Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 43 in total

  1. Ling HN
    Lepr Rev, 2014 Dec;85(4):332-5.
    PMID: 25675658
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
  2. Kotaki T, Yamanaka A, Mulyatno KC, Churrotin S, Sucipto TH, Labiqah A, et al.
    Infect. Genet. Evol., 2016 Jan;37:88-93.
    PMID: 26553170 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2015.11.002
    Indonesia is one of the biggest dengue endemic countries, and, thus, is an important place to investigate the evolution of dengue virus (DENV). We have continuously isolated DENV in Surabaya, the second biggest city in Indonesia, since 2008. We previously reported sequential changes in the predominant serotype from DENV type 2 (DENV-2) to DENV type 1 (DENV-1) in November 2008 and from DENV-1 to DENV-2 in July 2013. The predominance of DENV-2 continued in 2014, but not in 2015. We herein phylogenetically investigated DENV-2 transitions in Surabaya between 2008 and 2014 to analyze the divergence and evolution of DENV-2 concomitant with serotype shifts. All DENV-2 isolated in Surabaya were classified into the Cosmopolitan genotype, and further divided into 6 clusters. Clusters 1-3, dominated by Surabaya strains, were defined as the "Surabaya lineage". Clusters 4-6, dominated by strains from Singapore, Malaysia, and many parts of Indonesia, were the "South East Asian lineage". The most recent common ancestor of these strains existed in 1988, coinciding with the time that an Indonesian dengue outbreak took place. Cluster 1 appeared to be unique because no other DENV-2 isolate was included in this cluster. The predominance of DENV-2 in 2008 and 2013-14 were caused by cluster 1, whereas clusters 2 and 3 sporadically emerged in 2011 and 2012. The characteristic amino acids of cluster 1, E-170V and E-282Y, may be responsible for its prevalence in Surabaya. No amino acid difference was observed in the envelope region between strains in 2008 and 2013-14, suggesting that the re-emergence of DENV-2 in Surabaya was due to the loss or decrease of herd immunity in the 5-year period when DENV-2 subsided. The South East Asian lineage primarily emerged in Surabaya in 2014, probably imported from other parts of Indonesia or foreign countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
  3. Bakker MJ, van Dijk JG, Pramono A, Sutarni S, Tijssen MA
    Mov. Disord., 2013 Mar;28(3):370-9.
    PMID: 23283702 DOI: 10.1002/mds.25280
    The nature of culture-specific startles syndromes such as "Latah" in Indonesia and Malaysia is ill understood. Hypotheses concerning their origin include sociocultural behavior, psychiatric disorders, and neurological syndromes. The various disorders show striking similarities despite occurring in diverse cultural settings and genetically distant populations. They are characterized clinically by exaggerated startle responses and involuntary vocalizations, echolalia, and echopraxia. Quantifying startle reflexes may help define Latah within the 3 groups of startle syndromes: (1) hyperekplexia, (2) startle-induced disorders, and (3) neuropsychiatric startle syndromes. Twelve female Latah patients (mean age, 44.6 years; SD, 7.7 years) and 12 age-, sex- and socioeconomically matched controls (mean age, 42.3 year; SD, 8.0) were studied using structured history taking and neurological examination including provocation of vocalizations, echolalia, and echopraxia. We quantified auditory startle reflexes with electromyographic activity of 6 left-sided muscles following 104-dB tones. We defined 2 phases for the startle response: a short latency motor startle reflex initiated in the lower brain stem <100/120 ms) and a later, second phase more influenced by psychological factors (the "orienting reflex," 100/120-1000 ms after the stimulus). Early as well as late motor startle responses were significantly increased in patients compared with controls (P ≤ .05). Following their startle response, Latah patients showed stereotyped responses including vocalizations and echo phenomena. Startle responses were increased, but clinically these proved insignificant compared with the stereotyped behavioral responses following the startle response. This study supports the classification of Latah as a "neuropsychiatric startle syndrome."
