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  1. Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd Amin, Widianingsih
    MyJurnal
    Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk menilai sifat-sifat fizikokimia Radix Glycyrrhizae sebagai bahan eksipien untuk pembuatan tablet dengan kaedah pemampatan terus dan membandingkannya dengan eksipien komersil iaitu laktosa, selulosa mikrohablur (MCC) dan kalsium laktat pentahidrat (Puracal). Saiz partikel untuk semua sampel yang digunakan dalam kajian ini dihadkan pada 200-250µm. Hasil imbasan elektron mikroskop menunjukkan partikel Radix Glycyrrhizae mempunyai kepelbagaian saiz dan bentuk yang tidak seragam seperti laktosa berbanding MCC yang lebih bersifat jejarum dan Puracal yang bersifat sfera dan poros. Keupayaan sampel untuk dimampatkan, ketumpatan partikel sampel, kesan kelembapan ke atas tegasan pengenduran dan keliangan tablet diuji serta dibandingkan dengan eksipien komersil yang lain. Sifat ikatan dari sampel Radix Glycyrrhizae ini pula dikaji dengan menghitung kekuatan tegangan melalui kaedah pemampatan diametral dan turut dilakukan perbandingan. Radix Rlycyrrhizae memiliki ketumpatan sebenar serbuk iaitu 1.5746 g/cc manakala laktosa, selulosa mikrohablur dan kalsium laktat pentahidrat masing-masing 1.5476, 1.6654 dan 1.3506 g/cc. Radix Rlycyrrhizae juga di dapati mempunyai daya ketermampatan yang sederhana sebagaimana laktosa berbanding Puracal dan MCC yang jauh lebih baik sifatnya. Kajian kesan kelembapan menunjukkan kekuatan tablet Radix Glycyrrhizae, Puracal, laktosa dan MCC dipengaruhi perubahan suhu. Hasil kajian analisis Heckel pula menunjukkan bahawa Radix Glycyrrhizae bersifat aliran plastik sebagaimana MCC manakala laktosa dan Puracal lebih bersifat rapuh. Keputusan ujian ke atas sifat pemampatan dan pemadatan mendapati bahawa Radix Kesimpulannya, Radix Glycyrrhizae boleh digunakan sebagai eksipien dalam pembuatan tablet melalui kaedah pemampatan terus dan ciriciri fisikokimianya sebagai eksipien adalah setanding dengan eksipien komersial.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycyrrhiza
  2. Basar N, Nahar L, Oridupa OA, Ritchie KJ, Talukdar AD, Stafford A, et al.
    Phytochem Anal, 2016 Sep;27(5):233-8.
    PMID: 27527356 DOI: 10.1002/pca.2616
    INTRODUCTION: Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates expression of many detoxification enzymes. Nrf2-antioxidant responsive element (Nrf2-ARE) signalling pathway can be a target for cancer chemoprevention. Glycyrrhiza glabra, common name, 'liquorice', is used as a sweetening and flavouring agent, and traditionally, to treat various ailments, and implicated to chemoprevention. However, its chemopreventive property has not yet been scientifically substantiated.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of liquorice root samples to induce Nrf2 activation correlating to their potential chemopreventive property.

    METHODS: The ability of nine methanolic extracts of liquorice root samples, collected from various geographical origins, to induce Nrf2 activation was determined by the luciferase reporter assay using the ARE-reporter cell line, AREc32. The antioxidant properties were determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) and the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays.

    RESULTS: All extracts exhibited free-radical-scavenging property (RC50  = 136.39-635.66 µg/mL). The reducing capacity of ferrous ion was 214.46-465.59 μM Fe(II)/g. Nrf2 activation indicated that all extracts induced expression of ARE-driven luciferase activity with a maximum induction of 2.3 fold relative to control. These activities varied for samples from one geographical location to another.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present findings add to the existing knowledge of cancer chemoprevention by plant-derived extracts or purified phytochemicals, particularly the potential use of liquorice for this purpose. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    Matched MeSH terms: Glycyrrhiza*
  3. Basar N, Talukdar AD, Nahar L, Stafford A, Kushiev H, Kan A, et al.
    Phytochem Anal, 2014 Sep-Oct;25(5):399-404.
