Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 43 in total

  1. Shafiei Z, Haji Abdul Rahim Z, Philip K, Thurairajah N
    PeerJ, 2016;4:e2519.
    PMID: 27761322
    Plant extracts mixture (PEM) and its individual constituent plant extracts(Psidium sp., Mangifera sp., Mentha sp.) are known to have an anti-adhering effect towards oral bacteria in the single-species biofilm. To date, the adhering ability of the early and late plaque colonisers (Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans) to PEM-treated experimental pellicle have not been investigated in dual-species biofilms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Streptococcus mutans
  2. Nurul Najwa Zamimi, Noorhazayti Ab.Halim, Widya Lestari, Darnis, Deny Susanti, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Ishak, Md Muziman Syah Md Mustafa
    Dental caries is the most common yet preventable disease. Study found that seaweed
    exhibits anti-cariogenic properties. However, little attention have been given to the study on anticariogenic properties of seaweed and the bioactive compound that responsible for the anticariogenic activities have not adequately investigated. This study was conducted to evaluate the
    best extraction methods for S. polycystum and to determine the fatty acid compounds of S.
    polycystum that have anti-cariogenic potential against oral cariogenic bacteria. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Streptococcus mutans
  3. Abd Rahman, R., Mohamad, D., Ab Ghani, Z., Hasan, H., Abdullah, N.A.
    The objective of the study was to asses the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans on nanofilled and microfilled composite resin and glass ionomer cement restorative materials. Glass ionomer cements; KetacTM N100 (nanofilled) and Fuji IITM LC (microfilled) and composite resins; FiltekTM Z350 (nanofilled) and FiltekTM Z250 (microhybrid) were packed in acrylic mould of 2 mm thickness and 5 mm diameter. All samples were light-cured and polished with Sof-Lex discs. All materials were cultured with the exponential phase of S. mutans cultivation. Surface roughness values were assessed using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM, Ambios, USA) at time intervals (7hrs, 24 hrs, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days). The morphology of S. mutans on materials was observed after 24 hour incubation of S. mutan on materials under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Quanta FEG 450). Within groups, results showed that both nanofilled materials had lower surface roughness and less adhesion of S. mutans compared to microfilled materials. This study would enhance the clinical knowledge especially in aesthetic area and improve the longevity of the dental restoration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Streptococcus mutans
  4. Rahim ZH, Thurairajah N
    J Appl Oral Sci, 2011 Apr;19(2):137-46.
    PMID: 21552715
    INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development.

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and on partially purified cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL(-1) and 4 mg mL(-1)); with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL(-1) and 4 mg mL(-1))]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract) was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly.

    RESULTS: It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (p<0.001). S. mutans adhering to 100 µm² glass surfaces (with/without sucrose) exhibited reduced cell surface area, fluffy extracellular appearance and cell population in the presence of the Piper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL(-1) corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL(-1) of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity.

    CONCLUSION: The SEM analysis confirmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are involved.

    Matched MeSH terms: Streptococcus mutans/drug effects*; Streptococcus mutans/growth & development
  5. Rahim ZH, Khan HB
    J Oral Sci, 2006 Sep;48(3):117-23.
    PMID: 17023743
    A study was conducted to compare the efficiency of crude aqueous (CA) and solvent extracts (CM) of clove on the caries-inducing properties of Streptococcus mutans. The cariogenic properties investigated included the cell adhesion, cell-surface hydrophobicity and glucan synthesis activities of S. mutans. There was a significant difference between the effect of the CA and CM extracts on the adhesion of S. mutans (P < 0.05) within a concentration range of 5-15 mg/ml, the CM extract demonstrating a slightly higher inhibitory effect. However, the effect of the CM extract on the cell-surface hydrophobicity of S. mutans was weaker than that of the CA extract. The two extracts were found to reduce the synthesis of water-insoluble glucan (WIG) by almost 50% at a concentration as low as 0.5 mg/ml and the CM extract exhibited a significantly higher inhibitory effect than the CA extract (P < 0.05). The present findings indicate that both the CA and CM extracts exert inhibitory effects on the cariogenic properties of S. mutans and that the CA extract is as equally effective as the CM extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Streptococcus mutans/drug effects*; Streptococcus mutans/metabolism
  6. Nekkanti S, Kaur K, Balagopal S, Agarwal P
    J Int Soc Prev Community Dent, 2020 11 24;10(6):759-765.
    PMID: 33437710 DOI: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_339_20
    Aim and Objectives: Toothbrushing is one of the most important factors in controlling plaque accumulation and dental caries. There are vast varieties of toothbrushes available in the market. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of novel chewable toothbrushes as compared to manual toothbrushes in plaque removal among 10-12-year-old children.

    Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 40 healthy children aged between 10 and 12 years of age who were randomly assigned to either of the groups: Group I--Chewable Toothbrushes and Group II--Manual Toothbrushes. Following oral prophylaxis, baseline records of oral hygiene indices (Simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) in indexed teeth and Turesky modification of Quigley Hein plaque index (TMQHI) were taken. Baseline Saliva samples were collected and sent for Streptococcus mutans counts. Children were then instructed to use their respective toothbrush twice daily for a week. Oral hygiene indices and S. mutans counts were repeated after 1 week.

    Results: Differences in pre-brushing and post-brushing plaque scores and salivary S. mutans counts were statistically significant when compared using paired-sample t test and independent-sample t test. There was a significant reduction in salivary S. mutans counts after using both chewable and manual toothbrushes. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.08).

    Conclusion: Chewable toothbrushes are equally effective in plaque control when compared to manual toothbrushes. These can be a reliable alternative for children who lack manual dexterity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Streptococcus mutans
  7. Arzmi MH, Alnuaimi AD, Dashper S, Cirillo N, Reynolds EC, McCullough M
    Med Mycol, 2016 Nov 01;54(8):856-64.
    PMID: 27354487 DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myw042
    Oral biofilms comprise of extracellular polysaccharides and polymicrobial microorganisms. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of polymicrobial interactions of Candida albicans, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Streptococcus mutans on biofilm formation with the hypotheses that biofilm biomass and metabolic activity are both C. albicans strain and growth medium dependent. To study monospecific biofilms, C. albicans, A. naeslundii, and S. mutans were inoculated into artificial saliva medium (ASM) and RPMI-1640 in separate vials, whereas to study polymicrobial biofilm formation, the inoculum containing microorganisms was prepared in the same vial prior inoculation into a 96-well plate followed by 72 hours incubation. Finally, biofilm biomass and metabolic activity were measured using crystal violet and XTT assays, respectively. Our results showed variability of monospecies and polymicrobial biofilm biomass between C. albicans strains and growth medium. Based on cut-offs, out of 32, seven RPMI-grown biofilms had high biofilm biomass (HBB), whereas, in ASM-grown biofilms, 14 out of 32 were HBB. Of the 32 biofilms grown in RPMI-1640, 21 were high metabolic activity (HMA), whereas in ASM, there was no biofilm had HMA. Significant differences were observed between ASM and RPMI-grown biofilms with respect to metabolic activity (P <01). In conclusion, biofilm biomass and metabolic activity were both C. albicans strain and growth medium dependent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Streptococcus mutans/growth & development; Streptococcus mutans/metabolism; Streptococcus mutans/physiology*
  8. Tin-Oo, M.M., Gopalakrishnan, V., Samsuddin, A.R., Al Salihi, K.A., Shamsuria, O.
