Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 82 in total

  1. Nur H, Manan AF, Wei LK, Muhid MN, Hamdan H
    J Hazard Mater, 2005 Jan 14;117(1):35-40.
    PMID: 15621351
    The surfaces of NaY zeolite particles were modified by the alkylsilylation of n-octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS). Two kinds of modified NaY zeolites were prepared; one with its external surface partially and the other fully covered with alkylsilyl groups. Since the size of OTS is bigger than the pore diameter of NaY, it is attached on the external surface, leaving the internal pore accessible to adsorbate molecules. As a result of alkylsilylation, the adsorption properties of these sorbents were improved. The adsorption properties of these materials were tested by their reaction in a mixture of paraquat and blue dye. The results demonstrate that the alkysilylated NaY materials are capable of simultaneous adsorption of paraquat and blue dye. Paraquat was selectively adsorbed into the internal pore of the zeolite whereas the dye on the externally attached alkylsilyl groups of the sorbent; displaying the unique bimodal amphiphilic character of the alkylsilylated NaY zeolites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zeolites*
  2. Chen WH, Cheng CL, Lee KT, Lam SS, Ong HC, Ok YS, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2021 May;271:129510.
    PMID: 33434827 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129510
    Zeolite socony mobil-5 (ZSM-5) is a common catalyst used for biomass pyrolysis. Nevertheless, the quantitative information on the catalytic behavior of ZSM-5 on biomass pyrolysis is absent so far. This study focuses on the catalytic pyrolysis phenomena and mechanisms of biomass wastes using ZSM-5 via thermogravimetric analyzer and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, with particular emphasis on catalytic level identification and aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) formation. Two biomass wastes of sawdust and sorghum distillery residue (SDR) are investigated, while four biomass-to-catalyst ratios are considered. The analysis suggests that biomass waste pyrolysis processes can be divided into three zones, proceeding from a heat-transfer dominant zone (zone 1) to catalysis dominant zones (zones 2 and 3). The indicators of the intensity of difference (IOD), catalytic effective area, catalytic index (CI), and aromatic enhancement index are conducted to measure the catalytic effect of ZSM-5 on biomass waste pyrolysis and AHs formation. The maximum IOD occurs in zone 2, showing the highest intensity of the catalytic effect. The CI values of the two biomass wastes increase with increasing the biomass-to-catalyst ratio. However, there exists a threshold for sawdust pyrolysis, indicating a limit for the catalytic effect on sawdust. The higher the catalyst addition, the higher the AHs proportion in the vapor stream. When the biomass-to-catalyst ratio is 1/10, AHs formation is intensified significantly, especially for sawdust. Overall, the indexes conducted in the present study can provide useful measures to identify the catalytic pyrolysis dynamics and levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zeolites*
  3. Abd AA, Othman MR, Kim J
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Aug;28(32):43329-43364.
    PMID: 34189695 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-15121-9
    The atmosphere security and regulation of climate change are being continuously highlighted as a pressing issue. The crisis of climate change owing to the anthropogenic carbon dioxide emission has led many governments at federal and provincial levels to promulgate policies to address this concern. Among them is regulating the carbon dioxide emission from major industrial sources such as power plants, petrochemical industries, cement plants, and other industries that depend on the combustion of fossil fuels for energy to operate. In view of this, various CO2 capture and sequestration technologies have been investigated and presented. From this review, adsorption of CO2 on porous solid materials has been gaining increasing attention due to its cost-effectiveness, ease of application, and comparably low energy demand. Despite the myriad of advanced materials such as zeolites, carbons-based, metal-organic frameworks, mesoporous silicas, and polymers being researched, research on activated carbons (ACs) continue to be in the mainstream. Therefore, this review is endeavored to elucidate the adsorption properties of CO2 on activated carbons derived from different sources. Selective adsorption based on pore size/shape and surface chemistry is investigated. Accordingly, the effect of surface modifications of the ACs with NH3, amines, and metal oxides on adsorption performance toward CO2 is evaluated. The adsorption performance of the activated carbons under humid conditions is also reviewed. Finally, activated carbon-based composite has been surveyed and recommended as a feasible strategy to improve AC adsorption properties toward CO2. The activated carbon surface in the graphical abstract is nitrogen rich modified using ammonia through thermal treatment. The values of CO2 emissions by sources are taken from (Yoro and Daramola 2020).
