Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 50 in total

  1. Rizwan Z, Zakaria A, Mohd Ghazali MS, Jafari A, Din FU, Zamiri R
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(2):1293-305.
    PMID: 21541059 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12021293
    Two different concentrations of CdCl(2) and (NH(2))(2)CS were used to prepare CdS thin films, to be deposited on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. CdCl(2) (0.000312 M and 0.000625 M) was employed as a source of Cd(2+) while (NH(2))(2)CS (0.00125 M and 0.000625 M) for S(2-) at a constant bath temperature of 70 °C. Adhesion of the deposited films was found to be very good for all the solution concentrations of both reagents. The films were air-annealed at a temperature between 200 °C to 360 °C for one hour. The minimum thickness was observed to be 33.6 nm for film annealed at 320 °C. XRD analyses reveal that the films were cubic along with peaks of hexagonal phase for all film samples. The crystallite size of the films decreased from 41.4 nm to 7.4 nm with the increase of annealing temperature for the CdCl(2) (0.000312 M). Optical energy band gap (E(g)), Urbach energy (E(u)) and absorption coefficient (α) have been calculated from the transmission spectral data. These parameters have been discussed as a function of annealing temperature and solution concentration. The best transmission (about 97%) was obtained for the air-annealed films at higher temperature at CdCl(2) (0.000312 M).
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfides/chemistry*
  2. Lyu S, Abidin ZZ, Yaw TCS, Resul MFMG
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2024 Mar;31(11):16940-16957.
    PMID: 38326685 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-024-32323-z
    The applications of polysulfides derived from natural plant oil and sulfur via the inverse vulcanization in the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions suffered from their low porosity and scarce surface functionality because of their hydrophobic surfaces and bulk characteristics. In this study, polysulfides from sulfur and palm oil (PSPs) with significantly enhanced porosity (13.7-24.1 m2/g) and surface oxygen-containing functional groups (6.9-8.6 wt.%) were synthesized with the optimization of process conditions including reaction time, temperature, and mass ratios of sulfur/palm oil/NaCl/sodium citrate. PSPs were applied as sorbents to remove heavy metals present in aqueous solutions. The integration of porosity and oxygen modification allowed a fast kinetic (4.0 h) and enhanced maximum sorption capacities for Pb(II) (218.5 mg/g), Cu(II) (74.8 mg/g), and Cr(III) (68.4 mg/g) at pH 5.0 and T 298 K comparing with polysulfides made without NaCl/sodium citrate. The sorption behaviors of Pb(II), Cu(II), and Cr(III) on PSPs were highly dependent on the solution pH values and ionic strength. The sorption presented excellent anti-interference capability for the coexisting cations and anions. The sorption processes were endothermic and spontaneous. This work would guide the preparation of porous polysulfides with surface modification as efficient sorbents to remediate heavy metals from aqueous solutions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfides*
  3. Ngiam LS, Lim PE
    Sci Total Environ, 2001 Jul 25;275(1-3):53-61.
    PMID: 11482403
    The speciation patterns of Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Fe and Mn in sediment samples under anoxic and oxidized conditions were investigated using three-stage, four-stage and five-stage sequential extraction schemes. All the extraction schemes identify the non-residual metal among three basic operationally-defined host fractions, namely, exchangeable, reducible and organic/sulfide bound. The anoxic sediment samples were found to have been oxidized during the extraction stage for the reducible fraction under the three-stage and four-stage schemes and the moderately reducible fraction under the five-stage scheme despite the maintenance of an oxygen-free environment. This artifact has resulted in an over-representation of the reducible fraction and an under-representation of the organic/sulfide fraction in the heavy metal speciation patterns of anoxic sediment samples. For Cd, Zn and Pb which had > 70% associated with the acid volatile sulfide in the organic/sulfide fraction, this artifact has resulted in the observation of a decrease in the reducible fraction and, in some cases, an increase in the organic/sulfide fraction upon oxidation of the anoxic sediment samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfides
  4. Jafari A, Zakaria A, Rizwan Z, Mohd Ghazali MS
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(9):6320-8.
