In this data article, we provide energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) spectra of the electrospun composite (SnO2-TiO2) nanowires with the elemental values measured in atomic and weight%. The linear sweep voltammetry data of composite and its component nanofibers are provided. The data collected in this article is directly related to our research article "Synergistic combination of electronic and electrical properties of SnO2 and TiO2 in a single SnO2-TiO2 composite nanowire for dye-sensitized solar cells" .
CaxZn(1_x)Al204thin films (x = 0.00; 0 .05 ; 0.10; 0.15 and 0.20) were prepared by sol-gel method with the substitution of Zn2+ by Ca" in the framework of ZnAl204. The effect of Ca addition on the structure and morphology of CaZnAl204thin films was investigated by x-ray diffraction (xRD), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDx), ultra-violet visible (uv-Vis) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The xRD patterns showed the characteristic peaks of face-centred cubic (fcc)ZnAl204and CaZnAl204. The addition of Ca increased the crystallite size from 8.9 to 302 nm. The bandgap of CaxZnuld204 thin film was found in the range of 3.40 to 3.84 eV. sEm micrograph shows the morphology of all thin films is sphere-like, with the grain size increased from 33 to 123 nm. The AFM images show the roughness of surface morphology increased. The substitution of Zn2+ by Ca" increased the crystallite size, grain size and surface roughness which evidently increased the density (4.59 to 4.64 glcm3) and dielectric constant (8.48 to 9.54). The composition of CaxZn(1_x)Al204is considered as suitable material for GPS patch antennas.
This study investigated the dry and aqueous erosion of mild steel using electrochemical and dry sand impact techniques. In dry sand impact experiments, mild steel was eroded with 45 μm and 150 μm sand particles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and micro-hardness techniques were used to elaborate the surface morphology of the eroded samples. The results revealed significant change in morphology of the eroded samples. In-depth analysis showed that although the metal erosion due to larger particles was significantly higher, the fines also notably damaged the metal surface. The surface damages were appreciably reduced with decrease in impact angle of the accelerated particles. The maximum damages were observed at an impact angle of 90°. The hardness of the samples treated with 45 μm and 150 μm sand remained in the range of 88.34 to 102.31 VHN and 87.7 to 97.55 VHN, respectively. In electrochemical experiments, a triple electrode probe was added into the metal treatment process. The linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements were performed in slurries having 5% (by weight) of sand particles. LPR of the samples treated with 45 μm and 150 μm sand slurries was calculated about 949 Ω.cm(2) and 809 Ω.cm(2), respectively.
Measurement of major cation such as Na+, K+, and Ca2+ in water are normally carried out using
AAS, ICP-OES or flame photometry. In this study, an attempt was made to measure these cations
using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescent Spectrometry (EDXRF). Hot spring s water was taken from varies hot spring in Selangor and divided into two portions that is filtered and unfiltered. 5 mL of water samples were pipette into a special liquid cups (sample holders) which has a thin mylar film underneath. The MiniPal4 XRF instrument was used in this study. The resolution for the instrument use is 145 keV with energy resolution at 5.9 keV. The spectrum of cations were analysed by using MiniPal/MiniMate software to determine the cations concentration. For K+ and Ca2+, Al-thin filter was used and default filter was used for Na+. The concentration of Na+ obtained for filtered and unfiltered samples were ranged from 38.00 to 66.05 and 43.26 to 76.95 ppm. Meanwhile, concentrations of K+ for filtered and unfiltered samples were ranged from 2.42 to 8.07 and 6.18 to 29.28 ppm. Concentrations of Ca2+ for filtered and unfiltered samples were ranged from 2.59 to 10.94 and 3.18 to 12.99 ppm.