    Matched MeSH terms: Zeolites*
  4. Hermawan AA, Teh KL, Talei A, Chua LHC
    J Environ Manage, 2021 Nov 01;297:113298.
    PMID: 34280854 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113298
    The discharge of high levels of heavy metals into the environment is of concern due to its toxicity to aquatic life and potential human health impacts. Biofiltration systems have been used in urban environments to address nutrient contamination, but there is also evidence that such systems can be effective in reducing heavy metals concentration in stormwater. However, the accumulation pattern of heavy metals and lifespan of such systems, which are important in engineering design, have not been thoroughly explored. This study investigated the accumulation patterns of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe), which are common in urban runoff, in non-vegetated filtration columns using three different types of filter media, namely sand (S), and mixtures of sand with fly ash (sand-fly ash mix, SF), and with zeolite (sand-zeolite mix, SZ). The columns were assessed in terms of infiltration rate, the mass of heavy metals accumulation at different depths, and formation of crust layer (schmutzdecke) at the surface. The results show that most of the heavy metals accumulated at the top 5-10 cm of the filter media. However, Zn was found adsorbed to a depth of 15 cm in S and SZ columns, while Mn and Fe were present in column S throughout the entire 30 cm depth of the filter media. The presence especially of Zn, Mn, and Fe in the deeper portions of the filter media before the top 5 cm layer reached its maximum adsorption capacity, hints that transport to the deeper layers is not necessarily dependent on saturation of the upper layers for these heavy metals. SF accumulated heavy metals most at the top 5 cm of the filter media layer, and retained twice the mass of heavy metals in the crust layer, compared to S and SZ columns. SF also yielded the lowest value of infiltration rate of 31 mm/h. Considering both metals accumulation and clogging potential of the filter media, the periodic maintenance of these systems is suggested to be approximately between 1.5 and 3 years.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zeolites*
  5. Altındaş C, Sher F, Smječanin N, Lima EC, Rashid T, Hai IU, et al.
    Environ Res, 2023 Jan 01;216(Pt 1):114479.
    PMID: 36208784 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2022.114479
    A feasible and cost-effective process for utilization of toluene and heavy reformate is the conversion of its streams by transalkylation reaction into highly valuable xylenes. The process is usually catalysed by zeolites and the challenges to overcome in transalkylation of heavy reformate with toluene over zeolites are their selectivity, activity, long-term stability, and coke formation. Current study aimed to investigate xylenes production by transalkylation reaction on the synthesized metal-doped zeolite catalysts and to characterize prepared catalysts by FTIR, SEM, EDS and BET analysis. Toluene/heavy reformate modelled mixture was utilized as a feed. For the first time Beta and ZSM-5 catalysts with 10% (w/w) cerium and 0.1% (w/w) palladium were synthesized by calcination and wet impregnation method. Catalytic tests were performed by continuous-flow gas/solid catalytic fixed bed reactor at atmospheric pressure, 2 h-1 and 5 h-1 and 250, 300, 350 and 400 °C. Experimental results revealed that the highest heavy reformate conversion (98.94%) and toluene conversion (9.82%) were obtained over H-ZSM-5, at 400 °C and 2 h-1 WHSV. The highest xylene selectivity (11.53) was achieved over H-ZSM-5, and the highest p-xylene percentage (62.40%), using Ce-ZSM-5 catalyst. ZSM-5 catalysts showed more resistance to coke deposition than Beta zeolites. The present study delivers novel approach and catalysts, which have immense potential for developing safer and inexpensive transalkylation process in industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zeolites*
  6. Arifin SNH, Radin Mohamed RMS, Al-Gheethi AA, Wei LC, Yashni G, Fitriani N, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2022 Jan;287(Pt 3):132278.