    PMID: 24585378 DOI: 10.1002/pca.2507
    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'liquorice', is one of the most popular ingredients in several traditional herbal medicinal preparations, and glycyrrhizin is the major glycoside present in this plant. The content of glycyrrhizin may vary among G. glabra samples collected from various geographical origins, which may affect the therapeutic efficacy. Thus, quantification of glycyrrhizin in G. glabra samples is important.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycyrrhiza/chemistry*
  4. Anand S, Rajan M, Venkateshbabu N, Kandaswamy D, Shravya Y, Rajeswari K
    Open Dent J, 2016;10:160-5.
    PMID: 27386000 DOI: 10.2174/1874210601610010160
    AIM: To compare the antibacterial efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Commiphora myrrha (Myrrh), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) with 2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) against E. faecalis by using Real Time PCR.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of fifty teeth specimens (n=50) were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Specimens were divided into five groups (Group 1: Myrrh, Group 2: Neem, Group 3: Liquorice, Group 4: 2% CHX and Group 5: Saline (negative control)). The intracanal medicaments were packed inside the tooth. After 5 days, the remaining microbial load was determined by using real time PCR.

    RESULTS: Threshold cycle (Ct) values of Myrrh extract, Neem extract, Liquorice Extract, 2% CHX and saline were found to be 30.94, 23.85, 21.38, 30.93 and 17.8 respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Myrrh extract showed inhibition of E.faecalis equal to that of 2% CHX followed by Neem, Liquorice and Saline.

    Matched MeSH terms: Glycyrrhiza
  5. Hamidon BB, Jeyabalan V
    Singapore Med J, 2006 Feb;47(2):156-8.
    PMID: 16435060
    A 31-year-old woman presented with a one-week history of headache, generalised lethargy, weakness and poor appetite. Clinical examination showed that her blood pressure was 200/120 mmHg. On an earlier occasion, her blood pressure was found to be normal by a general practitioner whom she last visited three months earlier when she had an upper respiratory tract infection. Investigations showed hypokalaemia, suppressed serum renin and aldosterone. Further history was taken and revealed that she had been craving for guava fruits which she ate with flavoured "asam boi" (containing glycyrrhizic acid) at least three spoonfuls twice a day for the past six weeks. The hypertension and hypokalaemia resolved after two weeks of stopping the "asam boi". Her clinical picture was compatible with exogenously-induced hypermineralocortoidism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycyrrhiza/adverse effects*
  6. Donald Koh Fook Chen, Joon Wah Mak, Soo Shen Ooi, Kok Fee Mak, Kwai Hoe Chong
    MyJurnal
    We previously evaluated the biochemical changes induced by the local product TCM for diabetes (TCM-D™) on blood glucose levels and other biochemical changes in normal mice fed orally with the recommended human dose (30 ml/kg daily) and ten times this dose for eight weeks. TCM-D™ is an aqueous extract of the roots of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim, Paeonia lactiflora Pall, Glycyrrhiza uranlensis Fisch. and Panax ginseng Meyer (red) combined at the dry weight proportions of 36%, 28%, 18% and 18% respectively. The study showed that at these dosages the blood glucose levels as well as the body weights in treated mice were significantly reduced when compared with pretreatment values and control animals. The present study evaluated the effect of the extract in a mouse model of Type 1 diabetes mellitus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycyrrhiza
  7. Su Wei Poh M, Voon Chen Yong P, Viseswaran N, Chia YY
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(3):e0121382.