    PMID: 22016661 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12096320
    Thin and transparent films of doped cadmium sulfide (CdS) were obtained on commercial glass substrates by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. The films were doped with low concentration of Sn, and annealed in air at 300 °C for 45 min. The morphological characterization of the films with different amounts of dopant was made using SEM and EDAX analysis. Optical properties of the films were evaluated by measuring transmittance using the UV-vis spectrophotometer. A comparison of the results revealed that lower concentration of Sn doping improves transmittance of CdS films and makes them suitable for application as window layer of CdTe/CIGS solar cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfides/chemistry*
  5. Soltani N, Saion E, Erfani M, Rezaee K, Bahmanrokh G, Drummen GP, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(10):12412-27.
    PMID: 23202906 DOI: 10.3390/ijms131012412
    Zinc sulfide semiconductor nanoparticles were synthesized in an aqueous solution of polyvinyl pyrrolidone via a simple microwave irradiation method. The effect of the polymer concentration and the type of sulfur source on the particle size and dispersion of the final ZnS nanoparticle product was carefully examined. Microwave heating generally occurs by two main mechanisms: dipolar polarization of water and ionic conduction of precursors. The introduction of the polymer affects the heating rate by restriction of the rotational motion of dipole molecules and immobilization of ions. Consequently, our results show that the presence of the polymer strongly affects the nucleation and growth rates of the ZnS nanoparticles and therefore determines the average particle size and the dispersion. Moreover, we found that PVP adsorbed on the surface of the ZnS nanoparticles by interaction of the C-N and C=O with the nanoparticle's surface, thereby affording protection from agglomeration by steric hindrance. Generally, with increasing PVP concentration, mono-dispersed colloidal solutions were obtained and at the optimal PVP concentration (5%), sufficiently small size and narrow size distributions were obtained from both sodium sulfide and thioacetamide sulfur sources. Finally, the sulfur source directly influences the reaction mechanism and the final particle morphology, as well as the average size.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfides/chemistry*
  6. Syafiq U, Ataollahi N, Maggio RD, Scardi P
    Molecules, 2019 Sep 23;24(19).
    PMID: 31547625 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24193454
    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) ink was synthesized from metal chloride precursors, sulfur, and oleylamine (OLA), as a ligand by a simple and low-cost hot-injection method. Thin films of CZTS were then prepared by spin coating, followed by thermal annealing. The effects of the fabrication parameters, such as ink concentration, spinning rate, and thermal treatment temperatures on the morphology and structural, optical, and electrical properties of the films were investigated. As expected, very thin films, for which the level of transmittance and band-gap values increase, can be obtained either by reducing the concentration of the inks or by increasing the rate of spinning. Moreover, the thermal treatment affects the phase formation and crystallinity of the film, as well as the electrical conductivity, which decreases at a higher temperature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfides/chemistry*
  7. Jun HK, Careem MA, Arof AK
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2014;9(1):69.
    PMID: 24512605 DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-9-69
    Different counter electrode (CE) materials based on carbon and Cu2S were prepared for the application in CdS and CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The CEs were prepared using low-cost and facile methods. Platinum was used as the reference CE material to compare the performances of the other materials. While carbon-based materials produced the best solar cell performance in CdS QDSSCs, platinum and Cu2S were superior in CdSe QDSSCs. Different CE materials have different performance in the two types of QDSSCs employed due to the different type of sensitizers and composition of polysulfide electrolytes used. The poor performance of QDSSCs with some CE materials is largely due to the lower photocurrent density and open-circuit voltage. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy performed on the cells showed that the poor-performing QDSSCs had higher charge-transfer resistances and CPE values at their CE/electrolyte interfaces.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfides
  8. Tan SL, Tiekink ERT
    Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun, 2019 Jan 01;75(Pt 1):1-7.