    PMID: 34826939 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132278
    The study explored the characteristics and effectiveness of modified TiO2 nanotubes with zeolite as a composite photocatalyst (MTNZC) for the degradation of triclocarban (TCC) from the aqueous solution. MTNZC samples have been produced via electrochemical anodisation (ECA) followed by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Three independent factors selected include MTNZC size (0.5-1 cm2), pH (3-10), and irradiation time (10-60 min). The observation revealed that the surface of Ti substrate by the 40 V of anodisation and 3 h of calcination was covered with the array ordered, smooth and optimum elongated nanotubes with average tube length was approximately 5.1 μm. EDS analysis proved the presence of Si, Mg, Al, and Na on MTNZC due to the chemical composition present in the zeolite. The average crystallite size of TiO₂ nanotubes increased from 2.07 to 3.95 nm by increasing anodisation voltage (10, 40, and 60 V) followed by 450 °C of calcination for 1, 3, and 6 h, respectively. The optimisation by RSM shows the F-value (36.12), the p-value of all responses were less than 0.0001, and the 95% confidence level of the model by all the responses indicated the model was significant. The R2 in the range of 0.9433-0.9906 showed the suitability of the model to represent the actual relationship among the parameters. The photocatalytic degradation rate of TCC from the first and the fifth cycles were 94.2 and 77.4%, indicating the applicability of MTNZC to be used for several cycles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zeolites*
  7. Detho A, Daud Z, Rosli MA, Awang H
    J Air Waste Manag Assoc, 2022 01;72(1):69-75.
    PMID: 33689591 DOI: 10.1080/10962247.2021.1894267
    Landfill leachate is a liquid generated due to rainwater percolation through the waste in a landfill or dumping site that may contain high levels of organic matter, both biodegradable and non-biodegradable, which are the major sources of water pollution. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N) contents have been relevant indicators of severity and pollution potential of landfill leachate. The reductions of COD and NH3-N were investigated in this study using different combinations of media ratios of green mussel (GM) and zeolite (ZEO). Generally, ZEO is considered as a renowned adsorbent but with a relatively high in cost. In Malaysia, mussel shell is abundantly available as a by-product from the seafood industry, is regarded as waste, and is mostly left at the dumpsite to naturally deteriorate. Its quality and availability make GMs a cost-effective material. In this research study, leachate samples were characterized and found to contain high concentrations of COD and NH3-N. The adsorption process was conducted to find out the best combination media ratio between GM and ZEO. The removing efficiency was determined at different amounts of composite media ratios. The optimal adsorbent mixture ratios between (GM: ZEO) of 1.0:3.0 and 1.5:2.5 were considered as a more efficient technique in removing COD and NH3-N compared to exploiting these adsorbents individually. The optimal extenuation removal reduction was found at an approximately 65% of COD and 78% of NH3-N. The adsorption Isotherm Langmuir model exhibited a better fit with high regression coefficient for COD (R2 = 0.9998) and NH3-N (R2 = 0.9875), respectively. This means that the combination of GM: ZEO adsorption of landfill leachate in this analysis is homogeneous with the monolayer. The mixture of GMs and ZEO was observed to provide an alternative medium for the reduction of COD and NH3-N with comparatively lower cost.Implications: The concentration of organic constituents (COD) and ammoniacal nitrogen in stabilized landfill leachate have significantly strong influences of human health and the environment. The combination of mixing media green mussel and zeolite adsorbent enhancing organic constituents (COD) and ammoniacal nitrogen reduction efficiency from leachate. This would be greatly applicable in future research as well as conventionally minimizing high cost materials like zeolite, thereby lowering the operating cost of leachate treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zeolites*
  8. Bhatia S, Abdullah AZ, Wong CT
    J Hazard Mater, 2009 Apr 15;163(1):73-81.
    PMID: 18649998 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.06.055
    Adsorption behaviours of butyl acetate in air have been studied over silver-loaded Y (Si/Al=40) and ZSM-5 (Si/Al=140) zeolites. The silver metal was loaded into the zeolites by ion exchange (IE) and impregnation (IM) methods. The adsorption study was mainly conducted at a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 13,000 h(-1) with the organic concentration of 1000 ppm while the desorption step was carried out at a GHSV of 5000 h(-1). The impregnated silver-loaded adsorbents showed lower uptake capacity and shorter breakthrough time by about 10 min, attributed to changes in the pore characteristics and available surface for adsorption. Silver exchanged Y (AgY(IE)) with lower hydrophobicity showed higher uptake capacity of up to 35%, longer adsorbent service time and easier desorption compared to AgZSM-5(IE). The presence of water vapour in the feed suppressed the butyl acetate adsorption of AgY(IE) by 42% due to the competitive adsorption of water on the surface and the effect was more pronounced at lower GHSV. Conversely, the adsorption capacity of AgZSM-5(IE) was minimally affected, attributed to the higher hydrophobicity of the material. A mathematical model is proposed to simulate the adsorption behaviour of butyl acetate over AgY(IE) and AgZSM-5(IE). The model parameters were successfully evaluated and used to accurately predict the breakthrough curves under various process conditions with root square mean errors of between 0.05 and 0.07.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zeolites/chemistry*
  9. Raharjo Y, Ismail AF, Othman MHD, Malek NANN, Santoso D
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Oct;103:109722.
