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  1. Mohammadi S, Su TT, Jalaludin MY, Dahlui M, Azmi Mohamed MN, Papadaki A, et al.
    Front Public Health, 2020;8:549637.
    PMID: 33072694 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.549637
    Introduction: School environments can influence students' dietary habits. Hence, implementing a healthy canteen intervention programme in schools is a recommended strategy to improve students' dietary intake. This study will evaluate the feasibility of providing healthier food and beverage options in selected secondary schools in Malaysia by working with canteen vendors. It also will assess the changes in food choices before and after the intervention. Methods: A feasibility cluster randomised controlled study will be conducted in six secondary schools (intervention, n = 4; control, n = 2) comprising of rural and urban schools located in Selangor and Perak states in Malaysia. Four weeks of intervention will be conducted among Malaysian adolescents aged 15 years old. Two interventions are proposed that will focus on providing healthier food options in the canteen and convenience shops in the selected schools. Interventions 1 and 2 will entail training the canteen and school convenience shop operators. Intervention 2 will be applied to subsidise the cost of low energy-dense kuih (traditional cake), vegetables, and fruits. The control group will continue to sell the usual food. Trained dietitians will audit the canteen menu and food items sold by the school canteen and convenience shops in all schools. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and dietary assessment will be collected at baseline and at the end of 4-week intervention. Focus group discussions with students and in-depth interviews with headmasters, teachers, and school canteen operators will be conducted post-intervention to explore intervention acceptability. Under this Healthy School Canteen programme, school canteens will be prohibited from selling "red flag" foods. This refers to foods which are energy-dense and not nutritious, such as confectionery and deep-fried foods. They will also be prohibited from selling soft drinks, which are sugar-rich. Instead, the canteens will be encouraged to sell "green flag" food and drinks, such as fruits and vegetables. Conclusion: It is anticipated that this feasibility study can provide a framework for the conception and implementation of nutritional interventions in a future definitive trial at the school canteens in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Services*
  2. Nadzirah, S., Ab Karim, S., Ghazali, H., Othman, M.
    MyJurnal
    On-campus foodservices were thought to be the first choice for university students to dine in. However, these seemingly captive consumers have been opting for off-campus foodservice as their preferred outlet. This paper aims to uncover specific factors that motivate undergraduate students to dine-in at university foodservice facilities using Profile Accumulation Technique (PAT). PAT is a semi-quantitative method that provides freedom for informants to answer in their own terms and words, alternatively the data could be analyzed statistically. 115 questionnaires were distributed to students and staff of a local university. Findings include a list of factors (positive perception, negative perception and expectations) that the students considered to be significant in determining their choice of food outlet. These factors are then descriptively analyzed to determine attributes influencing university customer preferences. This paper significantly contributes in providing a deeper insight into factors that influences dining choice of university foodservice's customers in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Services
  3. Malays J Nutr, 1996;2(1):67-77.
    MyJurnal
    Three primary schools with three different food service managements in Kuala Selangor were selected for this study. Food samples served for five school days were taken and analyzed for calories, protein, fat and carbohydrate. It was observed that most of the food served was rice-based such as nasi lemak, chicken rice, noodles and traditional cakes. The amount of calories and protein per serving ranged from 77-274 kcal and 0.9-3.6 g respectively. Food served under the Supplementary School Feeding Programme contained higher calories than those sold by these school canteens. However, the amounts of protein and calories were still short of the expected amounts recommended by the Ministry of Education, which according to menu should provide at least 10 g protein and 290-390 kcal. The percentage contributions of energy from protein in foods served at school canteens were also lower than the recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Services
  4. Chen ST
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 1989;3(1):19-25.
    PMID: 2497765 DOI: 10.1177/101053958900300104
    From the start of the school milk feeding programme in February 1985 to October 1986, a total of 2,766 children aged six to nine years from 12 primary schools in Ulu Selangor were followed-up for about two years. The children's weight and height were monitored at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the study. The study shows that there is a reduction in the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition in terms of underweight (15.3% to 8.6%), stunting (16.3% to 8.3%) and wasting (2.6% to 1.7%) from the start of the school feeding programme to two years later. Associated with this there was an improvement in the attendance rate of the children during the same period. As there was no major developmental change in Ulu Selangor during that period, it is likely that the reduction in the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition and the improvement of the attendance rate among the children are due to the impact of the school milk feeding programme.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Services*
