rapidly frozen samples, the protein optical densities at molecular weight of 21, 27, 55 and 151kDa in tap water, chiller and room temperature thawing did not differ (p < 0.05). Similarly, in slowly frozen samples, protein optical densities at molecular weight of 21, 27, 85 and 151 kDa were not significantly different among chill, tap water and room temperature thawing. Microwave thawing consistently caused higher protein degradation resulting in significantly lower (p < 0.05) protein quality and quantity in both freezing methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
  14. Marhaini Mostapha, Noorhasmiera Abu Jahar, Sarani Zakaria, Sharifah Nabihah Syed Jaafar, Kamalrul Azlan Azizan, Wan Mohd Aizat
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1259-1268.
    Oil palm is the major crop grown and cultivated in various Asian countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand.
    The core of oil palm trunk (COPT) consists of high sugar content, hence suitable for synthesis of fine chemicals and
    biofuels. Increase of sugar content was reported previously during prolonged COPT storage. However, until now, there
    has been no report on protein profiles during storage. Therefore, in this study, protein expression of the COPT during the
    storage period of one to six weeks was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
    (SDS-PAGE) coupled with optical density quantification and multivariate analyses for measuring differentially expressed
    proteins. Accordingly, protein bands were subjected to tryptic digestion followed by tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLCMS/MS)
    protein identification. The results from SDS-PAGE showed consistent protein bands appearing across the biological
    replicates ranging from 10.455 to 202.92 kDa molecular weight (MW) regions. The findings from the principal component
    analysis (PCA) plot illustrated the separation pattern of the proteins at weeks 4 and 5 of storage, which was influenced
    mainly by the molecular weights of 14.283, 25.543, 29.757, 30.549, 31.511, 34.585 and 84.395 kDa, respectively. The
    majority of these proteins are identified as those involved in stress- and defense-related, disease resistance, as well
    as gene/protein expression processes. Indeed, these proteins were mostly upregulated during the later storage period
    suggesting that long-term storage may influence the molecular regulation of COPT sap.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
  15. Nafi' A, Ling FH, Bakar J, Ghazali HM
    Molecules, 2014 Aug 15;19(8):12336-48.
    PMID: 25153861 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190812336
    Extraction of protease from a local ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale var. Bentong) was carried out. The effect of extraction pH (6.4, 6.8, 7.0, 7.2, 7.6, 8.0, 8.4, and 8.8) and stabilizers (0.2% ascorbic acid, 0.2% ascorbic acid and 5 mM EDTA, or 10 mM cysteine and 5 mM EDTA) on protease activity during extraction was examined. pH 7.0 potassium phosphate buffer and 10 mM cysteine in combination with 5 mM EDTA as stabilizer were found to be the most effective conditions. The extraction procedure yielded 0.73% of Bentong ginger protease (BGP) with a specific activity of 24.8±0.2 U/mg protein. Inhibitory tests with some protease inhibitors classified the enzyme as a cysteine protease. The protease showed optimum activity at 60 °C and pH 6-8, respectively. The enzyme was completely inhibited by heavy metal cations such as Cu2+, and Hg2+. SDS stimulated the activity of enzyme, while emulsifiers (Tween 80 and Tween 20) slightly reduced its activity. The kinetic analysis showed that the protease has Km and Vmax values of 0.21 mg mL-1 and 34.48 mg mL-1 min-1, respectively. The dried enzyme retained its activity for 22 months when stored at -20 °C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/chemistry
  16. Halmi MI, Zuhainis SW, Yusof MT, Shaharuddin NA, Helmi W, Shukor Y, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:384541.