    PMID: 31349515 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.05.007
    In this work, the novel imprinted zeolite (IZ) was synthesized, and its properties and performance in terms of adsorption of p-Cresol, which represent the protein-bounded uremic toxins in aqueous phase under phosphate buffer saline, were studied and compared with the synthesized zeolite-Y (ZeoY-S) and commercial CBV 100 zeolite-Y (ZeoY-C). The ZeoY-S was synthesized from sodium aluminate, NaOH, H2O and SiO2 under aging for 24 h at room temperature and hydrothermal condition for 24 h at 100 °C, with an initial composition of 10SiO2:Al2O3:4Na2O:180H2O. The ZeoY-S has been modified by using the imprinting technology to produce the IZ via the use of p-Cresol as a template. The p-Cresol successfully imprinted on the zeolite-Y was proved through the multipoint Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and the performance of IZ that was compared to ZeoY-S and ZeoY-C. Based on the BET results, it proves that the pore size of IZ is in accordance with the target compound, which is p-Cresol at 0.79 nm. This modification was able to adsorb p-Cresol 2.5 and 3.5 times higher than ZeoY-S and ZeoY-C can, respectively. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models, together with the pseudo-first and -second order and intra-particle diffusion kinetics models, were used to investigate the adsorption behavior of p-Cresol on the zeolites. The IZ has 4.30 times greater competitive molecules than ZeoY-S and the properties of IZ were not influenced by the content of other phenolic group uremic toxins as competitive molecules. It can be concluded that the micropores of zeolite as adsorbent can be modified using the imprinting technology in order to increase its sensitivity and selectivity towards p-Cresol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zeolites/chemistry*
  10. Mohtar SS, Sharuddin SSN, Saman N, Lye JWP, Othman NS, Mat H
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Jun;27(16):20173-20186.
    PMID: 32236809 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-06507-x
    The utilization of natural zeolite (NZ) as an adsorbent for NH4+ removal was investigated. Three types of NZ (i.e., NZ01, NZ02, and NZ03) were characterized, and their NH4+ adsorption process in aqueous solution was evaluated. The effect of pH towards NH4+ adsorption showed that the NZ01 has the highest NH4+ adsorption capacity compared with other natural zeolites used. The application of NZ01 for a simultaneous removal of NH4+ and turbidity in synthetic NH4+-kaolin suspension by adsorptive coagulation process for treating drinking water was studied. The addition of NZ01 into the system increased the NH4+ removal efficiency (ηNH4+) from 11.64% without NZ01 to 41.86% with the addition of 0.2 g L-1 of NZ01. The turbidity removal (ηT), however, was insignificantly affected since the ηT was already higher than 98.0% over all studied parameter's ranges. The thermodynamic and kinetic data analyses suggested that the removal of NH4+ obeyed the Temkin isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. Generally, the turbidity removal was due to the flocculation of destabilized solid particles by alum in the suspension system. The ηNH4+ in surface water was 29.31%, which is lower compared with the removal in the synthetic NH4+-kaolin suspension, but a high ηT (98.65%) was observed. It was found that the addition of the NZ01 could enhance the removal of NH4+ as well as other pollutants in the surface water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zeolites*
  11. Nuhma MJ, Alias H, Tahir M, Jazie AA
    Molecules, 2022 Oct 25;27(21).