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
  4. Ahmad N, Nawi S, Rajasekaran G, Maning N, Aziz MN, Husin A, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2010 Dec;59(Pt 12):1530-2.
    PMID: 20724515 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.022079-0
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
  5. Pasangna J, George E, Nagaratnam M
    Malays J Pathol, 2005 Jun;27(1):33-7.
    PMID: 16676691
    A 2-year-old Malay boy was brought to the University Malaya Medical Centre for thalassaemia screening. Physical examination revealed thalassaemia facies, pallor, mild jaundice, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Laboratory investigations on the patient including studies on the parents lead to a presumptive diagnosis of homozygous Haemoglobin Lepore (Hb Lepore). The aim of this paper is to increase awareness of this rare disorder, this being the first case documented in Malaysia in a Malay. The case also demonstrates the need for this disorder to be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting clinically like thalassemia intermedia or thalassemia major. Accurate diagnosis would provide information necessary for prenatal diagnosis, proper clinical management and genetic counseling. The clinical, haematological and laboratory features of this disorder are discussed in this paper.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
  6. Durden LA, Beaucournu JC
    Parasite, 2006 Sep;13(3):215-26.
    PMID: 17007213
    Gryphopsylla maxomydis n. sp. (Pygiopsyllidae), Medwayella rubrisciurae n. sp. (Pygiopsyllidae) and Macrostylophora theresae n. sp. (Ceratophyllidae) are described from endemic rodents in Sulawesi. Gryphopsylla maxomydis was collected from the murids Maxomys musschenbroekii and Paruromys dominator in Central Sulawesi (Sulawesi Tengah). However, M. musschenbroekii appears to be the true host of this flea because it has spiny pelage and G. maxomydis shows morphological adaptations for parasitizing spiny hosts including a remarkable "beak-like" structure on the head. This adatation is similar to a beak-like structure on the head of Gryphopsyllo hopkinsi (Traub) which parasitizes the spiny murid Maxomys whiteheadi in Borneo (Sabah). Medwayella rubrisciurae was collected from the large tree squirrel Rubrisciurus rubriventer in Central Sulawesi and this represents the first report of this flea genus in Sulawesi. Macrostylophora theresce was recorded from the murids Bunomys fratrorum, P. dominator and Rattus xanthurus in North Sulawesi (Sulawesi Utara); most other members of this flea genus parasitize squirrels in the Oriental and Palaearctic zoogeographical regions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
  7. Darmawan J, Muirden KD
    J. Rheumatol., 2003 Nov;30(11):2312-4.
    PMID: 14677169
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
  8. Cassol S, Weniger BG, Babu PG, Salminen MO, Zheng X, Htoon MT, et al.
    AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 1996 Oct 10;12(15):1435-41.
    PMID: 8893051
    Global surveillance of HIV-1 subtypes for genetic characterization is hampered by the biohazard of processing and the difficulties of shipping whole blood or cells from many developing country regions. We developed a technique for the direct automated sequencing of viral DNA from dried blood spot (DBS) specimens collected on absorbent paper, which can be mailed unrefrigerated in sturdy paper envelopes with low biohazard risk. DBS were collected nonrandomly from HIV-1-infected, mostly asymptomatic, patients in five Asian countries in 1991, and shipped via airmail or hand carried without refrigeration to Bangkok, and then transshipped to North America for processing. After more than 2 years of storage, including 6 months at ambient temperatures, proviral DNA in the DBS was amplified by nested PCR, and a 389-nucleotide segment of the C2-V3 env gene region was sequenced, from which 287 base pairs were aligned and subtyped by phylogenetic analysis with neighbor-joining