Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 71 in total

  1. Malekbala MR, Soltani SM, Hosseini S, Eghbali Babadi F, Malekbala R
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2017 Sep 22;57(14):2935-2942.
    PMID: 26207585 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2015.1020532
    During the past few years the scientific and medical community has been confronted with a continual interest in vitamin E with the interest prompted by new discoveries. Tocopherols and tocotrienols, commonly known as vitamin E, are extremely invaluable compounds and have various nutritional functionalities and benefits to human health. Great deals of research projects have been launched in order to develop effective methods for the extraction of vitamin E. By and large, three distinct extractive methods are usually employed: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), molecular distillation, and adsorption methods. These methods are sensitive to different experimental conditions, such as pressure, temperature, and flow rate with noticeable effects on the efficiency of the extraction and enrichment of vitamin E. This review has covered the most commonly adapted extraction methods and has probed into the extraction yields under variable operational parameters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/analysis*; Tocopherols/isolation & purification
  2. Han NM, May CY, Ngan MA, Hock CC, Ali Hashim M
    J Chromatogr Sci, 2005 3 17;42(10):536-9.
    PMID: 15768840
    Crude palm oil contains 600 to 1000 ppm of tocols in the form of tocopherols and tocotrienols. These palm tocols have been isolated and analyzed in the past by various chromatographic techniques such as open column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, as well as thin-layer chromatography. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has emerged as a more advanced chromatographic technique in recent years. The tocols present in palm oil are successfully isolated using SFC. Identification of these tocols is supported by various spectroscopic techniques such as 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/isolation & purification*
  3. Fu JY, Htar TT, De Silva L, Tan DM, Chuah LH
    Molecules, 2017 Feb 04;22(2).
    PMID: 28165404 DOI: 10.3390/molecules22020233
    Vitamin E is recognized as an essential vitamin since its discovery in 1922. Most vegetable oils contain a mixture of tocopherols and tocotrienols in the vitamin E composition. Structurally, tocopherols and tocotrienols share a similar chromanol ring and a side chain at the C-2 position. Owing to the three chiral centers in tocopherols, they can appear as eight different stereoisomers. Plant sources of tocopherol are naturally occurring in the form of RRR while synthetic tocopherols are usually in the form of all-racemic mixture. Similarly, with only one chiral center, natural tocotrienols occur as the R-isoform. In this review, we aim to discuss a few chromatographic methods that had been used to separate the stereoisomers of tocopherols and tocotrienols. These methods include high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and combination of both. The review will focus on method development including selection of chiral columns, detection method and choice of elution solvent in the context of separation efficiency, resolution and chiral purity. The applications for separation of enantiomers in vitamin E will also be discussed especially in terms of the distinctive biological potency among the stereoisoforms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/chemistry
  4. Azlina MFN, Qodriyah MS, Kamisah Y
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(12):1456-1462.
    PMID: 29173163 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666171122130338
    BACKGROUND: Scientific reports had shown that stress is related to numerous pathological changes in the body. These pathological changes can bring about numerous diseases and can significantly cause negative effects in an individual. These include gastric ulcer, liver pathology and neurobehavioral changes. A common pathogenesis in many diseases related to stress involves oxidative damage. Therefore, the administration of antioxidants such as vitamin E is a reasonable therapeutic approach. However, there is conflicting evidence about antioxidant supplementation.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to summarize documented reports on the effects of tocopherol and tocotrienol on various pathological changes induced by stress.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: This review will reveal the scientific evidence of enteral supplementation of vitamin E in the forms of tocotrienol and tocopherol in animal models of stress. These models mimic the stress endured by critically ill patients in a clinical setting and psychological stress in individuals. Positive outcomes from enteral feeding of vitamin E in reducing the occurrence of stress-induced pathological changes are discussed in this review. These positive findings include their ability to reduced stress-induced gastric ulcers, elevated liver enzymes and improved locomotors activity. Evidences showing tocotrienol and tocopherol effects are not just related to its ability to reduce oxidative stress but also acting on other mechanism, are discussed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/therapeutic use*