    PMID: 36364078 DOI: 10.3390/molecules27217251
    Despite the extensive research into the catalytic uses of zeolite-based catalysts, these catalysts have a limited useful lifetime because of the deactivating effect of coke production. This study looks at the use of Cerium (Ce) loaded HZSM-5 zeolite catalysts in the hydrocarbon and oxygenated chemical conversion from Chlorella Vulgaris microalgae crude oil. Characterization of structure, morphology, and crystallinity was performed after the catalysts were manufactured using the impregnation technique. Soxhlet extraction was carried out to extract the crude oil of microalgae. Transesterification reaction was used to produce algal hydrolyzed oil (HO), and the resulting HO was put to use in a batch reactor at 300 °C, 1000 rpm, 7 bars of nitrogen pressure, a catalyst to the algal HO ratio of 15% (wt. %), and a retention time of 6 h. To determine which Ce-loaded HZSM-5 catalysts would be most effective in converting algal HO into non-oxygenated molecules (hydrocarbons), we conducted a series of tests. Liquid product characteristics were analyzed for elemental composition, higher heating value (HHV), atomic ratios of O/C and H/C, and degree of deoxygenation (DOD%). Results were categorized into three groups: product yield, chemical composition, and carbon number distribution. When Cerium was added to HZSM-5 zeolite at varying loading percentages, the zeolite's acid sites became more effective in facilitating the algal HO conversion. The results showed that 10%Ce/HZSM-5 had the greatest conversion of the algal HO, the yield of hydrocarbons, HHV, and DOD% (98.2%, 30%, 34.05 MJ/Kg, and 51.44%, respectively) among all the synthesized catalysts in this research. In conclusion, the physical changes seen in the textural characteristics may be attributed to Cerium-loading on the parent HZSM-5; nevertheless, there is no direct association between the physical features and the hydrocarbons yield (%). The primary impact of Cerium alteration of the parent HZSM-5 zeolite was to change the acidic sites required to boost the conversion (%) of the algal HO in the catalytic deoxygenation process, which in turn increased the hydrocarbons yield (%), which in turn increased the HHV and DOD%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zeolites*
  12. Nuhma MJ, Alias H, Tahir M, Jazie AA
    Molecules, 2022 Nov 18;27(22).
    PMID: 36432121 DOI: 10.3390/molecules27228018
    Due to their high lipid content, microalgae are one of the most significant sources of green hydrocarbons, which might help lessen the world's need for fossil fuels. Many zeolite-based catalysts are quickly deactivated by coke production and have a short lifetime. In this study, a bimetallic Lanthanum-Cerium (La-Ce)-modified HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst was synthesized through an impregnation method and was tested for the conversion of hydrolyzed oil into oxygen-free hydrocarbon fuels of high energy content. Initially, hydrolyzed oil (HO), the byproduct of the transesterification process, was obtained by the reaction of crude oil derived from Chlorella vulgaris microalgae and a methanol. Various catalysts were produced, screened, and evaluated for their ability to convert algal HO into hydrocarbons and other valuable compounds in a batch reactor. The performance of HZSM-5 was systematically tested in view of La-Ce loaded on conversion, yield, and selectivity. NH3-TPD analysis showed that the total acidity of the La-Ce-modified zeolites was lower than that of the pure HZSM-5 catalyst. TGA testing revealed that including the rare earth elements La and Ce in the HZSM-5 catalyst lowered the catalyst propensity for producing coke deposits. The acid sites necessary for algal HO conversion were improved by putting La and Ce into HZSM-5 zeolite at various loading percentages. The maximum hydrocarbon yield (42.963%), the highest HHV (34.362 MJ/Kg), and the highest DOD% (62.191%) were all achieved by the (7.5%La-2.5%Ce)/HZSM-5 catalyst, which was synthesized in this work. For comparison, the hydrocarbon yield for the parent HZSM-5 was 21.838%, the HHV was (33.230 MJ/Kg), and the DOD% was 44.235%. In conclusion, La and Ce-loading on the parent HZSM-5 may be responsible for the observed alterations in textural properties; nevertheless, there is no clear correlation between the physical features and the hydrocarbon yield (%). The principal effect of La and Ce modifying the parent HZSM-5 zeolite was to modify the acidic sites needed to enhance the conversion (%) of the algal HO during the catalytic deoxygenation process, which in turn raised the hydrocarbon yield (%) and increased the HHV and DOD%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zeolites*
  13. Kamarudin, K.S.N., Chieng, Y.Y., Hamdan, H., Mat, H.
    ASM Science Journal, 2008;2(1):35-44.