and other methods. From southern India, there were 25 infections with subtype C and 2 with subtype A. From Myanmar (Burma), we identified the first subtype E infection, as well as six subtype BB, a distinct cluster within subtype B that was first discovered in Thailand and that has now appeared in China, Malaysia, and Japan. From southwest China, one BB was identified, while a "classical" B typical of North American and European strains was found in Indonesia. From Thailand, five DBS of ambiguous serotype were identified as three B, one BB, and one E. A blinded control serotype E specimen was correctly identified, but a serotype BB control was not tested. Most HIV-1 in southern India appears to be env subtype C, with rare A, as others have reported in western and northern India. The subtypes BB and E in Myanmar, and the BB in China, suggest epidemiological linkage with these subtypes in neighboring Thailand. DBS are a practical, economical technique for conducting large-scale molecular epidemiological surveillance to track the global distribution and spread of HIV-1 variants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
  9. Jamal F
    Vaccine, 1999 Jul 30;17 Suppl 1:S75-8.
    PMID: 10471186
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
  10. Sahimin N, Lim YAL, Douadi B, Mohd Khalid MKN, Wilson JJ, Behnke JM, et al.
    Acta Trop., 2017 Sep;173:109-115.
    PMID: 28610937 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.011
    Ongoing urbanisation of the working population as well as cross-border migration of workers particularly into large cities has contributed to the development and growth of urban slums. These deprived areas are conducive for the transmission of intestinal pathogens including hookworm. The aim of this study was to determine both the prevalence and species identity of hookworm infections among the migrant worker community in Malaysia. A total of 388 faecal samples were collected from migrant workers between September 2014 and August 2015, representing workers from five employment sectors: construction, manufacturing, agriculture and plantations, food services and domestic services. Faecal samples were examined by microscopy and positive samples were subjected to molecular analysis. A total of 51 samples (13.1%) were positive by microscopy for hookworm infections. A two-step PCR based method amplifying a fragment of the 28S rRNA-ITS2 region was used to identify infections by Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp. PCR products positive for Ancylostoma spp. were sequenced bidirectionally, and sequences analysed through BLAST and phylogenetic analysis. Samples containing Ancylostoma duodenale were further characterized by amplification and sequencing a fragment of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. PCR amplicons were successfully obtained from 42 (82.4%) of 51 samples, with 81.0% (34 of 42) identified as Necator americanus, 16.7% (7 of 42) as Ancylostoma spp. and 2.4% (1 of 42) as mixed infections of both species. All eight Ancylostoma spp. were confirmed to be Ancylostoma duodenale and this is the first time A. duodenale was reported in Malaysia. Samples containing A. duodenale from Nepalese and Indonesian workers shared high-similarity and were distinct compared to sequences from other countries. This study highlights the prevalence of hookworm infections among migrant workers living in Malaysia. Our findings underscore the necessity of screening migrant workers for hookworm infections, particularly those working in food-related services and industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
  11. Lubis IND, Wijaya H, Lubis M, Lubis CP, Divis PCS, Beshir KB, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2017 Apr 01;215(7):1148-1155.
    PMID: 28201638 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jix091
    Background: As Indonesia works toward the goal of malaria elimination, information is lacking on malaria epidemiology from some western provinces. As a basis for studies of antimalarial efficacy, we set out to survey parasite carriage in 3 communities in North Sumatera Province.

