Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 61 in total

  1. Siti Farhana Hisham, Ishak Ahmad, Rusli Daik, Anita Ramli
    Sains Malaysiana, 2011;40:1123-1127.
    Komposit UPR/LNR/gentian kaca telah disediakan dengan menggunakan resin poliester tak tepu daripada hasil pengitaran semula bahan buangan PET. Kajian dimulai dengan pengitaran semula botol minuman PET melalui proses glikolisis dan hasilnya ditindakbalaskan dengan maleik anhidrida untuk mendapatkan resin poliester tak tepu. Kajian diteruskan dengan penyediaan adunan resin poliester tak tepu (UPR) dengan cecair getah asli (LNR) iaitu komposisi penambahan LNR ke dalam UPR telah diubah dari 0-7.5% (wt). Komposisi UPR/LNR dengan sifat mekanik terbaik dipilih sebagai matrik untuk penyediaan komposit berpenguat gentian kaca. Rawatan silana ke atas gentian kaca turut dilakukan dengan menggunakan (3-Aminopropil)triethoxysilane. Hasil daripada kajian mendapati adunan UPR/LNR dengan penambahan 2.5% LNR mempunyai sifat mekanik dan morfologi terbaik dengan partikel-partikel getah yang bersaiz kecil dapat tersebar dengan sekata dalam UPR. Kajian juga menunjukkan berlakunya peningkatkan dalam nilai tegasan, modulus regangan dan kekuatan hentaman bagi komposit UPR/LNR/gentian kaca terawat berbanding dengan penggunaan gentian tanpa rawatan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silanes
  2. Wang Y, Sun X, Gopinath SCB, Saheed MSM, Wang X
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 2022 Feb;69(1):376-382.
    PMID: 33538049 DOI: 10.1002/bab.2116
    Thyroid cancer appears in endocrine glands and specific to thyroid glands has been reported widely. This work was targeted to identify and quantify thyroglobulin by using antithyroglobulin antibody complexed silane surface on interdigitated electrode (IDE) sensing surface. (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane linker was used to make silane-coupling with antibody and attached on the hydroxylated IDE. This electroanalytical IDE revealed the dose-dependent responses with thyroglobulin concentrations. By getting increments with the thyroglobulin concentrations, the current responses were enhanced concomitantly and the thyroglobulin detection limit was noted as 1 pM on the linear curve [y = 0.1311x + 0.5386; R² = 0.9707] with the sensitivity at lower picomolar range. Moreover, the control experiments with thyroid peroxidase and nonimmune antibody cannot yield any response of current, confirming the specific detection of thyroglobulin. This research set-up is useful to determine and quantify the thyroglobulin and diagnose thyroid cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silanes
  3. Yang J, Xu S, Chee CY, Ching KY, Wei Y, Wang R, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2024 Feb;258(Pt 2):129037.
    PMID: 38158061 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2023.129037
    The present work systematically investigated the influence of starch silylation on the structures and properties of starch/epoxidized soybean oil-based bioplastics. Silylated starch was synthesized using starch particles (SP-ST) or gelatinized starch (SG-ST) under different silane hydrolysis pHs. Due to the appearance of -NH2 groups and lower OH wavenumbers, SP-ST obtained at pH 5 showed higher silylation degree and stronger hydrogen bond interaction with epoxidized soybean oils (ESO) than that at pH 11. The morphology analysis revealed better interfacial compatibility of ESO and SP-ST. The tensile strength of the samples containing SP-ST increased by 51.91 % than the control, emphasizing the enhanced interaction within the bioplastics. However, tensile strength of the bioplastics with SG-ST decreased by 59.56 % due to their high moisture contents from unreacted silanes. Additionally, the bioplastics with SG-ST exhibited an obvious reduction of thermal stability and an increase in water solubility because of the presence of unreacted APMS. The bioplastic degradation was not prevented by starch silylation except high pH. The bioplastics showed the most desirable tensile properties, thermal stability, and water solubility when starch was surface-modified with silanes hydrolyzed at pH 5. These outcomes made the fabricated bioplastics strong candidates for petroleum-based plastics for packaging applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silanes
  4. Elshereksi NW, Ghazali M, Muchtar A, Azhari CH
    Dent Mater J, 2017 Sep 26;36(5):539-552.