    The importance of zeolite surface area and pore volume in adsorption processes has been much reported in literature. In addition to that, structural framework and pore network system may also influence the adsorption capacity and selectivity of methane on zeolite. This paper discusses the characteristics of methane adsorption based on several physical properties of the adsorbents such as surface area, pore volume, pore network system and its interaction with adsorbate. The study, using FTIR spectroscopy showed that the adsorbed methane at room temperature was detected in the FTIR region between 3200 cm–1 – 1200 cm–1. Based on the physical properties of the adsorbents and the FTIR spectra of adsorbed methane, the surface area was not the only factor that determined methane adsorption; in fact the type of pore network system of the adsorbent also affected the interaction, thus affecting the adsorption of methane in zeolite.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zeolites
  14. Makhtar SNNM, Rahman MA, Ismail AF, Othman MHD, Jaafar J
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Jul;24(19):15918-15928.
    PMID: 28589281 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-9405-7
    This work discusses the preparation and characterizations of glass hollow fiber membranes prepared using zeolite-5A as a starting material. Zeolite was formed into a hollow fiber configuration using the phase inversion technique. It was later sintered at high temperatures to burn off organic materials and change the zeolite into glass membrane. A preliminary study, that used thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), confirmed that zeolite used in this study changed to glass at temperatures above 1000 °C. The glass hollow fiber membranes prepared using the phase inversion technique has three different microstructures, namely (i) sandwich-like structure that originates from inner layer, (ii) sandwich-like that originates from outer layer, and (iii) symmetric sponge like. These variations were influenced by zeolite weight loading and the flow rate of water used to form the lumen. The separation performances of the glass hollow fiber membrane were studied using the pure water permeability and the rejection test of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The glass hollow fiber membrane prepared from using 48 wt% zeolite loading and bore fluid with 9 mL min(-1) flow rate has the highest BSA rejection of 85% with the water permeability of 0.7 L m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1). The results showed that the separation performance of glass hollow fiber membranes was in the ultrafiltration range, enabled the retention of solutes with molecular sizes larger than 67 kDa such as milk proteins, endotoxin pyrogen, virus, and colloidal silica.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zeolites
  15. Teng SY, Loy ACM, Leong WD, How BS, Chin BLF, Máša V
    Bioresour Technol, 2019 Nov;292:121971.
    PMID: 31445240 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121971
    The aim of this study is to identify the optimum thermal conversion of Chlorella vulgaris with neuro-evolutionary approach. A Progressive Depth Swarm-Evolution (PDSE) neuro-evolutionary approach is proposed to model the Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data of catalytic thermal degradation of Chlorella vulgaris. Results showed that the proposed method can generate predictions which are more accurate compared to other conventional approaches (>90% lower in Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Bias Error (MBE)). In addition, Simulated Annealing is proposed to determine the optimal operating conditions for microalgae conversion from multiple trained ANN. The predicted optimum conditions were reaction temperature of 900.0 °C, heating rate of 5.0 °C/min with the presence of HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst to obtain 88.3% of Chlorella vulgaris conversion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zeolites
  16. Arumugam M, Goh CK, Zainal Z, Triwahyono S, Lee AF, Wilson K, et al.
    Nanomaterials (Basel), 2021 Mar 16;11(3).
    PMID: 33809677 DOI: 10.3390/nano11030747
    Solid acid catalyzed cracking of waste oil-derived fatty acids is an attractive route to hydrocarbon fuels. HZSM-5 is an effective acid catalyst for fatty acid cracking; however, its microporous nature is susceptible to rapid deactivation by coking. We report the synthesis and application of hierarchical HZSM-5 (h-HZSM-5) in which silanization of pre-crystallized zeolite seeds is employed to introduce mesoporosity during the aggregation of growing crystallites. The resulting h-HZSM-5 comprises a disordered array of fused 10-20 nm crystallites and mesopores with a mean diameter of 13 nm, which maintain the high surface area and acidity of a conventional HZSM-5. Mesopores increase the yield of diesel range hydrocarbons obtained from oleic acid deoxygenation from ~20% to 65%, attributed to improved acid site accessibility within the hierarchical network.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zeolites
  17. Anis S, Zainal ZA, Bakar MZ
    Bioresour Technol, 2013 May;136:117-25.