  5. Sanny M, Jinap S, Bakker EJ, van Boekel MA, Luning PA
    Food Chem, 2012 May 1;132(1):134-43.
    PMID: 26434272 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.10.044
    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, and its presence in a range of fried and oven-cooked foods has raised considerable health concern world-wide. Dietary intake studies observed significant variations in acrylamide concentrations, which complicate risk assessment and the establishment of effective control measures. The objective of this study was to obtain an insight into the actual variation in acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under typical conditions in a food service establishment (FSE). Besides acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and the actual practices at receiving, thawing and frying during French fries preparation were observed and recorded. The variation in the actual frying temperature contributed most to the variation in acrylamide concentrations, followed by the variation in actual frying time; no obvious effect of reducing sugars was found. The lack of standardised control of frying temperature and frying time (due to inadequate frying equipment) and the variable practices of food handlers seem to contribute most to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared in a restaurant type of FSE as compared to chain fast-food services, and institutional caterers. The obtained insights in this study can be used to develop dedicated control measures in FSE, which may contribute to a sustainable reduction in the acrylamide intake.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Services
  6. Mohalijah, M.A., Boo, H.C., Muhammad Shahrim, A.K., Ainul Zakiah, A.B.
    MyJurnal
    Athletes are a special group of consumers whose specific diet requirement is important during training and competition to ensure their success. As commercial foodservice establishments are increasing involved in providing foods to this group of consumers on one hand and the lack of research investigating the athletes’ dining satisfaction, especially meeting their diet requirement on the other hand, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of nutritional factors in athletes’ dining satisfaction and the acceptance of various foods provided in an international sporting event. Following a stratified random sampling, 700 athletes were selected from the entire population of 1330 participants. The final usable sample size was 450 (64.3% response rate). Regression analysis revealed that overall service, overall food quality, grooming of server, and nutritional information tag significantly influence the overall dining satisfaction among athletes. In addition, nutritional value, menu variety, fat content, freshness, and taste were found as the most important determinant in almost all food categories. It is intriguing that meeting diet requirement is not a significant factor but nutritional information tag is. Important implications were discussed. Nutrition education is recommended for foodservice operators especially when they are involved in providing food for sporting events. It is advisable that an appointed specialized sport dietitian or nutritionist to a sporting event works together with the foodservice operators to ensure that the menu meets the nutritional requirement of athletes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Services
  7. Lily Zakiah, M.D., Saimy, I., Maimunah, A.
    MyJurnal
    Several studies had shown that the problem of plate waste in hospitals ranged from 17% to 67%. This study aimed to determine the extent of plate waste in a district government hospital, the type of food item wasted and the factors contributing to food waste. A oross»sectional study was conducted in a district hospital, involving four third class wards. A total of 300 patients were included in the study. A plate waste was dehned as the proportion of edible portion of food served that was discarded by patients. The serving size was established by weighing each food item served over breakfast, lunch and dinner on a seven·day rotation menu, using the procedure recommended by the National Food Service Management, During the study period, the left over from each patient’s plate was weighed for all meals. The plate waste for each patient was determined by dividing the total weight of the left over with the average serving weight for the same serving in the same ward. Each patient was also given a self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on reasons or not consuming the ood items served. The overall mean ercentage plate waste of all food served in the four wards was 42.6%. Plate wastage occurred most at dinner (53.2%) and least at breakfast (31 .3%). Vegetables were the most wasted food items. Females wasted significantly higher than males for all meals. Food taste, portion size, appetite and staff service efficiency were factors found signihcantly contributing to plate waste. With almost half of the food served was wasted, hospital management need to direct more attention towards addressing the problem of plate waste since it has both nutritional and cost implications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Services