    Methods: A combination of active and passive detection of infection was carried out among communities in Batubara, Langkat, and South Nias regencies. Finger-prick blood samples from consenting individuals of all ages provided blood films for microscopic examination and blood spots on filter paper. Plasmodium species were identified using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of ribosomal RNA genes and a novel assay that amplifies a conserved sequence specific for the sicavar gene family of Plasmodium knowlesi.

    Results: Of 3731 participants, 614 (16.5%) were positive for malaria parasites by microscopy. PCR detected parasite DNA in samples from 1169 individuals (31.3%). In total, 377 participants (11.8%) harbored P. knowlesi. Also present were Plasmodium vivax (14.3%), Plasmodium falciparum (10.5%) and Plasmodium malariae (3.4%).

    Conclusions: Amplification of sicavar is a specific and sensitive test for the presence of P. knowlesi DNA in humans. Subpatent and asymptomatic multispecies parasitemia is relatively common in North Sumatera, so PCR-based surveillance is required to support control and elimination activities.

    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
  12. Harahap H, Sandjaja S, Soekatri M, Khouw I, Deurenberg P
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2017 12 10;27(1):211-216.
    PMID: 29222901 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.032017.05
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Indonesia is currently facing double burden malnutrition in children. As overweight and obesity are due to a disturbed energy balance, this study aimed to assess the association of total energy intake and physical activity with the prevalence of overweight among Indonesian children.

    METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The data used for this analysis were from 1143 children, 6-12 years old, that participated in the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS). Physical activity (PA) was measured using pedometers for 2 consecutive days and was categorized low, moderate and high. Child nutritional status was categorized based on body mass index for age z-scores (BAZ) into normal weight (-2 SD ≤BAZ≤1 SD) or overweight (BAZ >1 SD). Energy intake was calculated from a one day 24 hour recall and compared to the Indonesian recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for energy.

    RESULTS: Children with low PA had higher risk (ODDs 3.4, 95% CI: 2.0, 6.0) of being overweight compared to children who had high PA. Children with moderate PA and energy take >100% RDA had higher risk (ODDs 4.2, 95% CI 1.9, 9.3) of being overweight than children with high PA and energy intakes ≤100% RDA.

    CONCLUSIONS: Low physical activity independently or moderate physical activity and high energy intake are risk factors for Indonesian children to get overweight. Program intervention such as increasing physical activity at school and home is needed to reduce overweight among children.

    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
  13. Harapan H, Rajamoorthy Y, Anwar S, Bustamam A, Radiansyah A, Angraini P, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2018 02 27;18(1):96.
    PMID: 29486714 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-018-3006-z
    BACKGROUND: The Indonesian region of Aceh was the area most severely affected by the earthquake and tsunami of 26 December 2004. Department of Health data reveal an upward trend of dengue cases in Aceh since the events of the tsunami. Despite the increasing incidence of dengue in the region, there is limited understanding of dengue among the general population of Aceh. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding dengue among the people of Aceh, Indonesia in order to design intervention strategies for an effective dengue prevention program.

    METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Aceh between November 2014 and March 2015 with a total of 609 participants living in seven regencies and two municipalities. Information on the socio-demographic characteristics of participants and their KAP regarding dengue was collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The KAP status (good vs. poor) of participants with different socio-demographic characteristics was compared using Chi Square-test, ANOVA or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of each KAP domain.

    RESULTS: We found that 45% of participants had good knowledge regarding dengue and only 32% had good attitudes and good dengue preventive practices. There was a significant positive correlation between knowledge and attitudes, knowledge and practice, and attitudes and practice. In addition, people who had good knowledge were 2.7 times more likely to have good attitudes, and people who had good attitudes were 2.2 times more likely to have good practices regarding dengue. The level of education, occupation, marital status, monthly income, socioeconomic status (SES) and living in the city were associated with the knowledge level. Occupation, SES, and having experienced dengue fever were associated with attitudes. Education, occupation, SES and type of residence were associated with preventive practices.

    CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that dengue prevention programs are required to increase KAP levels regarding dengue in the communities of Aceh.

    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
  14. Fornace KM, Surendra H, Abidin TR, Reyes R, Macalinao MLM, Stresman G, et al.
    Int J Health Geogr, 2018 06 18;17(1):21.
    PMID: 29914506 DOI: 10.1186/s12942-018-0141-0
    BACKGROUND: Identifying fine-scale spatial patterns of disease is essential for effective disease control and elimination programmes. In low resource areas without formal addresses, novel strategies are needed to locate residences of individuals attending health facilities in order to efficiently map disease patterns. We aimed to assess the use of Android tablet-based applications containing high resolution maps to geolocate individual residences, whilst comparing the functionality, usability and cost of three software packages designed to collect spatial information.

    RESULTS: Using Open Data Kit GeoODK, we designed and piloted an electronic questionnaire for rolling cross sectional surveys of health facility attendees as part of a malaria elimination campaign in two predominantly rural sites in the Rizal, Palawan, the Philippines and Kulon Progo Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The majority of health workers were able to use the tablets effectively, including locating participant households on electronic maps. For all households sampled (n = 603), health facility workers were able to retrospectively find the participant household using the Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates and data collected by tablet computers. Median distance between actual house locations and points collected on the tablet was 116 m (IQR 42-368) in Rizal and 493 m (IQR 258-886) in Kulon Progo Regency. Accuracy varied between health facilities and decreased in less populated areas with fewer prominent landmarks.

    CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate the utility of this approach to develop real-time high-resolution maps of disease in resource-poor environments. This method provides an attractive approach for quickly obtaining spatial information on individuals presenting at health facilities in resource poor areas where formal addresses are unavailable and internet connectivity is limited. Further research is needed on how to integrate these with other health data management systems and implement in a wider operational context.

    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
  15. Tee GH, Aris T, Rarick J, Irimie S
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2016;17(3):1269-76.
    PMID: 27039759
    BACKGROUND: Tobacco consumption continues to be the leading cause of preventable deaths globally. The objective of this study was to examine the associaton of selected socio-demographic variables with current tobacco use in five countries that participated in the Phase II Global Adult Tobacco Survey in 2011 - 2012.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed internationally comparable representative household survey data from 33,482 respondents aged ≥ 15 years in Indonesia, Malaysia, Romania, Argentina and Nigeria for determinants of tobacco use within each country. Socio-demographic variables analysed included gender, age, residency, education, wealth index and awareness of smoking health consequences. Current tobacco use was defined as smoking or use of smokeless tobacco daily or occasionally.

    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of tobacco use varied from 5.5% in Nigeria to 35.7% in Indonesia and was significantly higher among males than females in all five countries. Odds ratios for current tobacco use were significantly higher among males for all countries [with the greatest odds among Indonesian men (OR=67.4, 95% CI: 51.2-88.7)] and among urban dwellers in Romania. The odds of current tobacco use decreased as age increased for all countries except Nigeria where. The reverse was true for Argentina and Nigeria. Significant trends for decreasing tobacco use with increasing educational levels and wealth index were seen in Indonesia, Malaysia and Romania. Significant negative associations between current tobacco use and awareness of adverse health consequences of smoking were found in all countries except Argentina.

    CONCLUSIONS: Males and the socially and economically disadvantaged populations are at the greatest risk of tobacco use. Tobacco control interventions maybe tailored to this segment of population and incorporate educational interventions to increase knowledge of adverse health consequences of smoking.

    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
  16. Musa R, Draman S, Jeffrey S, Jeffrey I, Abdullah N, Halim NA, et al.
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Jan;55 Suppl 1:S13-6.
    PMID: 23318005 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2012.12.002
    In 2004, the province of Aceh, Indonesia was rocked by tsunami and in September 2009, West Sumatra, Indonesia was hit by an earthquake. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term psychological impact on the residents inhabiting these regions and to identify factors associated with it.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
  17. Isabelle M, Chan P
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2011;20(1):141-7.
    PMID: 21393122
    The Seminar on Young Child Nutrition: Improving Nutrition and Health Status of Young Children in Indonesia held in Jakarta on November 2009 reviewed the current nutritional and health status of young children in Indonesia and identified key nutrient deficiencies affecting their optimal growth. The continuation of child growth from fetal stage is of paramount importance; and maternal and child health should be a central consideration in policy and strategy development. Clinical management of nutrient deficiency and malnutrition, as well as strategies and education to improve feeding practices of young Indonesian children were discussed in the seminar. Relevant experiences, approaches and strategies from France, New Zealand and Malaysia were also shared and followed with discussion on how regulatory systems can support the development of health policy for young children. This report highlights important information presented at the seminar.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
  18. Mizuno Y, Kato Y, Takeshita N, Ujiie M, Kobayashi T, Kanagawa S, et al.
    J. Infect. Chemother., 2011 Jun;17(3):419-23.
    PMID: 20862507 DOI: 10.1007/s10156-010-0124-y
    Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is currently distributed in Africa and in South and Southeast Asia; outbreaks have occurred periodically in the region over the past 50 years. After a large outbreak had occurred in countries in the western Indian Ocean region in 2005, several countries reported cases of CHIKF from travelers who had visited affected areas. In Japan, there have been only 15 cases of CHIKF patients so far, according to the National Institute of Infectious Diseases. Therefore, to evaluate the clinical and radiological features associated with the disease, we describe 6 imported cases of CHIKF. All of the patients had had prolonged arthralgia on admission to our hospital, and diagnosis was confirmed with specific antibodies by using an IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunoassay and a plaque reduction neutralizing antibody assay. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of one patient revealed erosive arthritis and tenosynovitis during the convalescence stage. Clinicians should be aware of the late consequences of infection by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and recognize the possible association of subacute and chronic arthritis features. In addition, competent vectors of CHIKV, Aedes aegypti, can now be found in many temperate areas of the eastern and western hemispheres, including Japan. This fact raises concern that the virus could be introduced and become established in these areas. This necessitates an increased awareness of the disease, because imported cases are likely to contribute to the spread of CHIKV infection wherever the competent mosquito vectors are distributed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
  19. Ng CH, Pathy NB, Taib NA, Teh YC, Mun KS, Amiruddin A, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(11):2943-6.
    PMID: 22393968
    INTRODUCTION: The age standardised incidence rate (ASR) of breast cancer in Malaysia which is a high middle- income country is similar to Indonesia, a low middle-income country. (Globocan 2008) It is however unknown whether the presentation of breast cancer differs between these two countries.

