METHODS: A literature search was conducted with the use of three online databases namely, Web of Science, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. Developed keywords strategy was used to include only the relevant articles. A Population Intervention Comparison Outcomes (PICO) strategy was used to develop the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Image quality was analyzed quantitatively based on peak signal-noise-ratio (PSNR), Mean Squared Error (MSE), Absolute Mean Brightness Error (AMBE), Entropy, and Contrast Improvement Index (CII) values.
RESULTS: Nine studies with four types of image enhancement techniques were included in this study. Two studies used histogram-based, three studies used frequency-based, one study used fuzzy-based and three studies used filter-based. All studies reported PSNR values whilst only four studies reported MSE, AMBE, Entropy and CII values. Filter-based was the highest PSNR values of 78.93, among other types. For MSE, AMBE, Entropy, and CII values, the highest were frequency-based (7.79), fuzzy-based (93.76), filter-based (7.92), and frequency-based (6.54) respectively.
CONCLUSION: In summary, image quality for each image enhancement technique is varied, especially for breast cancer detection. In this study, the frequency-based of Fast Discrete Curvelet Transform (FDCT) via the UnequiSpaced Fast Fourier Transform (USFFT) shows the most superior among other image enhancement techniques.
Objective: In this case-control study, the suitability of germinal vesicle transfer (GVT), synchronous ooplasmic transfer (sOT), asynchronous ooplasmic transfer using cryopreserved MII oocyte (caOT), and asynchronous ooplasmic transfer using waste MII oocyte (waOT) for maturation of the human-aged non-surrounded nucleolus germinal vesicle-stage (NSN-GV) oocyte were investigated.
Materials and Methods: NSN-GV oocytes were subjected to four methods: group A (GVT), B (sOT), C (caOT) D (waOT), and E (Control). The fusion rates, MI, MII, ICSI observations and cleavage at 2-cell, 4-cell, and 8-cell stages were compared in the groups.
Results: In GVT, none of the oocytes fused. In sOT, all oocytes fused, 20 achieved the MI, 14 progressed to MII, 8 fertilized, 6 cleaved and 5, 4, and 3 achieved the 2-cells, 4-cells and 8-cells, respectively. In caOT, all oocytes fused and achieved the MI, 8 progressed to MII and fertilized, 6 cleaved and 6, 5, and 5 achieved the 2-cells, 4-cells, and 8-cells respectively. In waOT, all oocytes fused, 5 and 3 progressed to MI and MII, respectively, but only one fertilized, cleaved and reached a 4-cells stage. In group E, 6 and 2 oocytes progressed to MI and MII, respectively, and only one fertilized but arrested at the zygote stage. caOT had the highest survival rate when compared to sOT (p = 0.04), waOT (p = 0.002), and control (p = 0.001).
Conclusion: The caOT method was beneficial over sOT, waOT, and GVT in supplementing the developmental capacity of human-aged NSN-GV oocytes.
METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted by obtaining records in the Malaysian National Cancer Registry. Patients aged 15 years old and above with diagnosis date between 2007 and 2011 were included. Death was updated until 31 December 2016. Five-year observed survival and median survival time were determined by the life table method and Kaplan-Meier estimate method.
RESULTS: Among 1828 cases, the mean (SD) age of diagnosis was 64.9 (12.5) years. The patients were predominantly men (78.7%), Malay ethnicity (49.4%) and transitional cell carcinoma (78.2%). Only 14.8% of patients were at stage I. The overall five-year observed survival and median survival time was 36.9% (95% CI: 34.6, 39.1) and 27.3 months (95% CI: 23.6, 31.0). The highest five-year observed survival recorded at stage I (67.6%, 95% CI: 62.0, 73.3) and markedly worsen at stage II (34.3%, 95% CI: 27.9, 40.8), III (25.7%, 95% CI: 18.7, 32.6) and IV (12.2%, 95% CI: 8.1, 16.3).
CONCLUSIONS: Survival of bladder cancer patients in Malaysia was lower with advancing stage. The cancer control programme should be enhanced to improve survival.
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