  8. Tan, S.L., Lee, H.Y., Abu Bakar, F., Abdul Karim, M.S., Rukayadi, Y., Mahyudin, N.A.
    MyJurnal
    A total of 85 food handlers participated in this study to determine the hygienic status of their hands in primary schools located in the state of Selangor (Malaysia). Overall findings revealed that the fecal contamination and personal hygiene of the food handlers were well maintained with the range of mean bacterial counts from 0.18 to 0.47 log10 Colony Forming Units/cm2 during the three intervals of hand swabbing (before, during and after) preparation of ready-to-eat foods. However, the general indication of the microbiological quality (Aerobic Plate Count) was out of the standard (range of mean bacterial counts from 1.39 to 1.56 log10 Colony Forming Units/cm2) based on previous literature. This study highlighted that the food handler’s adherence to Good Manufacturing Practice and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures was insufficient and suggested that attention should be emphasized on their practices at the intervals of school recess: before, during and after the preparation of ready-to-eat foods. In addition, there is also a need in the implementation of an effective HACCP program in Malaysia school foodservice operations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Services
  9. Roszanadia Rusali, Rosita Jamaluddin, Nor Baizura Md Yusop, Hazrina Ghazali
    MyJurnal
    The role of dietitians involves not solely on clinical responsibilities. Additionally, operation management responsibil- ities such as managing human labor, financial resources, and problem solver are the tasks that a dietitian look after. It is reported to be challenging and stressful and could affect job satisfaction levels in the working environment. This scoping review aimed to explore the job satisfaction level and skills needed among dietitians to assume management responsibilities at their workplace. This study was completed using PRISMA guidelines. Online databases (Scopus and Science Direct) were used to identify papers published from 2000 to 2019. We selected English publications from the United States, Australia, South Africa, Korea, and the United Kingdom that used job satisfaction as a pri- mary or secondary outcome. Studies were included if they addressed dietitians who were involved in clinical work, food service, and management in their dietetic practices. Findings on existing skills, including managerial skills, communication, teamwork, and time management among dietitians with management responsibilities, have helped to enhance the job satisfaction and work quality of the dietetic profession. The findings would be useful for human resource management in the organisation, preserving the professional identity of a dietitian.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Services
  10. Mohd Nawawee NS, Abu Bakar NF, Zulfakar SS
    PMID: 31766289 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16224463
    Improper handling, poor hygienic practices, and lack of environmental control affect the safety of street-vended beverages. The objective of this study is to determine the bacterial contamination level of three types of beverages (cordial-based drinks, milk-based drinks, fruit juices) sold by street vendors at Chow Kit, Kuala Lumpur. A total of 31 samples of beverages were analyzed to determine total viable count (TVC), total coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus counts via the standard plate count method. The results showed that only 9.7% of the total samples were not contaminated with the tested microorganisms. All milk-based drink samples were positive for TVC and also had the highest average bacterial counts at 5.30 ± 1.11 log Colony Forming Unit/mL (CFU/mL). About 71% of the samples were contaminated with total coliform with the average readings ranging between 4.30 and 4.75 log CFU/mL, whereas 58.1% of the samples were positive with S. aureus, with fruit juices having the highest average reading (3.42 ± 1.15 log CFU/mL). Only one sample (milk-based drink) was E. coli positive. This study showed that the microbiological safety level of street-vended beverages in Chow Kit, Kuala Lumpur was average and needs to be improved. Provision of food safety education and adequate sanitary facilities at vending sites are suggested to increase the safety of food products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Services*
  11. Teo CH, Chin YS, Lim PY, Masrom SAH, Shariff ZM
    BMC Public Health, 2019 Oct 30;19(1):1427.
    PMID: 31666034 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-7708-y
    BACKGROUND: Malnutrition among school children may contribute to adverse health consequences such as non-communicable diseases, poor cognitive performance, psychological distress and poor quality of life that may persist into adulthood. In order to prevent childhood malnutrition, an intervention programme that integrates nutrition education and healthy school food environment is needed to provide nutrition information and reinforce the skills on healthy eating behaviours in schools. This paper describes a study protocol of a school-based intervention programme that integrates nutrition education and healthy school food environment, namely School Nutrition Programme (SNP). The SNP is a primary prevention programme that promotes healthy lifestyle among primary school children in light of the high prevalence of malnutrition in Malaysian children.