    PMID: 28652551 DOI: 10.4012/dmj.2016-014
    Silane is a dominant coupler that is widely used in dentistry to promote adhesion among the components of dental composites. Silica-based fillers can be easily silanized because of their similarly ordered structure. However, silane is hydrolytically degraded in the aqueous oral environment and inefficiently bonds to non-silica fillers. Thus, the development of hydrolytically stable dental composites is an important objective in the research on dental materials. Titanate coupling agents (TCAs) exhibit satisfactory interfacial bonding, enhanced homogeneous filler dispersion, and improved mechanical properties of the composites. Titanates also provide superior hydrolytic stability in wet environments, which should be considered in fabricating dental composites. The addition of a small amount of titanates can improve the resistance of the composites to moisture. This paper reviews the effects of the instability of silanes in moisture on the performance of dental composites and presents TCAs as alternative couplers to silanes for fabricating dental composites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silanes*
  5. Tablit S, Krache R, Amroune S, Jawaid M, Hachaichi A, Ismail AS, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2024 Apr;152:106438.
    PMID: 38359736 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2024.106438
    Arundo donax L. is investigated in this study as a suitable reinforcing agent for PLA/PP waste blend 3D printing filament. To improve the compatibility of the fibre and polymer, the Arundo fibre was chemically modified using alkali and silane treatment. Untreated and treated fibres were extruded with Polymer blends before being 3D printed. Effect of chemical treatment on thermal, mechanical, and morphological properties of the composites was investigated. The tensile, Izod impact, and water absorption of the 3D printed specimens were also tested. The Alkali treated (ALK) and combination of alkali and silane treatment (SLN) composites displayed good results. Tensile strength and modulus of the materials increased, as well as their maintained stability in the Izod impact test, demonstrating that the incorporation of ArF did not result in a loss in performance. SEM examination supported these findings by confirming the creation of beneficial interfacial contacts between the matrix and fibre components, as demonstrated by the lack of void between the matrix and the fibre surface. Furthermore, the alkali treatment of the ArF resulted in a considerable reduction in water absorption inside the biocomposite, with a 64% reduction seen in ALK composite comparison to the untreated composite (Un). After the 43-day assessment period.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silanes*
  6. Vakili M, Amouzgar P, Cagnetta G, Wang B, Guo X, Mojiri A, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2019 Oct 16;11(10).
    PMID: 31623271 DOI: 10.3390/polym11101701
    A composite chitosan/nano-activated carbon (CS-NAC) aminated by (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) was prepared in the form of beads and applied for the removal of acetaminophen from aqueous solutions. NAC and APTES concentrations were optimized to obtain a suitable adsorbent structure for enhanced removal of the pharmaceutical. The aminated adsorbent (CS-NAC-APTES beads) prepared with 40% w/w NAC and 2% v/v APTES showed higher adsorption capacity (407.83 mg/g) than CS-NAC beads (278.4 mg/g). Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis demonstrated that the surface area of the CS-NAC-APTES beads was larger than that of CS-NAC beads (1.16 times). The adsorption process was well fitted by the Freundlich model (R2 > 0.95), suggesting a multilayer adsorption. The kinetic study also substantiated that the pseudo-second-order model (R2 > 0.98) was in better agreement with the experimental data. Finally, it was proved that the prepared beads can be recycled (by washing with NaOH solution) at least 5 times before detectable performance loss.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silanes
  7. Yang J, Xu S, Wang W, Ran X, Ching YC, Sui X, et al.
    Carbohydr Polym, 2023 Jan 15;300:120253.
    PMID: 36372510 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2022.120253
    In this work, a systematic coupling study of silane coupling agent between starch and epoxidized soybean oils (ESO) was carried out. Starch was modified by 3-aminopropyl trimethoxy silane (APMS) with various contents of NaOH. The APMS-modified starch was incorporated with ESO to synthesize the bioplastics by solution casting. As demonstrated by the FTIR spectra, the hydrogen bond interactions among starch molecules were inhibited by the modification. This outcome provided higher interaction and compatibility of starch with ESO, as confirmed by FESEM. TGA showed that the thermal stability of starch decreased considerably after the silylation. In contrast, the produced bioplastics with silylated starch exhibited higher thermal stability than the control sample. Regarding the bioplastics, an obvious increase of tensile strength from 5.78 MPa to 9.29 MPa was obtained. This work suggested a simple and effective modification technique by APMS to improve compatibility of starch/ESO-based bioplastics with superior mechanical and thermal properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silanes
  8. Karim AH, Jalil AA, Triwahyono S, Sidik SM, Kamarudin NH, Jusoh R, et al.
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2012 Nov 15;386(1):307-14.