This paper examines the chemical elements used as colour additives in cosmetic coloured contact lenses (Cos-CCL) using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (FESEM-EDX) analysis. The samples comprised two different Cos-CCL brands and colours (sample A1-black iris colour & B1-gray iris colour) with their respective clear contact lens counterparts as controls (sample A2 & B2). The parameters of Cos-CCL were observed carefully so that they resembled their respective controls. All the samples were analysed for chemical element characterisation by using EDX spectroscopy surface mapping analysis on both front and back surfaces. EDX spectroscopy point analysis was done on cross-section surface of Cos-CCL when colour additive pattern could not be detected by FESEM on either surface. FESEM-EDX spectroscopy analysis has revealed iron element in the colour additives of the A1 sample and aluminium elements in the B2 sample. These two elements were not present in the respective control samples. It can be concluded that iron and aluminium elements are exclusively attributed to the colour additive in Cos-CCL samples. It is important for manufacturers of Cos-CCL to disclose information of their products and create greater awareness on the risks facing users.
Cs2Pb(MoO4)2crystals were prepared by crystallization from their own melt, and the crystal structure has been studied in detail. At 296 K, the molybdate crystallizes in the low-temperature α-form and has a monoclinic palmierite-related superstructure (space group C2/m, a = 2.13755(13) nm, b = 1.23123(8) nm, c = 1.68024(10) nm, β = 115.037(2)°, Z = 16) possessing the largest unit cell volume, 4.0066(4) nm3, among lead-containing palmierites. The compound undergoes a distortive phase transition at 635 K and incongruently melts at 943 K. The electronic structure of α-Cs2Pb(MoO4)2was explored by using X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy methods. For α-Cs2Pb(MoO4)2, the photoelectron core-level and valence-band spectra and the XES band representing the energy distribution of Mo 4d and O 2p states were recorded. Our results allow one to conclude that the Mo 4d and O 2p states contribute mainly to the central part and at the top of the valence band, respectively, with also significant contributions throughout the whole valence-band region of the molybdate under consideration.
This article encompasses the method related to image segmentation of the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) images of Acacia Mangium Wood derived Activated Carbons under different conditions. Image segmentation using Hue-Saturation-Value (HSV) thresholding method was adapted to identify the different pattern composition in the grayscale images by varying the intensity Value (V) and keeping Hue (H) and Saturation (S) to zero, and each pattern was considered as one type of element that constituted the Activated Carbon. The algorithm was developed to compute the percentage of each pattern using non-zero pixels, and on the basis of different patterns, different elements having certain percentage of composition were recorded. Later, these results were compared with the Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) to cross check the difference in percentage of each element present at the surface of the Activated Carbon. Part of this result is published in the article , "Comparison of surface properties of wood biomass Activated Carbons and their application against rhodamine B and methylene blue dye" Surfaces and Interfaces vol. 11 (2018) pp1-13.•The methods involved will be useful for characterization of Activated Carbon materials.•Image segmentation using HSV thresholding will inspire other researchers to apply similar concept on other materials.•Different patterns obtained for FESEM images using HSV thresholding was able to determine the presence of multiple elements present in the prepared Activated Carbon samples.
This paper describes the synthesis of graphene-based activated carbon from carbonaceous rice straw fly ash in an electrical furnace and the subsequent potassium hydroxide extraction. The produced graphene has a proper morphological structure; flakes and a rough surface can be observed. The average size of the graphene was defined as up to 2000 nm and clarification was provided by high-resolution microscopes (FESEM and FETEM). Crystallinity was confirmed by surface area electron diffraction. The chemical bonding from the graphene was clearly observed, with -C=C- and O-H stretching at peaks of 1644 cm-1 and 3435 cm-1, respectively. Impurities in the graphene were found using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The measured size, according to zeta-potential analysis, was 8722.2 ± 25 nm, and the average polydispersity index was 0.576. The stability of the mass reduction was analyzed by a thermogravimetric at 100 °C, with a final reduction of ~ 11%.
Indium antimonide nanowires were synthesized by electrochemical deposition using anodic aluminum oxide template in the presence of gold film as conductive layers. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry measurements were carried out to investigate the effect of adhesive insulated tape covered below the conductive layer. Results showed that the anodic aluminum oxide template covered with insulating tapes had better morphology with less presence of overgrown rough film on the topside of the anodic aluminum oxide template and it exhibited a smoother nanowire sidewall as compared to the uncovered ones. Additionally, the unique properties of anodic aluminum oxide were controllable pore diameter with a narrow size distribution at some intervals. It was evident from the energy dispersive X-ray spectrum that the nanowires synthesized from the covered template condition exhibited better InSb composition and stoichiometric ratio compared to the uncovered template condition.