  5. Mansor, T. S. T., Che Man, Y. B., Shuhaimi, M., Abdul Afiq, M. J., Ku Nurul, F. K. M.
    Virgin Coconut Oils (VCO) were prepared from fresh-dry (grated coconut route), chilling and thawing, enzymatic and fermentation method in this study. All of the VCO produced conformed physicochemically to the standards established by the Asian and Pacific Coconut Community (APCC) and Codex Alimentarius Commission. The highest FA (fatty acid) is lauric acid in all of the VCO and ranged from 46.36 – 48.42 %, while the principal TAG (triacylglycerol) is LaLaLa (La: Lauric) with 17.94 – 19.83 % of the total TAG. Tocopherol analysis showed the presence of beta, gamma and delta tocopherols at low levels. In all, the physicochemical, FA and TAG analyses of the VCO extracted from different methods showed some significant differences, while the tocopherol content does not differ significantly among the different types of extraction methods used.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols
  6. Wong YF, Makahleh A, Saad B, Ibrahim MN, Rahim AA, Brosse N
    Talanta, 2014 Dec;130:299-306.
    PMID: 25159413 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2014.07.021
    A sensitive and rapid reversed-phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of tocopherols (α-, β-, γ-, δ-), tocotrienols (α-, β-, γ-, δ-), α-tocopherol acetate and α-tocopherol nicotinate is described. The separation was achieved using a Kinetex pentafluorophenyl (PFP) column (150 × 2.1mm, 2.6 µm) with both photodiode array (PDA) and fluorescence (FL) detectors that were connected in series. Column was thermostated at 42°C. Under a gradient system consisting of methanol and water at a constant flow rate of 0.38 mL min(-1), all the ten analytes were well separated in less than 9.5 min. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, precision and recoveries. Calibration curves of the ten compounds were well correlated (r(2)>0.999) within the range of 100 to 25,000 μg L(-1) for α-tocopherol acetate and α-tocopherol nicotinate, 10 to 25,000 μg L(-1) for α-tocotrienol and 5 to 25,000 μg L(-1) for the other components. The method is simple and sensitive with detection limits (S/N, 3) of 1.0 to 3.0 μg L(-1) (FL detection) and 30 to 74 μg L(-1) (PDA detection). Relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day retention times (<1%) and peak areas (≤ 4%) were obtained. The method was successfully applied to the determination of vitamin E in vegetable oils (extra virgin olive, virgin olive, pomace olive, blended virgin and refined olive, sunflower, soybean, palm olein, carotino, crude palm, walnut, rice bran and grape seed), margarines and supplements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/analysis*; Tocopherols/isolation & purification
  7. Dezfouli MG, Eissazadeh S, Zade SM
    Microsc. Microanal., 2014 Aug;20(4):1167-79.
    PMID: 24735566 DOI: 10.1017/S1431927614000701
    This study examines histometrical changes induced by sodium arsenite (SA), as an environmental pollutant, and investigates the protective effect of α-tocopherol on ovaries of SA-treated rats during the prenatal stage until sexual maturity. Rats were classified into groups: control, SA (8 ppm/day), α-tocopherol (100 ppm/day), and SA+α-tocopherol. Treatment was performed from pregnancy until maturation when the rats and ovaries were weighed. The Cavalieri method was used to estimate volume of the ovaries, cortex, medulla, and corpus luteum. The mean diameter of oocytes, granulosa cells, and nuclei were measured and volume was estimated using the Nucleator method. The number of oocytes and thickness of the zona pellucida (ZP) were determined using an optical dissector and orthogonal intercept method, respectively. SA reduced the body and ovary weight, the number of secondary, antral and Graafian oocytes, volume of the ovaries, cortex, medulla and corpus luteum, mean diameter and volume of oocytes in primordial and primary follicles, mean diameter and volume of oocyte nuclei in all types of follicles, and mean thickness of the ZP in secondary and antral follicles. Also, the mean diameter and volume of granulosa cells and their nuclei in antral and Graafian follicles decreased significantly. Vacuolization and vascular congestion in the corpus luteum and an increase in the number of atretic oocytes were seen in the SA group. Most of these parameters were unchanged from the control level in the SA+α-tocopherol group. It was concluded that α-tocopherol supplementation reduced the toxic effects of SA exposure on ovarian tissue in rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/administration & dosage; Tocopherols/pharmacology*
  8. Ng MH, Kushairi A
    Molecules, 2017 Aug 29;22(9).