    PMID: 22889626 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2012.07.043
    In this work, mesostructured silica nanoparticles (MSN(AP)) with high adsorptivity were prepared by a modification with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) as a pore expander. The performance of the MSN(AP) was tested by the adsorption of MB in a batch system under varying pH (2-11), adsorbent dosage (0.1-0.5 g L(-1)), and initial MB concentration (5-60 mg L(-1)). The best conditions were achieved at pH 7 when using 0.1 g L(-1) MSN(AP) and 60 mg L(-1)MB to give a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 500.1 mg g(-1) at 303 K. The equilibrium data were evaluated using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Harkins-Jura isotherms and fit well to the Freundlich isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics was best described by the pseudo-second order model. The results indicate the potential for a new use of mesostructured materials as an effective adsorbent for MB.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silanes/chemistry*
  9. Ang QY, Low SC
    Anal Bioanal Chem, 2015 Sep;407(22):6747-58.
    PMID: 26163132 DOI: 10.1007/s00216-015-8841-9
    Molecular imprinting is an emerging technique to create imprinted polymers that can be applied in affinity-based separation, in particular, biomimetic sensors. In this study, the matrix of siloxane bonds prepared from the polycondensation of hydrolyzed tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was employed as the inorganic monomer for the formation of a creatinine (Cre)-based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP). Doped aluminium ion (Al(3+)) was used as the functional cross-linker that generated Lewis acid sites in the confined silica matrix to interact with Cre via sharing of lone pair electrons. Surface morphologies and pore characteristics of the synthesized MIP were determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) analyses, respectively. The imprinting efficiency of MIPs was then evaluated through the adsorption of Cre with regard to molar ratios of Al(3+). A Cre adsorption capacity of up to 17.40 mg Cre g(-1) MIP was obtained and adsorption selectivity of Cre to its analogues creatine (Cr) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (N-hyd) were found to be 3.90 ± 0.61 and 4.17 ± 3.09, respectively. Of all the studied MIP systems, chemisorption was predicted as the rate-limiting step in the binding of Cre. The pseudo-second-order chemical reaction kinetic provides the best correlation of the experimental data. Furthermore, the equilibrium adsorption capacity of MIP fit well with a Freundlich isotherm (R (2) = 0.98) in which the heterogeneous surface was defined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silanes/chemistry*
  10. Oyekanmi AA, Saharudin NI, Hazwan CM, H P S AK, Olaiya NG, Abdullah CK, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Apr 13;26(8).
    PMID: 33924692 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26082254
    Hydrophilic behaviour of carrageenan macroalgae biopolymer, due to hydroxyl groups, has limited its applications, especially for packaging. In this study, macroalgae were reinforced with cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) isolated from kenaf bast fibres. The macroalgae CNF film was after that treated with silane for hydrophobicity enhancement. The wettability and functional properties of unmodified macroalgae CNF films were compared with silane-modified macroalgae CNF films. Characterisation of the unmodified and modified biopolymers films was investigated. The atomic force microscope (AFM), SEM morphology, tensile properties, water contact angle, and thermal behaviour of the biofilms showed that the incorporation of Kenaf bast CNF remarkably increased the strength, moisture resistance, and thermal stability of the macroalgae biopolymer films. Moreover, the films' modification using a silane coupling agent further enhanced the strength and thermal stability of the films apart from improved water-resistance of the biopolymer films compared to unmodified films. The morphology and AFM showed good interfacial interaction of the components of the biopolymer films. The modified biopolymer films exhibited significantly improved hydrophobic properties compared to the unmodified films due to the enhanced dispersion resulting from the silane treatment. The improved biopolymer films can potentially be utilised as packaging materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silanes/chemistry*
  11. Kok ESK, Lim XJ, Chew SX, Ong SF, See LY, Lim SH, et al.
    BMC Oral Health, 2021 03 12;21(1):116.