    PMID: 30713723 DOI: 10.1107/S2056989018017097
    The asymmetric unit of the title 1:2 co-crystal, C14H10O4S2·2C7H6O2, comprises half a mol-ecule of di-thiodi-benzoic acid [systematic name: 2-[(2-carb-oxy-phen-yl)disulfan-yl]benzoic acid, DTBA], as the mol-ecule is located about a twofold axis of symmetry, and a mol-ecule of benzoic acid (BA). The DTBA mol-ecule is twisted about the di-sulfide bond [the C-S-S-C torsion angle is -83.19 (8)°] resulting in a near perpendicular relationship between the benzene rings [dihedral angle = 71.19 (4)°]. The carb-oxy-lic acid group is almost co-planar with the benzene ring to which it is bonded [dihedral angle = 4.82 (12)°]. A similar near co-planar relationship pertains for the BA mol-ecule [dihedral angle = 3.65 (15)°]. Three-mol-ecule aggregates are formed in the crystal whereby two BA mol-ecules are connected to a DTBA mol-ecule via hy-droxy-O-H⋯O(hydroxy) hydrogen bonds and eight-membered {⋯HOC=O}2 synthons. These are connected into a supra-molecular layer in the ab plane through C-H⋯O inter-actions. The inter-actions between layers to consolidate the three-dimensional architecture are π-π stacking inter-actions between DTBA and BA rings [inter-centroid separation = 3.8093 (10) Å] and parallel DTBA-hy-droxy-O⋯π(BA) contacts [O⋯ring centroid separation = 3.9049 (14) Å]. The importance of the specified inter-actions as well as other weaker contacts, e.g. π-π and C-H⋯S, are indicated in the analysis of the calculated Hirshfeld surface and inter-action energies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfides
  9. Tan SL, Tiekink ERT
    Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun, 2018 Dec 01;74(Pt 12):1764-1771.
    PMID: 30574371 DOI: 10.1107/S205698901801544X
    The asymmetric unit of the title co-crystal, 2,2'-thiodi-benzoic acid-tri-phenyl-phosphane oxide (1/2), C14H10O4S·2C18H15OP, comprises two mol-ecules of 2,2'-thiodi-benzoic acid [TDBA; systematic name: 2-[(2-carb-oxy-phen-yl)sulfan-yl]benzoic acid] and four mol-ecules of tri-phenyl-phosphane oxide [TPPO; systematic name: (di-phenyl-phosphor-yl)benzene]. The two TDBA mol-ecules are twisted about their di-sulfide bonds and exhibit dihedral angles of 74.40 (5) and 72.58 (5)° between the planes through the two SC6H4 residues. The carb-oxy-lic acid groups are tilted out of the planes of the rings to which they are attached forming a range of CO2/C6 dihedral angles of 19.87 (6)-60.43 (8)°. Minor conformational changes are exhibited in the TPPO mol-ecules with the range of dihedral angles between phenyl rings being -2.1 (1) to -62.8 (1)°. In the mol-ecular packing, each TDBA acid mol-ecule bridges two TPPO mol-ecules via hy-droxy-O-H⋯O(oxide) hydrogen bonds to form two three-mol-ecule aggregates. These are connected into a three-dimensional architecture by TPPO-C-H⋯O(oxide, carbon-yl) and TDBA-C-H⋯(oxide, carbon-yl) inter-actions. The importance of H⋯H, O⋯H/H⋯O and C⋯H/H⋯C contacts to the calculated Hirshfeld surfaces has been demonstrated. In terms of individual mol-ecules, O⋯H/H⋯O contacts are more important for the TDBA (ca 28%) than for the TPPO mol-ecules (ca 13%), as expected from the chemical composition of these species. Computational chemistry indicates the four independent hy-droxy-O-H⋯O(oxide) hydrogen bonds in the crystal impart about the same energy (ca 52 kJ mol-1), with DTBA-phenyl-C-H⋯O(oxide) inter-actions being next most stabilizing (ca 40 kJ mol-1).
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfides
  10. Husham, M., Hassan, Z., Ahmed A. Al-Dulaimi
    Science Letters, 2016;11(2):11-14.
    Nanocrystalline lead sulfide (PbS) thin films have been successfully grown on glass substrate using the chemical bath deposition technique. Microwave oven was used as a heating source to facilitate the growth process of the thin films. Aqueous solutions of lead nitrate Pb(NO3) and thiourea [SC(NH2)2] were used as lead and sulfur ion sources, respectively. Structural, morphological and optical analyses revealed good quality growth of nanocrystalline PbS thin films. This study introduced a facile and low cost method to prepare high quality nanocrystalline PbS thin films in a relatively short growth time for optoelectronic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfides
  11. Kannan SK, Esakkiappa S, Anthonysamy E, Sudalaimuthu S, Sulaiman Y, Khan MM, et al.
    Mikrochim Acta, 2023 Feb 10;190(3):87.