    OBJECTIVE: We compared the stage, age at presentation, and pathological characteristics of breast cancer between two tertiary hospitals in Indonesia and Malaysia; Dharmais Cancer Centre (DCC), which is the national cancer referral centre in Indonesia, and University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), which is an academic hospital with established breast oncology services in Kuala Lumpur. One thousand, one hundred and fourteen consecutive women (477 in UMMC: 637 in DCC) who were newly diagnosed with breast cancer between January and December, 2010 were included. Patient's age, TNM stage at presentation, and pathological characteristics were compared. Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were considered positive if 10% or greater of invasive cell nuclei were stained while HER2 was considered positive with an immunohistochemistry staining intensity of 3+ . Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify differences.
    RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 52 years in UMMC and 47 years in DCC, whereby patients in DCC were more likely to be very young at diagnosis (aged < 35 years) compared to their counterparts in UMMC (Odds ratio (OR): 2.09; 95%CI: 1.32-3.31). Approximately one third of patients in UMMC presented with TNM stage III or IV, compared to 63% in DCC. Patients in DCC were three times more likely to present with metastatic breast cancer compared to patients in UMMC (OR: 3.01; 95% CI: 2.02-4.48). The percentage of low grade tumours in DCC was higher than in UMMC (28% vs 11% respectively), and the difference persisted even after multivariate adjustment. Although the frequency of ER and PR positivity appeared to be higher in UMMC (65% and 55% respectively) compared to DCC (48% and 40% respectively), these differences were not statistically significant following adjustment for age, stage, HER2 status and grade. The frequency of HER2 positivity was 45% in DCC compared to 26% in UMMC, and remained significantly higher even after multivariate adjustment (multivariate OR:1.76; 95%CI:1.25-2.47, in DCC compared to UMMC). The proportion of triple negative breast cancer was however similar in the two centres (19% in UMMC vs 21% in DCC).
    CONCLUSION: Indonesian women with breast cancer seem to present at a younger age and at later stages compared to Malaysian women. Their tumors were more likely to be of low grade and HER2 positive, even after adjustment for other factors, while hormone receptor positivity proved similar in the two groups. The higher HER2 positivity rate in Indonesian patients warrants further study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
  20. Singh B, Simon Divis PC
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2009 Oct;15(10):1657-8.
    PMID: 19861067 DOI: 10.3201/eid1510.090364
    After orangutans in Indonesia were reported as infected with Plasmodium cynomolgi and P. vivax, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Plasmodium spp. We found that these orangutans are not hosts of P. cynomolgi and P. vivax. Analysis of >or=1 genes is needed to identify Plasmodium spp. infecting orangutans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
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