    PMID: 33711992 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-021-01470-x
    BACKGROUND: Compare antimicrobial efficacy of a quarternary ammonium silane (QAS)/k21 as an intracanal medicament against E. faecalis and C. albicans biofilms formed on root dentin.

    METHODOLOGY: Dentin blocks were sterilized and E. faecalis and C. albicans microbial colonies were counted for colony-forming-units against 2%k21, 2%CHX and Ca(OH)2 medicaments. Biofilm colonies after 7 days on dentin were analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy with live/dead bacterial viability staining. TEM was done to study dentin collagen matrix. Dentin discs from 3rd day and 7th day well plate was used for Raman spectra and observed under fluorescent-microscope. Docking studies were carried out on MMP-2 S1 binding-domain with k21.

    RESULTS: There was reduction of E. faecalis/C. albicans when k21, chlorhexidine and calcium hydroxide were used with highest percentage in 2%k21 treated specimens. 2%k21 showed dense and regular collagen network with intact cross-banding and decreased Raman intensity for 2%k21 on 3rd day. NaOCl + k21 showed least adherence, whereas saline groups showed highest adherence of E. faecalis and C. albicans to root-canal dentin. Alizarin red staining of hDPSCs revealed calcium deposition in all groups with significant difference seen amongst 2%k21 groups. MMP-2 ligand binding was seen accurately indicating possible target sites for k21 intervention.

    CONCLUSION: 2%k21 can be considered as alternative intracanal medicament.

    Matched MeSH terms: Silanes*
  12. Idros N, Ho MY, Pivnenko M, Qasim MM, Xu H, Gu Z, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2015;15(6):12891-905.
    PMID: 26046595 DOI: 10.3390/s150612891
    This proof-of-concept study proposes a novel sensing mechanism for selective and label-free detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). It is realized by surface chemistry functionalization of silica nanoparticles (NPs) with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES). The primary amine anchored to the surface of the silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NH2) acts as a capturing probe for TNT target binding to form Meisenheimer amine-TNT complexes. A colorimetric change of the self-assembled (SAM) NP samples from the initial green of a SiO2-NH2 nanoparticle film towards red was observed after successful attachment of TNT, which was confirmed as a result of the increased separation between the nanoparticles. The shift in the peak wavelength of the reflected light normal to the film surface and the associated change of the peak width were measured, and a merit function taking into account their combined effect was proposed for the detection of TNT concentrations from 10-12 to 10-4 molar. The selectivity of our sensing approach is confirmed by using TNT-bound nanoparticles incubated in AptamerX, with 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and toluene used as control and baseline, respectively. Our results show the repeatable systematic color change with the TNT concentration and the possibility to develop a robust, easy-to-use, and low-cost TNT detection method for performing a sensitive, reliable, and semi-quantitative detection in a wide detection range.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silanes
  13. Aidah Jumahat, Napisah Sapiai, Eliya Farah Hana Mohd Kamal
    This paper investigates the effect of acid and silane treatment of Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) on wear properties of epoxy polymer composite. The wear test done was based on ASTM D3389 standard using the Abrasive Wear Tester (TR 600). Characterisation analysis was also done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) in order to study the dispersion of the CNT inside the epoxy matrix. When untreated CNT was added to the epoxy with amounts of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 wt%, the wear rates did not improve except for 0.5 wt% CNT filled epoxy. This was due to the lack of dispersion which causes larger chunks of material being dug out, thus contributing to a higher mass loss and wear rate. When treated with acid and silane, 0.75 wt% and 1.0 wt% CNT filled epoxy composites showed improvement. The TEM images of 0.5 wt%, 0.75 wt% and 1.0 wt% PCNT filled epoxy supported the claim of the lack of dispersion of PCNT inside the epoxy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silanes
  14. Daood U, Yiu CKY
    Dent Mater, 2019 02;35(2):206-216.
    PMID: 30509480 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2018.11.018
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the transdentinal cytotoxicity and macrophage phenotype response to a novel quaternary ammonium silane (QAS) cavity disinfectant.