    PMID: 23567671 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.02.049
    A new effective RF tar thermocatalytic treatment process with low energy intensive has been proposed to remove tar from biomass gasification. Toluene and naphthalene as biomass tar model compounds were removed via both thermal and catalytic treatment over a wide temperature range from 850 °C to 1200 °C and 450 °C to 900 °C, respectively at residence time of 0-0.7 s. Thermal characteristics of the new technique are also described in this paper. This study clearly clarified that toluene was much easier to be removed than naphthalene. Soot was found as the final product of thermal treatment of the tar model and completely removed during catalytic treatment. Radical reactions generated by RF non-thermal effect improve the tar removal. The study showed that Y-zeolite has better catalytic activity compared to dolomite on toluene and naphthalene removal due to its acidic nature and large surface area, even at lower reaction temperature of about 550 °C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zeolites/chemistry
  18. Wong CT, Abdullah AZ, Bhatia S
    J Hazard Mater, 2008 Sep 15;157(2-3):480-9.
    PMID: 18294771 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.01.012
    The performance of silver-loaded zeolite (HY and HZSM-5) catalysts in the oxidation of butyl acetate as a model volatile organic compound (VOC) was studied. The objective was to find a catalyst with superior activity, selectivity towards deep oxidation product and stability. The catalyst activity was measured under excess oxygen condition in a packed bed reactor operated at gas hourly space velocity (GHSV)=15,000-32,000 h(-1), reaction temperature between 150 and 500 degrees C and butyl acetate inlet concentration of 1000-4000 ppm. Both AgY and AgZSM-5 catalysts exhibited high activity in the oxidation of butyl acetate. Despite lower silver content, AgY showed better activity, attributed to better metal dispersion, surface characteristics and acidity, and its pore system. Total conversion of butyl acetate was achieved at above 400 degrees C. The oxidation of butyl acetate followed a simple power law model. The reaction orders, n and m were evaluated under differential mode by varying the VOC partial pressure between 0.004 and 0.018 atm and partial pressure of oxygen between 0.05 and 0.20 atm. The reaction rate was independent of oxygen concentration and single order with respect to VOC concentration. The activation energies were 19.78 kJ/mol for AgY and 32.26 kJ/mol for AgZSM-5, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zeolites/chemistry*
  19. Chew TL, Bhatia S
    Bioresour Technol, 2009 May;100(9):2540-5.
    PMID: 19138514 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2008.12.021
    Catalytic cracking of crude palm oil (CPO) and used palm oil (UPO) were studied in a transport riser reactor for the production of biofuels at a reaction temperature of 450 degrees C, with residence time of 20s and catalyst-to-oil ratio (CTO) of 5 gg(-1). The effect of HZSM-5 (different Si/Al ratios), beta zeolite, SBA-15 and AlSBA-15 were studied as physically mixed additives with cracking catalyst Rare earth-Y (REY). REY catalyst alone gave 75.8 wt% conversion with 34.5 wt% of gasoline fraction yield using CPO, whereas with UPO, the conversion was 70.9 wt% with gasoline fraction yield of 33.0 wt%. HZSM-5, beta zeolite, SBA-15 and AlSBA-15 as additives with REY increased the conversion and the yield of organic liquid product. The transport riser reactor can be used for the continuous production of biofuels from cracking of CPO and UPO over REY catalyst.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zeolites/chemistry
  20. Ahmed OH, Hussin A, Ahmad HM, Rahim AA, Majid NM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2008 Apr 20;8:394-9.
    PMID: 18454247 DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2008.68
    Ammonia loss significantly reduces the urea-N use efficiency in crop production. Efforts to reduce this problem are mostly laboratory oriented. This paper reports the effects of urea amended with triple superphosphate (TSP) and zeolite (Clinoptilolite) on soil pH, nitrate, exchangeable ammonium, dry matter production, N uptake, fresh cob production, and urea-N uptake efficiency in maize (Zea mays) cultivation on an acid soil in actual field conditions. Urea-amended TSP and zeolite treatments and urea only (urea without additives) did not have long-term effect on soil pH and accumulation of soil exchangeable ammonium and nitrate. Treatments with higher amounts of TSP and zeolite significantly increased the dry matter (stem and leaf) production of Swan (test crop). All the treatments had no significant effect on urea-N concentration in the leaf and stem of the test crop. In terms of urea-N uptake in the leaf and stem tissues of Swan, only the treatment with the highest amount of TSP and zeolite significantly increased urea-N uptake in the leaf of the test crop. Irrespective of treatment, fresh cob production was statistically not different. However, all the treatments with additives improved urea-N uptake efficiency compared to urea without additives or amendment. This suggests that urea amended with TSP and zeolite has a potential of reducing ammonia loss from surface-applied urea.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zeolites/pharmacology*
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