DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews were searched from their inception until June 2017.
REVIEW METHODS: All randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and case-control studies were included. Case reports, case series, nonsystematic reviews, and studies that involved children were excluded.
RESULTS: Nine studies (n = 464) were eligible in the data synthesis. Both continuous and bolus furosemide resulted in no difference in all-cause mortality (7 studies; n = 396; I2 = 0%; fixed-effect model [FEM]: odds ratio [OR] 1.15 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-1.96]; p = 0.64). Continuous furosemide was associated with significant greater total urine output (n = 132; I2 = 70%; random-effect model: OR 811.19 [95% CI 99.84-1,522.53]; p = 0.03), but longer length of hospital stay (n = 290; I2 = 40%; FEM: OR 2.84 [95% CI 1.74-3.94]; p < 0.01) in comparison to the bolus group. No statistical significance was found in the changes of creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate between both groups.
CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis, continuous furosemide was associated with greater diuretic effect in total urine output as compared with bolus. Neither had any differences in mortality and changes of renal function tests. However, a large adequately powered randomized clinical trial is required to fill this knowledge gap.
METHODS: Data pertaining to 4,501 colorectal carcinoma patients were extracted from the national colorectal registry and analysed. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to compare the survival rate between patients with intestinal obstruction and those without intestinal obstruction. The p-values<0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. Simple Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the crude hazard ratio of mortality from colorectal cancer.
RESULTS: Intestinal obstruction was reported in more than 13% of patients. The 3-year survival rate after treatment was 48.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.9 to 52.8) for patients with intestinal obstruction (n=593) and 54.9% (95% CI, 53.1 to 56.6) for patients without intestinal obstruction (n=3,908). The 5-year survival rate for patients with intestinal obstruction was 37.3% (95% CI, 31.9 to 42.8), which was lower than that of patients without intestinal obstruction (45.6%; 95% CI, 43.5 to 47.7). After adjusting the hazard ratio for other prognostic variables, intestinal obstruction had a statistically significant negative correlation with the survival rate of colorectal cancer patients, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.22 (p=0.008).
CONCLUSIONS: The presence of intestinal obstruction is associated with a lower survival rate among colorectal cancer patients.