    PMID: 36759372 DOI: 10.1007/s00604-023-05664-8
    Spermine (SPM) is considered a biomarker for prostate cancer and detecting it becomes highly challenging due to its electro- and optical-inactive nature. SPM has a tendency to interact with groups such as phosphates and sulfides to form macrocyclic arrangements known as nuclear aggregates of polyamines. Using this tendency, an electrochemical sensor has been developed using a polysulfide (PS) modified Au electrode (PS@Au electrode). PS has been synthesized from elemental sulfur by hydrothermal method and characterized using UV-Vis, fluorescence, FTIR, SEM, and XPS analyses. The PS@Au electrode was employed for electrochemical sensing of SPM. In the presence of SPM, a decrease in gold oxide reduction current was noted which is proportional to the concentration of SPM. The decrease in gold oxide reduction (0.5 V) current was attributed to the complexing nature of SPM-PS at the electrode interface. The reason for the decrease in current has been substantiated using XRF, XPS, and spectroelectrochemical studies. Under the optimized conditions, the PS@Au electrode exhibited a linear range of 1.55-250 µM with LOD of 0.511 ± 0.02 µM (3σ). The electrochemical strategy for SPM sensing exhibited better selectivity even in the presence of possible interferents. The selectivity stems from the selective interaction of SPM with PS on the Au electrode surface; the tested amino acids, and other molecules do not complex with PS and hence they could not interfere. The PS@Au electrode has been subjected to the determination of SPM in artificial urine samples and exhibited outstanding performance in the synthetic sample.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfides
  12. Wong EYL, Loh GOK, Tan YTF, Peh KK
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2021 Feb;47(2):197-206.
    PMID: 33300818 DOI: 10.1080/03639045.2020.1862177
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to develop a simple, highthroughput and sensitive LC-MS/MS method and apply to a bioequivalence study of montelukast, a light sensitive drug.

    METHOD: The effects of organic modifiers in mobile phase, protein precipitation agent to plasma sample ratio, and light on montelukast stability in unprocessed and processed human plasma, were evaluated. Validation was conducted in accordance with European Medicines Agency Guideline on bioanalytical method validation.

    RESULTS: No interference peak was observed when acetonitrile was used as an organic modifier. Acetonitrile to plasma ratio of 4:1 produced clean plasma sample. Approximately 3 % of cis isomer was detected in unprocessed plasma samples while 21 % of cis isomer was detected in processed plasma samples after exposing to fluorescent light for 24h. The standard calibration curve was linear over 3.00-1200.00 ng/mL. All method validation parameters were within the acceptance criteria.

    CONCLUSION: The validated method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of two montelukast formulations involving 24 healthy Malaysian volunteers. The light stability of a light sensitive drug in unprocessed and processed human plasma samples should be studied prior to pharmacokinetic/bioequivalence studies. Measures could then be taken to protect the analyte in human plasma from light degradation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfides/pharmacology*; Sulfides/chemistry
  13. Ibrahim I, Lim HN, Huang NM, Jiang ZT, Altarawneh M
    J Hazard Mater, 2020 06 05;391:122248.
    PMID: 32062348 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122248
    Nowadays, increasing the risk for copper leaching into the drinking water in homes, hotels and schools has become unresolved issues all around the countries such as Canada, the United States, and Malaysia. The leaching of copper in tap water is due to a combination of acidic water, damaged pipes, and corroded plumbing fixtures. To remedy this global problem, a triple interconnected structure of CdS/Au/GQDs was designed as a photo-to-electron conversion medium for a real time and selective visible-light-prompt photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor for Cu2+ ions in real water samples. The synergistic interaction of the CdS/Au/GQDs enabled the smooth transportation of charge carriers to the charge collector and provided a channel to inhibit the charge recombination reaction. Thus, a detection limit of 2.27 nM was obtained, which is 10,000 fold lower than that of WHO's Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality (∼30 μM). The photocurrent reduction was negligible after 30 days of storage under ambient conditions, suggesting the high stability of photoelectrode. Moreover, the real-time monitoring of Cu2+ ions in real samples was performed with satisfactory results, confirming the capability of the investigated photoelectrode as the most practical detector for trace amounts of Cu2+ ions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfides/radiation effects*; Sulfides/chemistry
  14. Shah M, Ayob MTM, Rosdan R, Yaakob N, Embong Z, Othman NK
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2020;2020:3989563.