    PMID: 25816349 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121382
    Glabridin is an isoflavan from licorice root, which is a common component of herbal remedies used for treatment of menopausal symptoms. Past studies have shown that glabridin resulted in favorable outcome similar to 17β-estradiol (17β-E2), suggesting a possible role as an estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). This study aims to evaluate the estrogenic effect of glabridin in an in-vitro endometrial cell line -Ishikawa cells via alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay and ER-α-SRC-1-co-activator assay. Its effect on cell proliferation was also evaluated using Thiazoyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed that glabridin activated the ER-α-SRC-1-co-activator complex and displayed a dose-dependent increase in estrogenic activity supporting its use as an ERT. However, glabridin also induced an increase in cell proliferation. When glabridin was treated together with 17β-E2, synergistic estrogenic effect was observed with a slight decrease in cell proliferation as compared to treatment by 17β-E2 alone. This suggest that the combination might be better suited for providing high estrogenic effects with lower incidences of endometrial cancer that is associated with 17β-E2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycyrrhiza/chemistry
  8. Tan CS, Ch'ng YS, Loh YC, Zaini Asmawi M, Ahmad M, Yam MF
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2017 Mar 06;199:149-160.
    PMID: 28161542 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.02.001
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Glycyrrhiza uralensis (G. uralensis) is one of the herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and serves as an envoy medicinal. Since G. uralensis plays a major role in the anti-hypertensive TCM formulae, we believe that G. uralensis might possess vasorelaxation activity.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: This study is designed to investigate the vasorelaxation effect of G. uralensis from various extracts and to study its pharmacology effect.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The vasorelaxation effect of G. uralensis extracts were evaluated on thoracic aortic rings isolated from Sprague Dawley rats.

    RESULTS: Among these three extracts of G. uralensis, 50% ethanolic extract (EFG) showed the strongest vasorelaxation activity. EFG caused the relaxation of the aortic rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine either in the presence or absence of endothelium and pre-contracted with potassium chloride in endothelium-intact aortic ring. Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, methylene blue, or 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one inhibit the vasorelaxation effect of EFG in the presence of endothelium. On the other hand, in the presence of the potassium channel blockers (tetraethylammonium and barium chloride), the vasorelaxation effect of EFG was not affected, but glibenclamide and 4-aminopyridine did inhibit the vasorelaxation effect of EFG. With indomethacin, atropine and propranolol, the vasorelaxation effect by EFG was significantly reduced. EFG was also found to be effective in reducing Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum and the blocking of calcium channels.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained suggest that EFG is involved in the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway.

    Matched MeSH terms: Glycyrrhiza uralensis*
  9. Basar N, Oridupa OA, Ritchie KJ, Nahar L, Osman NM, Stafford A, et al.
    Phytother Res, 2015 Jun;29(6):944-8.
    PMID: 25779384 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5329
    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'liquorice', is a well-known medicinal plant. Roots of this plant have long been used as a sweetening and flavouring agent in food and pharmaceutical products, and also as a traditional remedy for cough, upper and lower respiratory ailments, kidney stones, hepatitis C, skin disorder, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach ache. Previous pharmacological and clinical studies have revealed its antitussive, antiinflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and cardioprotective properties. While glycyrrhizin, a sweet-tasting triterpene saponin, is the principal bioactive compound, several bioactive flavonoids and isoflavonoids are also present in the roots of this plant. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of nine samples of the roots of G. glabra, collected from various geographical origins, was assessed against immortal human keratinocyte (HaCaT), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the in vitro 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide cell toxicity/viability assay. Considerable variations in levels of cytotoxicity were observed among various samples of G. glabra.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycyrrhiza/chemistry*
  10. Donald, Koh Fook Chen, Joon, Wah Mak, Soo, Shen Ooi, Kwai Hoe Chong, Kok, Fee Mak
    MyJurnal
    Background: A number of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) preparations are being used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Some components of these preparations have biochemical effects other than those of lowering blood glucose and indeed have been used for other medical indications in traditional practice. The primary objective of the study was to determine the effect of the oral mixture of Traditional Chinese Medicine for diabetes (TCM-D™ complex) on blood glucose level and the biochemical changes if any, on the liver (ALT, AST, gamma-GT, albumin, globulin) and renal (blood creatinine, urea) functions in normal mice. The oral mixture is an aqueous extract of four wellknown traditional Chinese medicinal herbs and consists of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim., Paeonia lactiflora Pall., Glycyrrhiza uranlensis Fisch., and Panax ginseng (red) CA Meyer in the proportion of 36%, 28%, 18%, and 18% respectively of the dry weight. These herbs have