    METHODS/DESIGN: This quasi-experimental study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the SNP between intervention and comparison groups before and after the SNP, and after a 3-month follow-up. The SNP consisted of two main components, whereby three nutrition education sessions were implemented by trained teachers using three standardised modules, and healthy school food environment was implemented by the canteen food handlers with the provision of healthy menu to children during school recess times. Children from intervention group participated in the SNP, in addition to the standard Physical and Health Curriculum. The comparison group attended only the standardised Physical and Health Curriculum and the school canteen food handlers were reminded to follow the standard canteen guidelines from the Ministry of Education Malaysia. The assessment parameters in evaluating the effectiveness of the programme were knowledge, attitude and practice on nutrition, eating behaviours, physical activity, body composition, psychological distress, cognitive performance and health-related quality of life. Assessments were conducted at three time points: pre-intervention, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up.

    DISCUSSION: It was hypothesised that the SNP would be effective in promoting healthy lifestyle among school children, and further contributes in preventing malnutrition problem, enhancing cognitive performance and improving health-related quality of life among school children. Findings of the present study can be expanded to other schools in future on ways to improve nutrition education and healthy school food environment.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000032914 (Date of registration: 7th June 2018, retrospectively registered).

    PROTOCOL VERSION: 16th September 2019 & Version 4.

    Matched MeSH terms: Food Services*
  12. Koo HC, Poh BK, Abd Talib R
    Nutrients, 2018 Jan 30;10(2).
    PMID: 29385769 DOI: 10.3390/nu10020156
    Background: The GReat-Child Trial was a quasi-experimental intervention that has emphasized whole grain as a strategy to manage childhood obesity. Methods: Two schools in Kuala Lumpur with similar demographic characteristics were assigned as intervention (IG) and control (CG). Eligibility criteria were overweight/obese children aged 9 to 11 years who had no serious co-morbidity. Children who reported consuming wholegrain foods in their 3-day diet-recall during screening were excluded. A total of 63 children (31 IG; 32 CG) completed the entire intervention program. The IG children underwent six 30-min nutrition education lessons and had school delivery of wholegrain food on a daily basis over a 12-week period. Parents of IG children attended 1-h individual diet counseling. Anthropometric outcomes including BMI-for-age z-score (BAZ), body fat percentage and waist circumference were measured at baseline [T0], post-intervention [T1] (3rd month) and follow-up [T2] (9th month). Results: IG showed significantly lower BAZ (weighted difference: -0.12; 95% CI: -0.21, -0.03; p = 0.009), body fat percentage (weighted difference: -2.6%; 95% CI: -3.7, -1.5; p < 0.001) and waist circumference (weighted difference: -2.4 cm; 95% CI: -3.8, -1.0; p = 0.001) compared to CG. IG reported significantly lower body fat percentage (weighted difference: -3.4%; 95% CI: 1.8, 5.0; p < 0.001) and waist circumference (weighted difference: -2.1 cm; 95% CI: -3.7, -0.5; p = 0.014) at T1 compared to T0. Conclusions: The GReat-Child Trial made a positive impact in managing childhood obesity. It can be incorporated into childhood obesity intervention programs that are being implemented by the policy makers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Services*
  13. Koo HC, Poh BK, Talib RA
    Nutrients, 2020 Sep 29;12(10).
    PMID: 33003299 DOI: 10.3390/nu12102972
    Diet composition is a key determinant of childhood obesity. While whole grains and micronutrients are known to decrease the risk of obesity, there are no interventions originating from Southeast Asia that emphasize whole grain as a strategy to improve overall quality of diet in combating childhood obesity. The GReat-Child Trial aimed to improve whole grain intake and quality of diet among overweight and obese children. It is a quasi-experimental intervention based on Social Cognitive Theory. It has a 12-week intervention and 6-month follow-up, consisting of three components that address environmental, personal, and behavioral factors. The intervention consists of: (1) six 30 min lessons on nutrition, using the Malaysian Food Pyramid to emphasize healthy eating, (2) daily deliveries of wholegrain foods to schools so that children can experience and accept wholegrain foods, and (3) diet counseling to parents to increase availability of wholegrain foods at home. Two primary schools with similar demographics in Kuala Lumpur were assigned as control (CG) and intervention (IG) groups. Inclusion criteria were: (1) children aged 9 to 11 years who were overweight/obese; (2) who did not consume whole grain foods; and (3) who had no serious co-morbidity problems. The entire trial was completed by 63 children (31 IG; 32 CG). Study outcomes were measured at baseline and at two time points post intervention (at the 3rd [T1] and 9th [T2] months). IG demonstrated significantly higher intakes of whole grain (mean difference = 9.94, 95%CI: 7.13, 12.75, p < 0.001), fiber (mean difference = 3.07, 95% CI: 1.40, 4.73, p = 0.001), calcium (mean difference = 130.27, 95%CI: 74.15, 186.39, p < 0.001), thiamin (mean difference = 58.71, 95%CI: 26.15, 91.28, p = 0.001), riboflavin (mean difference = 0.84, 95%CI: 0.37, 1.32, p = 0.001), niacin (mean difference = 0.35, 95%CI: 1.91, 5.16, p < 0.001), and vitamin C (mean difference = 58.71, 95%CI: 26.15, 91.28, p = 0.001) compared to CG in T1, after adjusting for covariates. However, T1 results were not sustained in T2 when intervention had been discontinued. The findings indicate that intervention emphasizing whole grains improved overall short-term but not long-term dietary intake among schoolchildren. We hope the present trial will lead to adoption of policies to increase whole grain consumption among Malaysian schoolchildren.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Services*
  14. Ng S, Swinburn B, Kelly B, Vandevijvere S, Yeatman H, Ismail MN, et al.
    Public Health Nutr, 2018 12;21(18):3395-3406.
    PMID: 30277185 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980018002379
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the degree of food environment policies that have been implemented and supported by the Malaysian Government, in comparison to international best practice, and to establish prioritised recommendations for the government based on the identified implementation gaps.