    PMID: 28850073 DOI: 10.3390/molecules22091424
    There are six tocol analogs present in palm oil, namely α-tocopherol (α-T), α-tocomonoenol (α-T₁), α-tocotrienol (α-T₃), γ-tocotrienol (γ-T₃), β-tocotrioenol (β-T₃) and δ-tocotrienol (δ-T₃). These analogs were difficult to separate chromatographically due to their similar structures, physical and chemical properties. This paper reports on the effect of pressure and injection solvent on the separation of the tocol analogs in palm oil. Supercritical CO₂ modified with ethanol was used as the mobile phase. Both total elution time and resolution of the tocol analogs decreased with increased pressure. Ethanol as an injection solvent resulted in peak broadening of the analogs within the entire pressure range studied. Solvents with an eluent strength of 3.4 or less were more suitable for use as injecting solvents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/isolation & purification*; Tocopherols/chemistry*
  9. Babura SR, Abdullah SNA, Khaza Ai H
    J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo), 2017;63(4):215-221.
    PMID: 28978868 DOI: 10.3177/jnsv.63.215
    Tocotrienols are forms of vitamin E that are present in several important food crops. Compared to tocopherols, less research has been conducted on these compounds because of their low bioavailability and distribution in plant tissues. Both tocotrienols and tocopherols are known for their antioxidant and anticancer activities, which are beneficial for both humans and animals. Moreover, tocotrienols possess certain properties which are not found in tocopherols, such as neuroprotective and cholesterol-lowering activities. The contents of tocotrienols in plants vary. Tocotrienols constitute more than 70% and tocopherols less than 30% of the total vitamin E content in palm oil, which is the best source of vitamin E. Accumulation of tocotrienols also occurs in non-photosynthetic tissues, such as the seeds, fruits and latex of some monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant species. The use of biotechnological techniques to increase the tocotrienol content in plants, their biological functions, and benefits to human health are discussed in this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/metabolism; Tocopherols/chemistry
  10. Tarmizi AH, Ismail R
    Food Sci Nutr, 2014 Jan;2(1):28-38.
    PMID: 24804062 DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.76
    Binary blends of palm olein (PO) with sunflower oil (SFO), canola oil (CNO), and cottonseed oil (CSO) were formulated to assess their stability under continuous frying conditions. The results were then compared with those obtained in PO. The oil blends studied were: (1) 60:40 for PO + SFO; (2) 70:30 for PO + CNO; and (3) 50:50 for PO + CSO. The PO and its blends were used to fry potato chips at 180°C for a total of 56 h of operation. The evolution of analytical parameters such as tocols, induction period, color, p-anisidine value, free fatty acid, smoke point, polar compounds, and polymer compounds were evaluated over the frying time. Blending PO with unsaturated oils was generally proved to keep most qualitative parameters comparable to those demonstrated in PO. Indeed, none of the oils surpassed the legislative limits for used frying. Overall, it was noted that oil containing PO and SFO showed higher resistance toward oxidative and hydrolytic behaviors as compared to the other oil blends.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols
  11. Shammugasamy B, Ramakrishnan Y, Ghazali HM, Muhammad K
    J Chromatogr A, 2013 Jul 26;1300:31-7.
    PMID: 23587317 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2013.03.036
    A simple sample preparation technique coupled with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals. The sample preparation procedure involved a small-scale hydrolysis of 0.5g cereal sample by saponification, followed by the extraction and concentration of tocopherols and tocotrienols from saponified extract using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). Parameters affecting the DLLME performance were optimized to achieve the highest extraction efficiency and the performance of the developed DLLME method was evaluated. Good linearity was observed over the range assayed (0.031-4.0μg/mL) with regression coefficients greater than 0.9989 for all tocopherols and tocotrienols. Limits of detection and enrichment factors ranged from 0.01 to 0.11μg/mL and 50 to 73, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision were lower than 8.9% and the recoveries were around 85.5-116.6% for all tocopherols and tocotrienols. The developed DLLME method was successfully applied to cereals: rice, barley, oat, wheat, corn and millet. This new sample preparation approach represents an inexpensive, rapid, simple and precise sample cleanup and concentration method for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/analysis*; Tocopherols/isolation & purification; Tocopherols/chemistry
  12. Mokbli S, Sbihi HM, Nehdi IA, Romdhani-Younes M, Tan CP, Al-Resayes SI
    J Food Sci Technol, 2018 Jun;55(6):2170-2179.