    Use of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) in biomedical applications is well warranted. It has shown to have an excellent biocompatibility in human tooth and bones. Additionally it has been documented to possess antibacterial potentials. The present study was conducted to assess the presence of any such potential in locally produced (HA) using Streptococcus mutans, a common pathogen in the oral cavity. The study was carried out using 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400 and 800 mg/ml concentration of HA. The antibacterial property of HA was assessed using Miles and Misra method. Our studies showed that bacterial growth inhibitions of S. mutans occurred from 50 mg/ml, and complete inhibition was perceived at concentrations at 200mg/ml of HA. The antibacterial property HA should be used to good advantage as a bioactive biomaterial in dental and maxillofacial applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Streptococcus mutans
  9. Al-Ahmad, Basma Ezzat Mustafa, Muhannad Ali Kashmoola, Nur Aini Zakaria
    Recurrent oral ulcer is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by mucosa
    ulceration, which was believed to have bacterial etiology. Streptococcus mutans is one of the
    bacteria which have been implicated in this case; it is gram-positive bacteria that reside in the
    biofilms on the tooth surfaces. The aim of this study was to evaluate Streptococcus mutans content
    in saliva of recurrent oral ulcer patients and its role as a prognostic factor. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Streptococcus mutans
  10. Mohd Bakhori SK, Mahmud S, Ling CA, Sirelkhatim AH, Hasan H, Mohamad D, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 Sep 01;78:868-877.
    PMID: 28576061 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.04.085
    ZnO with two different morphologies were used to study the inhibition of Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus mutans which are closely associated with tooth cavity. Rod-like shaped ZnO-A and plate-like shaped ZnO-B were produced using a zinc boiling furnace. The nanopowders were characterized using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to confirm the properties of the ZnO polycrystalline wurtzite structures. XRD results show that the calculated crystallite sizes of ZnO-A and ZnO-B were 36.6 and 39.4nm, respectively, whereas DLS revealed particle size distributions of 21.82nm (ZnO-A) and 52.21nm (ZnO-B). PL spectra showed ion vacancy defects related to green and red luminescence for both ZnO particles. These defects evolved during the generation of reactive oxygen species which contributed to the antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity was investigated using microdilution technique towards S. sobrinus and S. mutans at different nanopowder concentrations. Results showed that ZnO-A exhibited higher inhibition on both bacteria compared with ZnO-B. Moreover, S. mutans was more sensitive compared with S. sobrinus because of its higher inhibition rate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Streptococcus mutans
  11. Daood U, Burrow MF, Yiu CKY
    Clin Oral Investig, 2020 Feb;24(2):649-661.
    PMID: 31115692 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-019-02928-7
    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate effect of quaternary ammonium silane (QAS) cavity disinfectant on cariogenic biofilm.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single- (Streptococcus mutans or Lactobacillus acidophilus), dual- (Streptococcus mutans/Lactobacillus Acidophilus), and multi-species (Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Streptococcus sanguis) biofilms were grown on acid-etched dentine discs. Biofilms were incubated (120 min/37 °C) and allowed to grow for 3 days anaerobically. Discs (no treatment) served as control (group 1). Groups II, III, IV, and V were then treated with 2% chlorhexidine, and 2%, 5%, and 10% QAS (20 s). Discs were returned to well plates with 300 μL of bacterial suspension and placed in anaerobic incubator at 37 °C and biofilms redeveloped for 4 days. Confocal microscopy, Raman, CFU, and MTT assay were performed.