This paper reports the novel use of almond gum as a binder in manufacturing Rhizophora spp. particleboard. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was employed for analysis under photon energy range of 16.6-25.3 keV. Results showed that almond gum-bonded Rhizophora spp. particleboard can be used as tissue-equivalent phantom in diagnostic radiation. The calculated mass attenuation coefficients of the particleboards were consistent with the values of water calculated using XCOM program for the same photon energies, with p values of 0.056, 0.069, and 0.077 for samples A8, C0, and C8, respectively. However, no direct relationship was found between the percentage of adhesive and the mass attenuation coefficient. The results positively supported the use of almond gum as a binding agent in the fabrication of particleboards, which can be used as a phantom material in dosimetric and quality control applications.
Indium tin oxide (ITO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) anti-reflective coatings (ARCs) were deposited on a (100) P-type monocrystalline Si substrate by a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Polycrystalline ITO and anatase TiO2 films were obtained at room temperature (RT). The thickness of ITO (60 to 64 nm) and TiO2 (55 to 60 nm) films was optimized, considering the optical response in the 400- to 1,000-nm wavelength range. The deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The XRD analysis showed preferential orientation along (211) and (222) for ITO and (200) and (211) for TiO2 films. The XRD analysis showed that crystalline ITO/TiO2 films could be formed at RT. The crystallite strain measurements showed compressive strain for ITO and TiO2 films. The measured average optical reflectance was about 12% and 10% for the ITO and TiO2 ARCs, respectively.
This study aims to investigate the behaviour of Malaysian sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian), oil palm biomass (empty fruit bunches (EFB), kernel shell (PKS) and mesocarp fibre (PMF)) and their respective blends during pyrolysis using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The coal/palm biomass blends were prepared at six different weight ratios and experiments were carried out under dynamic conditions using nitrogen as inert gas at various heating rates to ramp the temperature from 25 degrees C to 900 degrees C. The derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) results show that thermal decomposition of EFB, PMF and PKS exhibit one, two and three distinct evolution profiles, respectively. Apparently, the thermal profiles of the coal/oil palm biomass blends appear to correlate with the percentage of biomass added in the blends, thus, suggesting lack of interaction between the coal and palm biomass. First-order reaction model were used to determine the kinetics parameters for the pyrolysis of coal, palm biomass and their respective blends.
Hybrid gold nanostructures seeded into nanotextured zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers (NFs) were created for novel biosensing applications. The selected 'spotted NFs' had a 30-nm-thick gold nanoparticle (AuNP) layer, chosen from a range of AuNP thicknesses, sputtered onto the surface. The generated nanohybrids, characterized by morphological, physical and structural analyses, were uniformly AuNP-seeded onto the ZnO NFs with an average length of 2-3 μm. Selective capture of molecular probes onto the seeded AuNPs was evidence for the specific interaction with DNA from pathogenic Leptospirosis-causing strains via hybridization and mis-match analyses. The attained detection limit was 100 fM as determined via impedance spectroscopy. High levels of stability, reproducibility and regeneration of the sensor were obtained. Selective DNA immobilization and hybridization were confirmed by nitrogen and phosphorus peaks in an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The created nanostructure hybrids illuminate the mechanism of generating multiple-target, high-performance detection on a single NF platform, which opens a new avenue for array-based medical diagnostics.