    PMID: 29892118 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-018-3134-x
    Herein we examine the characteristics of date seed oil extracted from Chamaerops humilis L. var. humilis seeds (HSO) cultivated in a gardening zone in Tunisia. Its physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition, and thermal and antioxidant properties were evaluated and compared with those of seed oil from another variety of Chamaerops humilis. The results showed that HSO possessed higher contents of oleic (44%) and linoleic (20%) acids than the other seed oil. The total tocopherol and tocotrienol content was 88 mg/100 g oil, where α-tocotrienol (64%) was the major isomer. The total phenolic (91 μg/g oil) and flavonoid contents (18 μg/g oil) of the HSO were determined, and its antioxidant capacities, measured in terms of ABTS and DPPH radical-scavenging capacities, were 210 µM TEAC/g DW and 4.3 mM TEAC/g DW, respectively. The oxidative stability index (OSI) of the oil was 16 h at 110 °C. Furthermore, the OSI of soybean oil was significantly enhanced upon blending with HSO. HSO exhibited higher thermal stability than the other oils and significantly different thermal behavior. The determination of fatty acid composition, physicochemical properties, bioactive content, oxidative stability, and thermal behavior of HSO demonstrated that this renewable resource can be used for edible purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols
  13. Hue, W.L., Nyam, K.L.
    Kenaf seed oil contains high amount of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and bioactive compounds, such as tocopherol and phytosterol. In order to prevent bioactive compounds from oxidation, kenaf seed oil (KSO) was encapsulated by coextrusion technology. KSO and microencapsulated kenaf seed oil (MKSO) were then subjected to accelerated storage to investigate the effect of microencapsulation on the storage stability of kenaf seed oil. The changes of fatty acids profiles and bioactive compounds in oils were evaluated. Result showed that there was significant decreased (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols
  14. Chew SC, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    Food Sci Biotechnol, 2017;26(1):63-69.
    PMID: 30263511 DOI: 10.1007/s10068-017-0009-2
    This study assessed the changes of antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds of crude and refined kenaf seed oil during accelerated storage at 65°C for 24 days. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assays were used to determine their antioxidant activity. The changes of phenolic, tocopherol, and phytosterol contents during the storage were also studied. The phenolic content and antioxidant activity of refined oil were significantly lower than those of crude oil after the accelerated storage. There was a decrease of 72.5% tocopherol content and 31.1% phytosterol content in the crude oil and a decrease of 67% tocopherol content and 12.1% phytosterol content in the refined oil during the accelerated storage. There was no significant difference in tocopherol and phytosterol contents for crude and refined oils after the storage. The rate of degradation of tocopherol and phytosterol contents in refined oil was slower than that in crude oil during the storage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols
  15. Han NM, May CY
    J Chromatogr Sci, 2012 Mar;50(3):283-6.
    PMID: 22337806 DOI: 10.1093/chromsci/bms002
    Analyses of tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols) in palm oil have been extensively reported in the past. However, due to the scarcity of individual tocotrienol standards, calibrations have mostly been carried out using only α-tocopherol as standard. Moreover, even if the individual tocotrienols are being used, their reliability is often questioned, because tocotrienols are highly susceptible to oxidation and deterioration. This paper reports on the study of the deterioration rate of individual tocotrienol standards upon storage as well as different calibration methods for the tocols in palm oil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/analysis*
  16. Fairus S, Nor RM, Cheng HM, Sundram K
    Nutr J, 2012;11:5.
    PMID: 22252050 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-5
    Tocotrienols (T3) and tocopherols (T), both members of the natural vitamin E family have unique biological functions in humans. T3 are detected in circulating human plasma and lipoproteins, although at concentrations significantly lower than α-tocopherol (α-T). T3, especially α-T3 is known to be neuropotective at nanomolar concentrations and this study evaluated the postprandial fate of T3 and α-T in plasma and lipoproteins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/blood
  17. Tarmizi AH, Lin SW
    J Oleo Sci, 2008;57(12):639-48.