    DESIGN: The Healthy Food-Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) comprises forty-seven indicators of government policy practice. Local evidence of each indicator was compiled from government institutions and verified by related government stakeholders. The extent of implementation of the policies was rated by experts against international best practices. Rating results were used to identify and propose policy actions which were subsequently prioritised by the experts based on 'importance' and 'achievability' criteria. The policy actions with relatively higher 'achievability' and 'importance' were set as priority recommendations for government action.

    SETTING: Malaysia.

    SUBJECTS: Twenty-six local experts.

    RESULTS: Majority (62 %) of indicators was rated 'low' implementation with no indicator rated as either 'high' or 'very little, if any' in terms of implementation. The top five recommendations were (i) restrict unhealthy food marketing in children's settings and (ii) on broadcast media; (iii) mandatory nutrition labelling for added sugars; (iv) designation of priority research areas related to obesity prevention and diet-related non-communicable diseases; and (v) introduce energy labelling on menu boards for fast-food outlets.

    CONCLUSIONS: This first policy study conducted in Malaysia identified a number of gaps in implementation of key policies to promote healthy food environments, compared with international best practices. Study findings could strengthen civil society advocacies for government accountability to create a healthier food environment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Food Services
  15. Zyoud S, Shalabi J, Imran K, Ayaseh L, Radwany N, Salameh R, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2019 May 16;19(1):586.
    PMID: 31096949 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-6955-2
    BACKGROUND: Food serves as a vehicle for many pathogenic and toxigenic agents that cause food-borne diseases. Knowledge, attitude, and practices are key factors in reducing the incidence of food-borne diseases in food service areas. The main objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and practices related to food poisoning among parents of children in Nablus, Palestine.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in primary healthcare centers in Nablus district from May to July 2015. Data were collected using structured questionnaire interviews with parents to collect information on food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices, alongside sociodemographic characteristics.

    RESULTS: Four-hundred and twelve parents were interviewed, 92.7% were mothers. The median knowledge score was 12.0 with an interquartile range (IQR) of 11.0-14.0. The median attitude score was 11.0 with IQR of 10.0-13.0, while the median practice score was 18.0 with IQR of 16.0-19.0. Significant modest positive correlations were found between respondents' knowledge and attitude scores regarding food poisoning (r = 0.24, p food poisoning (r = 0.23, p food poisoning (r = 0.30, p food poisoning (p food poisoning prevention are associated with each other and are affected by a complex interplay between socio-economic variables. The study highlights the need for health education programmes and general awareness campaigns that intend not only to enhance knowledge but also promote parents to practice food safety measures strictly and further strengthen their awareness level.

    Matched MeSH terms: Food Services
  16. Salleh R, Man CS, Ahmad MH, Palaniveloo L, Zulkafly N, Ab Halim SA, et al.
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2020 Dec;20 Suppl 2:73-78.
    PMID: 33370860 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.14006
    AIM: Older persons are vulnerable to food insecurity. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of food insecurity and associated factors among older persons in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with two-stage stratified random sampling. In total, 3977 older persons participated in this study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a mobile device to obtain information about socio-demographic background, food insecurity, non-communicable diseases, social support and living arrangements. Descriptive and multiple complex sample logistic regression analyses were performed for data analysis.

    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of food insecurity among older persons was 10.4%. Older persons from rural areas with no or only primary and secondary education, income less than RM 2000 (USD 477.57), at risk of malnutrition and not receiving very high social support were more likely to be food-insecure.

    CONCLUSION: Approximately, one-tenth of Malaysian older adults were classified as food-insecure; particularly those living in rural areas from lower socio-economic status, not receiving very high social support and malnourished were more likely to be at risk. A specific nutrition program, such as meals on wheels and food vouchers, should be targeted toward older persons who are at risk to improve their malnutrition status. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 73-78.

    Matched MeSH terms: Food Services
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