There are many essential and non-essential elements including metals and radionuclides present in vegetables. Howeve r, the accumulation of the several metals and radionuclides might cause the contamination to vegetables itself. Green m ustard (Brasissca rapa var. Parachinesis L.) was selected to represent the vegetable in this study. Objectives of this stud y are to determine the concentration of metals and radionuclides in the samples and to calculate the enrichment factor ( EF) and also to estimate the uptake, base on biological accumulation coefficient (BAC), for the various parts of selecte d vegetables. Three farmlands in the Cameron Highlands were studied namely Bharat, Kg Raja and Bertam area. The g reen mustard and soil samples were collected during the harvest season. Samples were dried, ground and sieved prior t o analysis. Analyses for both samples were done by using X-rays Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) to measure the conc entration of Fe, Zn, Hg, U and Th. The concentration of all elements in the soils is lower than their concentration in the control soil, except for Zn, U and Th. The concentration of all elements in Green Mustard is lower than their concentrat ion in the soil where it was grown. The EF values in the Brasissca rapa var. Parachinesis L are lower than 2 except for U and Th, indicating some degree of contamination due to anthropogenic activities or naturally origin. The BAC values show that Zn and Hg were accumulated in the green mustard, depending on where the plant grows.
Even though a lot of new advanced materials have been developed nowadays, steel remains a major material in construction, automobiles, appliances, industrial machinery as well as in the nuclear industry. Due to steel easily corroded, a proper surface protection is required to avoid any failures and extended the life cycle of the components. Surface coating is an efficient and economical method to obtain desirable material surfaces properties. Hot dip aluminizing technique was utilized in this study. Experiments have been conducted on the mild steel substrates with 12mm diameter. Prior to hot dipping process, observation on grain growth at three different temperatures had also been conducted to understand the behaviour of steel under application of heat. The substrates were heated at 700ºC, 800ºC and 900ºC for 1 hour and the microstructure was analyzed. The temperature of 800C was chosen for hot dipping. The substrates were dipped into the molten aluminum maintained at temperature 800ºC for 2,4,6,8,10,15 and 20 minutes. Optical microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used in this investigation. From the microstructure observation, it showed the appearance of intermetallic layer covered by the top layer of Al on the mild steel substrate increased with the increase in dipping time ranging from 36 to 282μm. The result of EDX analysis revealed the existence of Fe and Al in form of Fe2Al5 phase for all the dipping time.
There are various approaches to enhancing the catalytic properties of TiO₂, including modifying its morphology by altering the surface reactivity and surface area of the catalyst. In this study, the primary aim is to enhance the photocatalytic activity by changing the TiO₂ nanotubes' architecture. The highly ordered infrastructure is favorable for a better charge carrier transfer. It is well known that anodization affects TiO₂ nanotubes' structure by increasing the anodization duration which in turn influence the photocatalytic activity. The characterizations were conducted by FE-SEM (fiend emission scanning electron microscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), RAMAN (Raman spectroscopy), EDX (Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy), UV-Vis (Ultraviolet visible spectroscopy) and LCMS/MS/MS (liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy). We found that the morphological structure is affected by the anodization duration according to FE-SEM. The photocatalytic degradation shows a photodegradation rate of k = 0.0104 min-1. It is also found that a mineralization of Simazine by our prepared TiO₂ nanotubes leads to the formation of cyanuric acid. We propose three Simazine photodegradation pathways with several intermediates identified.
In this work, untreated bovine cortical bones (BCBs) were exposed to a range of heat treatments in order to determine at which temperature the apatite develops an optimum morphology comprising porous nano hydroxyapatite (nanoHAp) crystals. Rectangular specimens (10 mm × 10 mm × 3-5 mm) of BCB were prepared, being excised in normal to longitudinal and transverse directions. Specimens were sintered at up to 900 °C under ambient pressure in order to produce apatites by two steps sintering. The samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) attached to an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy detector. For the first time, morphology of the HAp particles was predicted by XRD, and it was verified by SEM. The results show that an equiaxed polycrystalline HAp particle with uniform porosity was produced at 900 °C. It indicates that a porous nanoHAp achieved by sintering at 900 °C can be an ideal candidate as an in situ scaffold for load-bearing tissue applications.