    PMID: 19001776
    Extending the frying-life of oils is of commercial and economic importance. Due to this fact, assessment on the thermal stability of frying oils could provide considerable savings to the food processors. In this study, the physico-chemical properties of five palm products mainly palm oil, single-fractionated palm olein, double-fractionated palm olein, red palm olein and palm-based shortening during 80 hours of heating at 180 degrees C were investigated. Heating properties of these products were then compared with that of high oleic sunflower oil, which was used as reference oil. The indices applied in evaluating the quality changes of oils were free fatty acid, smoke point, p-anisidine value, tocols, polar and polymer compounds. Three palm products i.e. palm oil, single-fractionated palm olein and double-fractionated palm olein were identified to be the most stable in terms of lower formation of free fatty acid, polar and polymer compounds as well as preserving higher smoke point and tocols content compared to the other three oils. The low intensity of hydrolytic and oxidative changes due to prolonged heating, suggests that these palm products are inherently suitable for frying purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/analysis
  18. Ng MH, Choo YM, Ma AN, Chuah CH, Hashim MA
    Lipids, 2004 Oct;39(10):1031-5.
    PMID: 15691027
    Previous reports showed that vitamin E in palm oil consists of various isomers of tocopherols and tocotrienols [alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T), alpha-tocotrienol, gamma-tocopherol, gamma-tocotrienol, and delta-tocotrienol), and this is normally analyzed using silica column HPLC with fluorescence detection. In this study, an HPLC-fluorescence method using a C30 silica stationary phase was developed to separate and analyze the vitamin E isomers present in palm oil. In addition, an alpha-tocomonoenol (alpha-T1) isomer was quantified and characterized by MS and NMR. (alpha-T1 constitutes about 3-4% (40+/-5 ppm) of vitamin E in crude palm oil (CPO) and is found in the phytonutrient concentrate (350+/-10 ppm) from palm oil, whereas its concentration in palm fiber oil (PFO) is about 11% (430+/-6 ppm). The relative content of each individual vitamin E isomer before and after interesterification/transesterification of CPO to CPO methyl esters, followed by vacuum distillation of CPO methyl esters to yield the residue, remained the same except for alpha-T and gamma-T3. Whereas alpha-T constitutes about 36% of the total vitamin E in CPO, it is present at a level of 10% in the phytonutrient concentrate. On the other hand, the composition of gamma-T3 increases from 31% in CPO to 60% in the phytonutrient concentrate. Vitamin is present at 1160+/-43 ppm, and its concentrations in PFO and the phytonutrient concentrate are 4,040+/-41 and 13,780+/-65 ppm, respectively. The separation and quantification of alpha-T1 in palm oil will lead to more in-depth knowledge of the occurrence of vitamin E in palm oil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/isolation & purification
  19. Choo YM, Ma AN, Chuah CH, Khor HT, Bong SC
    Lipids, 2004 Jun;39(6):561-4.
    PMID: 15554155
    The concentration of vitamin E isomers, namely, alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T), alpha-tocotrienol, gamma-tocotrienol, and delta-tocotrienol in palm mesocarp at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 wk after anthesis (WAA) were quantified using HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection. alpha-T was detected throughout the palm fruits' maturation process, whereas unsaturated tocotrienols were found only in ripe palm fruits. These developmental results indicate that tocotrienols are synthesized between 16 and 20 WAA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/analysis*
  20. Fairus S, Cheng HM, Sundram K
    J Integr Med, 2020 Jan;18(1):68-79.
    PMID: 31812339 DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2019.11.005
    OBJECTIVE: Tocotrienols (T3s) have been hypothesized to have greater antioxidant capacity than tocopherols (Ts) due to differences in biokinetics that affect their absorption and function. The present trial compares the antioxidant effectiveness following postprandial challenge of two different doses of α-T or palm T3-rich fraction (TRF) treatments and evaluates their dose-response effects on antioxidant status.

    METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were given four different doses of vitamin E formulations (268 mg α-T, 537 mg α-T, 263 mg TRF or 526 mg TRF) in a cross-over postprandial trial. Blood was sampled at 0, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 8 hours after meal consumption and plasma antioxidant status including total glutathione, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant potential and trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity, was analyzed.

    RESULTS: Supplementation with the different doses of either α-T or TRF did not significantly improve overall antioxidant status. There was no significant difference in overall antioxidant status among treatments at the different doses compared. However, a significant dose-response effect was observed for plasma MDA throughout the 8-hour postprandial period. MDA was significantly lower after the 537 mg α-T treatment, compared to the 268 mg α-T treatment; it was also lower after the 526 mg TRF treatment compared to the 263 mg TRF treatment (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/administration & dosage*
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