    RESULTS: Raman peaks show shifts at 1450 cm-1, 1453 cm-1, 1457 cm-1, 1460 cm-1, and 1462 cm-1 for control, 2% CHX, 2%, 5%, and 10% QAS groups in multi-species biofilms. There was reduction of 484 cm-1 band in 10% QAS group. CLSM revealed densely clustered green colonies in control group and red confluent QAS-treated biofilms with significantly lower log CFU for single/dual species. Metabolic activities of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus decreased with increasing QAS exposure time.

    CONCLUSION: Quaternary ammonium silanes possess antimicrobial activities and inhibit growth of cariogenic biofilms.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Available data demonstrated use of QAS as potential antibacterial cavity disinfectant in adhesive dentistry. Experimental QAS can effectively eliminate caries-forming bacteria, when used inside a prepared cavity, and can definitely overcome problems associated with present available cavity disinfectants.

    Matched MeSH terms: Streptococcus mutans
  12. Al-Marzok MI, Al-Azzawi HJ
    J Contemp Dent Pract, 2009;10(6):E017-24.
    PMID: 20020077
    Dental plaque has a harmful influence on periodontal tissue. When a porcelain restoration is fabricated and refinishing of the glazed surface is inevitable, the increase in surface roughness facilitates the adhesion of plaque and its components. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of surface roughness of glazed or polished porcelain on the adhesion of oral Streptococcus mutans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Streptococcus mutans/physiology*
  13. Arzmi MH, Dashper S, Catmull D, Cirillo N, Reynolds EC, McCullough M
    FEMS Yeast Res., 2015 Aug;15(5):fov038.
    PMID: 26054855 DOI: 10.1093/femsyr/fov038
    Microbial interactions are necessarily associated with the development of polymicrobial oral biofilms. The objective of this study was to determine the coaggregation of eight strains of Candida albicans with Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus mutans. In autoaggregation assays, C. albicans strains were grown in RPMI-1640 and artificial saliva medium (ASM) whereas bacteria were grown in heart infusion broth. C. albicans, A. naeslundii and S. mutans were suspended to give 10(6), 10(7) and 10(8) cells mL(-1) respectively, in coaggregation buffer followed by a 1 h incubation. The absorbance difference at 620 nm (ΔAbs) between 0 h and 1 h was recorded. To study coaggregation, the same protocol was used, except combinations of microorganisms were incubated together. The mean ΔAbs% of autoaggregation of the majority of RPMI-1640-grown C. albicans was higher than in ASM grown. Coaggregation of C. albicans with A. naeslundii and/or S. mutans was variable among C. albicans strains. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that A. naeslundii and S. mutans coaggregated with C. albicans in dual- and triculture. In conclusion, the coaggregation of C. albicans, A. naeslundii and S. mutans is C. albicans strain dependent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Streptococcus mutans/physiology*
  14. Jalil RA
    Singapore Dent J, 1995 Jul;20(1):16-20.
    PMID: 9582684
    Samples of stimulated whole saliva were obtained from ninety-four 12-14-year-old school children living in inner London to evaluate if there was a correlation between Streptococcus mutans counts in saliva with plaque amount, gingival inflammation and caries experience. S. mutans counts were obtained by a dip-slide method (Dentocult 'Strip Mutans') in which the count was expressed as 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 based on visual estimation of the colony density. There was no association between counts' of S. mutans in saliva with plaque amount and gingival inflammation. However, there was a significant trend of increased decayed, missing, filled surfaces (DMFS) with increasing S. mutans counts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification*
  15. Priyadarshini HR, Fernandes BA, Hiremath SS, Rath A, Shivakumar V, Tegginamani AS
    J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent, 2017 5 12;35(2):110-114.
    PMID: 28492188 DOI: 10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_210_16
    INTRODUCTION: Certain factors in mothers could be risk indicators for certain diseases in their children. Hence, this study was undertaken to assess maternal risk indicators for the development of early childhood caries in their children.

    METHODOLOGY: A comparative, cross-sectional study was designed among 180 mother-child pairs attending various Anganwadi centers. Demographic, dietary, oral hygiene practices and other necessary information were collected from mothers using a structured questionnaire. Caries status and amount of plaque were recorded through clinical examination. Nonstimulated saliva from mothers was cultured for mutans streptococci (MS). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square, Student's t-test, and logistic regression were used. A P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

    RESULTS: In the study group, 73.3% of mothers had caries as compared to only 53.3% mothers in control group. While mean DMFT and mean DMFS of mothers in the study group was 3.78 ± 3.91 and 8.37 ± 12.2, respectively, the same for the mothers in the control group was 2.66 ± 3.01 and 5.8 ± 5.3. Sixty (66.7%) out of ninety mothers in the study group had a high MS count as compared to only 40 (44.4%) mothers in control group (P = 0.003).

    CONCLUSION: The present study showed that high salivary MS count and decay in mothers could be important risk indicators for the development of caries in their children.

    Matched MeSH terms: Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification*
  16. Khalaf S, Ariffin Z, Husein A, Reza F
    J Prosthodont, 2017 Dec;26(8):664-669.
    PMID: 28177575 DOI: 10.1111/jopr.12460
    PURPOSE: To compare the adhesion of three microorganisms on modified and unmodified silicone elastomer surfaces with different surface roughnesses and porosities.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus aureus were incubated with modified and unmodified silicone groups (N = 35) for 30 days at 37°C. The counts of viable microorganisms in the accumulating biofilm layer were determined and converted to cfu/cm2 unit surface area. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to evaluate the microbial adhesion. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc tests as indicated.

    RESULTS: Significant differences in microbial adhesion were observed between modified and unmodified silicone elastomers after the cells were incubated for 30 days (p < 0.001). SEM showed evident differences in microbial adhesion on modified silicone elastomer compared with unmodified silicone elastomer.

    CONCLUSIONS: Surface modification of silicone elastomer yielding a smoother and less porous surface showed lower adhesion of different microorganisms than observed on unmodified surfaces.