Miniaturization of electronic devices has led to the development of 3D IC packages which require ultra-small-scale interconnections. Such small interconnects can be completely converted into Cu-Sn based intermetallic compounds (IMCs) after reflow. In an effort to improve IMC based interconnects, an attempt is made to add Ni to Cu-Sn-based IMCs. Multilayer interconnects consisting of stacks of Cu/Sn/Cu/Sn/Cu or Cu/Ni/Sn/Ni/Sn/Cu/Ni/Sn/Ni/Cu with Ni = 35 nm, 70 nm, and 150 nm were electrodeposited sequentially using copper pyrophosphate, tin methanesulfonic, and nickel Watts baths, respectively. These multilayer interconnects were investigated under room temperature aging conditions and for solid-liquid reactions, where the samples were subjected to 250 °C reflow for 60 s and also 300 °C for 3600 s. The progress of the reaction in the multilayers was monitored by using X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope, and Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. FIB-milled samples were also prepared for investigation under room temperature aging conditions. Results show that by inserting a 70 nanometres thick Ni layer between copper and tin, premature reaction between Cu and Sn at room temperature can be avoided. During short reflow, the addition of Ni suppresses formation of Cu₃Sn IMC. With increasing Ni thickness, Cu consumption is decreased and Ni starts acting as a barrier layer. On the other hand, during long reflow, two types of IMC were found in the Cu/Ni/Sn samples which are the (Cu,Ni)₆Sn₅ and (Cu,Ni)₃Sn, respectively. Details of the reaction sequence and mechanisms are discussed.
In this study, the use of nano-silica (nano-SiO2) and bentonite as mortar additives for combating reinforcement corrosion is reported. More specifically, these materials were used as additives in ordinary Portland cement (OPC)/fly ash blended mortars in different amounts. The effects of nano-silica and bentonite addition on compressive strength of mortars at different ages was tested. Accelerated corrosion testing was used to assess the corrosion resistance of reinforced mortar specimens containing different amounts of nano-silica and bentonite. It was found that the specimens containing nano-SiO2 not only had higher compressive strength, but also showed lower steel mass loss due to corrosion compared to reference specimens. However, this was accompanied by a small reduction in workability (for a constant water to binder ratio). Mortar mixtures with 4% of nano-silica were found to have optimal performance in terms of compressive strength and corrosion resistance. Control specimens (OPC/fly ash mortars without any additives) showed low early age strength and low corrosion resistance compared to specimens containing nano-SiO2 and bentonite. In addition, samples from selected mixtures were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Finally, the influence of Ca/Si ratio of the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) in different specimens on the compressive strength is discussed. In general, the study showed that the addition of nano-silica (and to a lesser extent bentonite) can result in higher strength and corrosion resistance compared to control specimens. Furthermore, the addition of nano-SiO2 can be used to offset the negative effect of fly ash on early age strength development.
In this study, nano- and microsized zinc oxide (ZnO) materials were doped with different manganese (Mn) contents (1-5 mol%) via a simple sol-gel method. The structural, morphological, optical and chemical environments of the materials were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD results revealed that all synthesised materials were pure and single phased with a hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. However, at a low annealing temperature, a nanorod-like shape can be obtained for all Zn(1-x)MnxO materials. In addition, EDX spectra confirmed the presence of Mn in the ZnO lattice and the atomic percentage was nearly equal to the calculated stoichiometry. UV-vis spectroscopy further revealed that materials in nano size exhibited band gap widening with an increase of the Mn content in the ZnO lattice. In contrast, micron state materials exhibited band gap narrowing with increasing Mn content up to 3% and then begin to widen when Mn > 3%. This is because the band gaps of these materials are affected by the dimensions of the crystals and the Mn content in the materials. Furthermore, XPS results revealed the existence of multiple states of Mn in all synthesised materials. By combining the information obtained from UV-vis and the XPS valence band, shifting in the valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band minimum (CBM) was observed. Based on XPS results, the calculation of density functional theory studies revealed that the presence of Mn2+, Mn3+, and Mn4+ ions in the materials influences the band gap changes. It was also revealed that the nanosized Zn0.99Mn0.01O exhibited a higher photocatalytic activity than the other samples for degrading methylene blue (MB) dyes, owing to its smallest crystallite size.