    been shown to have blood glucose lowering activity and have been used for other traditional medicinal purposes.The safety of the combination was evaluated in the present study. Methods: Experimental Balb/c mice were treated orally via gastric tube with the extract at daily doses equivalent to 1 and 10 times the recommended human dose for 8 weeks. Blood glucose and other biochemical profiles were monitored at pre-treatment and monthly posttreatment until killed. Results: When compared to pre-treatment levels, the blood glucose levels were significantly lower in treated animals compared to those in the control group. At the recommended TCM-D™ dose the levels in treated animals were significantly lower than that of control animals and at pre-treatment. When compared with pre-treatment, the glucose levels were lowest at Week 8 of treatment, the mean levels being 111.23%, 83.32% and 70.33% in control, and in animals given 1 x and 10 x the recommended TCM-D™ dosage respectively. The blood glucose lowering effect was also associated with a significant weight loss in treated animals. There were transient increases in AST and ALT levels but these reverted to normal at Week 8 of treatment. The levels of bilirubin, g-GT, albumin, creatinine and blood urea were also not significantly different at Week 8 from pre-treatment levels in all groups. Conclusion: Even at 10 times the dosage recommended for humans, TCM-D™ did not affect the liver and renal functions of treated animals. Treated and control animals remained healthy and normal throughout the period of observation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycyrrhiza
  11. Sidhu P, Shankargouda S, Rath A, Hesarghatta Ramamurthy P, Fernandes B, Kumar Singh A
    J Ayurveda Integr Med, 2018 Oct 31.
    PMID: 30391123 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaim.2017.12.004
    Oral health influences general well-being and quality of life. Oral diseases can be debilitating and are a major heath concern worldwide. Medicinal plants have been used for thousands of years for treating human diseases. Considering the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens and financial difficulties in developing countries, there is an urgent need for developing new antimicrobial compounds which are safe, efficient and cost effective. Liquorice also known as yashtimadhu, sweetwood or mulhatti is one such herbal remedy which has shown to have immense potential in treatment of orofacial diseases. Liquorice is rich in secondary metabolites which are used in cosmetics, foods, traditional and modern medicine. It has well known properties such as antiviral, glucocorticoid, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-ulcerative, anti-carcinogenic and many more. Liquorice extracts and liquorice bioactive ingredients such as glabridin, licoricidin, licorisoflavan A, licochalcone A, and glycyrrhizin have shown beneficial effects in preventing and treating oral diseases. This paper reviews the effects of liquorice and its constituents on oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontitis, gingivitis, candidiasis, recurrent aphthous ulcer and oral cancer and its use as a root canal medicament and summarizes the results of clinical trials that investigated the potential beneficial effects of liquorice and its constituents as a prevention and treatment modality in oral diseases. Clinical trials, case reports and review of literature evaluating the effect of liquorice on oral microorganisms and oral diseases are included. Literature pertaining to the effects of liquorice on systemic diseases have been excluded from this review of literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycyrrhiza
  12. Ridzuan NRA, Rashid NA, Othman F, Budin SB, Hussan F, Teoh SL
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2019 Mar 20.
    PMID: 30894108 DOI: 10.2174/1389557519666190320124438
    Cisplatin is a widely used antineoplastic agent for the treatment of metastatic tumors, advanced bladder cancer and many other solid tumors. However, at higher doses, toxicities such as nephrotoxicity may appear. Cisplatin leads to DNA damage and subsequently renal cell death. Besides that, oxidative stress is also implicated as one of the main causes of nephrotoxicity. Several studies showed that numerous natural products: ginseng, curcumin, licorice, honey and pomegranate were able to reduce the oxidative stress by restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes and also at the same time act as an anti-inflammatory agent. Furthermore, pre-treatment with vitamin supplementation such as vitamin C, E and riboflavin markedly decreased serum urea and increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes in kidney even after cisplatin induction in cancer patients. These natural products possess potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory medicinal properties, and they can be safely used as a supplementary regime or combination therapy against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The present review focused on the protective role of few natural products which is widely used in folk medicines in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycyrrhiza
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