    Matched MeSH terms: Streptococcus mutans/physiology*
  17. Arzmi MH, Cirillo N, Lenzo JC, Catmull DV, O'Brien-Simpson N, Reynolds EC, et al.
    Carcinogenesis, 2019 03 12;40(1):184-193.
    PMID: 30428016 DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgy137
    Microbial infection has been shown to involve in oral carcinogenesis; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to characterize the growth of oral microorganisms as both monospecies and polymicrobial biofilms and determine the effects of their products on oral keratinocytes. Candida albicans (ALC3), Actinomyces naeslundii (AN) and Streptococcus mutans (SM) biofilms or a combination of these (TRI) were grown in flow-cell system for 24 h. The biofilms were subjected to fluorescent in situ hybridization using species-specific probes and analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The effluent derived from each biofilm was collected and incubated with malignant (H357) and normal (OKF6) oral keratinocytes to assess extracellular matrix adhesion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cytokines expression. Incubation of OKF6 with ALC3 and TRI effluent significantly decreased adhesion of the oral keratinocyte to collagen I, whereas incubation of H357 with similar effluent increased adhesion of the oral keratinocyte to laminin I, significantly when compared with incubation with artificial saliva containing serum-free medium (NE; P < 0.05). In OKF6, changes in E-cadherin and vimentin expression were not consistent with EMT although there was evidence of a mesenchymal to epithelial transition in malignant oral keratinocytes incubated with AN and SM effluent. A significant increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines expression, particularly interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, was observed when H357 was incubated with all biofilm effluents after 2- and 24-h incubation when compared with NE (P < 0.05). In conclusion, C.albicans, A.naeslundii and S.mutans form polymicrobial biofilms which differentially modulate malignant phenotype of oral keratinocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Streptococcus mutans/physiology
  18. Razak FA, Musa MY, Abusin HAM, Salleh NM
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2019 Apr;29(4):387-389.
    PMID: 30925969 DOI: 10.29271/jcpsp.2019.04.387
    Application of ozone is recommended for sterilisation in dental procedures. This study explored the antimicrobial effect of 0.1 ppm ozonated-water on selected common oral commensals. Based on deviation of their growth curves pattern upon ozone treatment, the inhibitory effect of ozone was determined. SEM examination of the ozone-treated microbes recorded its possible morphological effect. Findings suggested a bacteriostatic action of ozone when microbes were treated at the early phase, while, it was bactericidal when treated during the active phase of the growth cycle. Hence, suggesting rinsing the oral cavity with ozonated-water at 0.1 ppm immediately after tooth brushing may suppress microbial growth and slow biofilm formation. While, rinsing on already developed biofilm may result in microbial cell lysis that halted microbial growth and reduce microbial population in the biofilm. Both justify the great potential of ozone (0.1 ppm) for use as antimicrobial agent for the control of biofilm development in the oral cavity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Streptococcus mutans/drug effects*
  19. Yeo WZ, Lim SP, Say YH
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2017 12 10;27(1):99-106.
    PMID: 29222886 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.032017.14
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The counts of cariogenic bacteria lactobacilli and mutans streptococci have been studied and correlated with sugar intake. This study was to investigate the association between salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts with sweet food eating behavior and sweet sensitivity among 120 Malaysian women (101 ethnic Chinese, 19 ethnic Indians), while taking into account anthropometric and menstruation variables.

    METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Demographics, anthropometric measurements and menstrual history were taken. Hedonic preference, intake frequency of a list of sweet foods, intensity perception and pleasantness ratings of sweet stimuli were assessed. Saliva was collected for lactobacilli and mutans streptococci culture.

    RESULTS: We found that centrally obese subjects (high waist circumference and waist-hip ratio) had significantly higher salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts (all p<0.05), while overweight and high total body fat subjects had significantly higher salivary mutans streptococci counts (p<0.001). The sweetness intensity perception of chocolate malt drinks was significantly lower in women who were in their pre-menstrual (post-ovulation) phase. However, menstruation variables (menstrual phases, regularity and pre-menstrual syndromes) did not play a role in determining compulsive eating, sweets/chocolate craving and salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts.

    CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts of the Malaysian women are associated with central obesity, but not sweet food eating behaviour, sweet sensitivity and menstruation variables. Salivary microbiome analysis could be useful as a potential diagnostic indicator of diseases such as obesity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification*
  20. Jose JE, Padmanabhan S, Chitharanjan AB
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2013 Jul;144(1):67-72.
    PMID: 23810047 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2013.02.023
    The objectives of the study were to evaluate and compare the effects of the systemic consumption of probiotic curd and the topical application of probiotic toothpaste on the Streptococcus mutans levels in the plaque of orthodontic patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Streptococcus mutans/drug effects*; Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification
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