    PMID: 32774180 DOI: 10.1155/2020/3989563
    H2S gas when exposed to metal can be responsible for both general and localized corrosion, which depend on several parameters such as H2S concentration and the corrosion product layer formed. Therefore, the formation of passive film on 316L steel when exposed to H2S environment was investigated using several analysis methods such as FESEM and STEM/EDS analyses, which identified a sulfur species underneath the porous structure of the passive film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that the first layer of CrO3 and Cr2O3 was dissolved, accelerated by the presence of H2S-Cl-. An FeS2 layer was formed by incorporation of Fe and sulfide; then, passivation by Mo took place by forming a MoO2 layer. NiO, Ni(OH)2, and NiS barriers are formed as final protection for 316L steel. Therefore, Ni and Mo play an important role as a dual barrier to maintain the stability of 316L steel in high pH2S environments. For safety concern, this paper is aimed to point out a few challenges dealing with high partial pressure of H2S and limitation of 316L steel under highly sour condition for the oil and gas production system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfides
  15. Nelson BR, Satyanarayana B, Moh JHZ, Ikhwanuddin M, Chatterji A, Shaharom F
    PeerJ, 2016;4:e2232.
    PMID: 27547542 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2232
    Tanjung Selongor and Pantai Balok (State Pahang) are the only two places known for spawning activity of the Malaysian horseshoe crab - Tachypleus gigas (Müller, 1785) on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. While the former beach has been disturbed by several anthropogenic activities that ultimately brought an end to the spawning activity of T. gigas, the status of the latter remains uncertain. In the present study, the spawning behavior of T. gigas at Pantai Balok (Sites I-III) was observed over a period of thirty six months, in three phases, between 2009 and 2013. Every year, the crab's nesting activity was found to be high during Southwest monsoon (May-September) followed by Northeast (November-March) and Inter monsoon (April and October) periods. In the meantime, the number of female T. gigas in 2009-2010 (Phase-1) was higher (38 crabs) than in 2010-2011 (Phase-2: 7 crabs) and 2012-2013 (Phase-3: 9 crabs) for which both increased overexploitation (for edible and fishmeal preparations) as well as anthropogenic disturbances in the vicinity (sand mining since 2009, land reclamation for wave breaker/parking lot constructions in 2011 and fishing jetty construction in 2013) are responsible. In this context, the physical infrastructure developments have altered the sediment close to nesting sites to be dominated by fine sand (2.5Xφ ) with moderately-well sorted (0.6-0.7σφ), very-coarse skewed (-2.4SKφ), and extremely leptokurtic (12.6Kφ) properties. Also, increased concentrations of Cadmium (from 4.2 to 13.6 mg kg(-1)) and Selenium (from 11.5 to 23.3 mg kg(-1)) in the sediment, and Sulphide (from 21 to 28 µg l(-1)) in the water were observed. In relation to the monsoonal changes affecting sheltered beach topography and sediment flux, the spawning crabs have shown a seasonal nest shifting behaviour in-between Sites I-III during 2009-2011. However, in 2012-2013, the crabs were mostly restricted to the areas (i.e., Sites I and II) with high oxygen (5.5-8.0 mg l(-1)) and moisture depth (6.2-10.2 cm). In view of the sustained anthropogenic pressure on the coastal habitats on one hand and decreasing horseshoe crabs population on the other, it is crucial to implement both conservation and management measures for T. gigas at Pantai Balok. Failing that may lead to the loss of this final spawning ground on the east coast of P. Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfides
  16. Fathul Karim Sahrani, Zaharah Ibrahim, Madzlan Aziz, Adibah Yahya
    Corrosion caused by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) isolated from seawater nearby to Pasir Gudang has been studied. The test coupon was a AISI 304 stainless steel. Potential and corrosion rate measurements were carried out in various types of culturing solutions, with SRB1, SRB2, combination of SRB1 & SRB2 and without SRBs inoculated (sterilized). From Tafel plots a higher corrosion rate has been found in medium inoculated with SRBs than that of the sterilized medium (control). When SRBs were present in the medium, the Tafel plot shifted towards more negative values (Ecorr was shifted to much less anodic values) and increase in current density compared to that of the sterilized medium (control). Localized corrosion was observed on the metal surface, and it was associated to the SRB activity. X-ray analysis (EDAX) showed that the corrosion product has higher content of sulphur for medium containing SRBs than that of the sterilized medium. X-Ray Diffraction analysis carried out on corrosion products which showed the presence of iron sulphide. This indicates the influence of the presence of SRB in corrosion process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfides
  17. Fathul Karim Sahrani, Madzlan Abd. Aziz, Zaharah Ibrahim, Adibah Yahya
    The aim of this study was to determine the surface chemistry during biocorrosion process on growth and on the production of exopolymeric substances (EPS) in batch cultures of mix-strains of marine sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) isolated from Malaysian Shipyard and Engineering Harbours, Pasir Gudang. The EPS and precipitates were analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS results indicate that Fe(2p3/2) spectrum for iron sulphide can be fitted with Fe(II) and Fe(III) components, both corresponding to Fe-S bond types. The absence of oxide oxygen in the O(1s) spectrum and Fe(III)-O bond types in the Fe(2p3/2) spectrum supports the conclusion that iron sulphides are composed of both ferric and ferrous iron coordinated with monosulphide and disulphide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disulfides; Sulfides
  18. Noor Halini Baharim, Razali Ismail, Mohamad Hanif Omar
    Sains Malaysiana, 2011;40:1179-1186.
    Thermal stratification in lakes is an important natural process that can have a significant effect on the water resource quality. The potential changes in chemical contents in water resulting from stratification are the production of ammonia, sulphides and algal nutrients and the increasing concentrations of iron and manganese. One of the water supply reservoirs located in Johor, Malaysia facing with high iron and manganese concentrations associated with the period of stratifications. This study showed that the level of thermal stratification in the reservoir varied at different time of the year. During the strongest period of stratification, the dissolved oxygen content was found to diminish significantly with depth and iron and manganese were recorded at the highest concentrations. Although significant period of rainfalls contributed to the natural destratification of reservoir, lower concentrations of iron and manganese only remained for a shorter period before the concentrations continued to increase with the onset of the thermal stratification. A good understanding on the behaviour of the reservoir may help to identify several measures for the improvement of water quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfides
  19. Koguleshun S, Pua FL, Shamala G, Nabihah S
    Sains Malaysiana, 2015;44:1573-1577.
    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) contributes to a large quantity of lignocellulosic waste. It is an abundantly available
    waste biomass in Malaysia. This project was aimed to utilize the waste materials for a better benefit. EFB were used as
    raw material to prepare a new solid catalyst for biodiesel production. Solid acid catalyst derived from EFB was used to
    catalyze the esterification process in biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Solid acid catalyst was prepared by
    direct impregnation with transition metal sulfides, Fe2
    . This new catalyst was used to catalyze the esterification of
    high free fatty acid (FFA) value oil, e.g. waste cooking oils (WCOs) as pre-treatment step prior to biodiesel production.
    The highest catalytic activity with 90.95% esterification rate was achieved. The catalyst can be easily separated for
    reuse compared to homogenous catalyst which are used in biodiesel production. EFB has the potential to be converted
    into useful feedstock and the derived catalyst can replace the traditional liquid acid catalyst in biodiesel production
    especially for high acid value content feedstock.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfides
  20. Kamisah Y, Othman F, Qodriyah HM, Jaarin K
    PMID: 23956777 DOI: 10.1155/2013/709028
    Parkia speciosa Hassk., or stink bean, is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. It is consumed either raw or cooked. It has been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, hypertension, and kidney problems. It contains minerals and vitamins. It displays many beneficial properties. Its extracts from the empty pods and seeds have a high content of total polyphenol, phytosterol, and flavonoids. It demonstrates a good antioxidant activity. Its hypoglycemic effect is reported to be attributable to the presence of β -sitosterol, stigmasterol, and stigmast-4-en-3-one. The cyclic polysulfide compounds exhibit antibacterial activity, while thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid possesses anticancer property. The pharmacological properties of the plant extract are described in this review. With ongoing research conducted on the plant extracts, Parkia speciosa has a potential to be developed as a phytomedicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfides
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