    PMID: 24383052 DOI: 10.1155/2013/384541
    Bacteria with the ability to tolerate, remove, and/or degrade several xenobiotics simultaneously are urgently needed for remediation of polluted sites. A previously isolated bacterium with sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS-) degrading capacity was found to be able to reduce molybdenum to the nontoxic molybdenum blue. The optimal pH, carbon source, molybdate concentration, and temperature supporting molybdate reduction were pH 7.0, glucose at 1.5% (w/v), between 25 and 30 mM, and 25°C, respectively. The optimum phosphate concentration for molybdate reduction was 5 mM. The Mo-blue produced exhibits an absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. None of the respiratory inhibitors tested showed any inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing activity suggesting that the electron transport system of this bacterium is not the site of molybdenum reduction. Chromium, cadmium, silver, copper, mercury, and lead caused approximately 77, 65, 77, 89, 80, and 80% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity, respectively. Ferrous and stannous ions markedly increased the activity of molybdenum-reducing activity in this bacterium. The maximum tolerable concentration of SDS as a cocontaminant was 3 g/L. The characteristics of this bacterium make it a suitable candidate for molybdenum bioremediation of sites cocontaminated with detergent pollutant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/metabolism*
  17. Chin SC, Abdullah N, Siang TW, Wan HY
    J. Microbiol., 2005 Jun;43(3):251-6.
    PMID: 15995642
    In this study, we assessed the susceptibility of 12 Lactobacillus strains, all of which had been isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of chicken, to three antibiotics (chloramphenicol, erythromycin and tetracycline) used commonly as selective markers in transformation studies of lactic acid bacteria. Among these strains, 17%, 58%, and 25% were found to exhibit a high degree of resistance to 200 microg/ml of tetracycline, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol, respectively. Seven of the 12 Lactobacillus strains exhibiting resistance to at least 50 microg/ml of chloramphenicol or erythromycin, and five strains exhibiting resistance to at least 50 microg/ml of tetracycline, were subsequently subjected to plasmid curing with chemical curing agents, such as novobiocin, acriflavin, SDS, and ethidium bromide. In no cases did the antibiotic resistance of these strains prove to be curable, with the exception of the erythromycin resistance exhibited by five Lactobacillus strains (L. acidophilus I16 and I26, L. fermentum I24 and C17, and L. brevis C10). Analysis of the plasmid profiles of these five cured derivatives revealed that all of the derivatives, except for L. acidophilus I16, possessed profiles similar to those of wild-type strains. The curing of L. acidophilus I16 was accompanied by the loss of 4.4 kb, 6.1 kb, and 11.5 kb plasmids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/pharmacology
  18. Yu G, Hatta A, Periyannan S, Lagudah E, Wulff BBH
    Methods Mol. Biol., 2017;1659:207-213.
    PMID: 28856653 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7249-4_18
    DNA is widely used in plant genetic and molecular biology studies. In this chapter, we describe how to extract DNA from wheat tissues. The tissue samples are ground to disrupt the cell wall. Then cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is used to disrupt the cell and nuclear membranes to release the DNA into solution. A reducing agent, β-mercaptoethanol, is added to break the disulfide bonds between the cysteine residues and to help remove the tanins and polyphenols. A high concentration of salt is employed to remove polysaccharides. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) stops DNase activity by chelating the magnesium ions. The nucleic acid solution is extracted with chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (24:1) or 6 M ammonium acetate. The DNA in aqueous phase is precipated with ethanol or isopropanol, which makes DNA less hydrophilic in the presence of sodium ions (Na+).
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/chemistry
  19. Wong SY, Lee CC, Ashrafzadeh A, Junit SM, Abrahim N, Hashim OH
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(10):e0164993.
    PMID: 27741315 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164993
    Proteome analysis of the human hair remains challenging due to the poor solubility of hair proteins and the difficulty in their extraction. In the present study, we have developed a rapid extraction protocol for hair shaft protein using alkaline-based buffer. The new protocol accelerated the procedure by reducing the extraction time from at least a day to less than two hours and showed a protein recovery of 47.3 ± 3.72%. Further analyses of the extracted protein sample through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis unveiled a total of 60 proteins, including 25 that were not previously reported. Identification of these proteins is anticipated to be crucial in helping to understand the molecular basis of hair for potential applications in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/chemistry
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (tengcl@gmail.com)

External Links