    METHODS: NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium and incubated for 3 days. The cells (3×104) were seeded on the pulpal side of dentine discs and the occlusal side of the discs were treated with different cavity disinfectants: Group 1: de-ionized water (control); Group 2: 2% chlorhexidine (CHX); Group 3: 2% QAS; Group 4: 5% QAS, and Group 5: 10% QAS. Cell morphology of NIH 3T3 cells was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cell viability was assessed using Trypan blue assay. The eluates were collected and applied on cells seeded in 24-well plates. The total protein production, alkaline phosphatase activity and deposition of mineralized nodules were evaluated after 7 and 14 days. Immunofluorescence staining was performed on the samples with primary antibodies of CD68+, CD80+, and CD163+ assessing the macrophage M1/M2 phenotypes. The macrophages were imaged using a confocal scanning light microscope with an excitation wavelength of 488nm.

    RESULTS: No significant difference in cell viability (p<0.0001), total protein production (p<0.01) and mineralized nodule production (p<0.05) was found between 2% QAS and the control, which was significantly higher than 2% CHX, 5% and 10% QAS after 14 days. Alkaline phosphatase production of 2% QAS was significantly lower than the control (p<0.001), but higher than 2% CHX at 14 days. The M1/M2 macrophage ratio was also significantly lower in the 2% and 10% QAS groups (p<0.05) compared to the control and 2% CHX groups.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The 2% QAS cavity disinfectant does not have cytotoxic effects on 3T3 NIH mouse fibroblast cells and the predominance of the anti-inflammatory phenotype after its application may stimulate healing and tissue repair.

    Matched MeSH terms: Silanes
  15. Hussin MH
    Data Brief, 2019 Feb;22:971-976.
    PMID: 30740480 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2019.01.029
    The anti-corrosion performances of single(TEOS) and hybrid (APTES-TEOS) sol-gel coatings on Al alloy samples exposed to 3.5 wt% NaCl were evaluated employing electrochemical techniques such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The data acquired using the three corrosion analysis techniques were in accordance with each other where hybrid sol-gel coating offered the lowest corrosion rate and current density in comparison to the single precursor silanol coating. Tafel curves suggested that the hybrid silane coatings mitigate both the anodic and cathodic reactions simultaneously (mixed type inhibitor). These techniques justified that incorporation of hybrid sol-gel improved the Al corrosion protection performance considerably.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silanes
  16. Said N, Wong KC, Lau WJ, Khoo YS, Yeong YF, Othman NH, et al.
    Molecules, 2022 Dec 01;27(23).
    PMID: 36500475 DOI: 10.3390/molecules27238381
    Most researchers focused on developing highly selective membranes for CO2/CH4 separation, but their developed membranes often suffered from low permeance. In this present work, we aimed to develop an ultrahigh permeance membrane using a simple coating technique to overcome the trade-off between membrane permeance and selectivity. A commercial silicone membrane with superior permeance but low CO2/CH4 selectivity (in the range of 2-3) was selected as the host for surface modification. Our results revealed that out of the three silane agents tested, only tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) improved the control membrane's permeance and selectivity. This can be due to its short structural chain and better compatibility with the silicone substrate. Further investigation revealed that higher CO2 permeance and selectivity could be attained by coating the membrane with two layers of TEOS. The surface integrity of the TEOS-coated membrane was further improved when an additional polyether block amide (Pebax) layer was established atop the TEOS layer. This additional layer sealed the pin holes of the TEOS layer and enhanced the resultant membrane's performance, achieving CO2/CH4 selectivity of ~19 at CO2 permeance of ~2.3 × 105 barrer. This performance placed our developed membrane to surpass the 2008 Robeson Upper Boundary.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silanes
  17. Hassan NS, Jalil AA, Bahari MB, Khusnun NF, Aldeen EMS, Mim RS, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2023 Feb;314:137709.
    PMID: 36592833 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.137709
    Biogas consisting of carbon dioxide/methane (CO2/CH4) gas mixtures has emerged as an alternative renewable fuel to natural gas. The presence of CO2 can decrease the calorific value and generate greenhouse gas. Hence, separating CO2 from CH4 is a vital step in enhancing the use of biogas. Zeolite and zeolite-based mixed matrix membrane (MMM) is considered an auspicious candidate for CO2/CH4 separation due to thermal and chemical stability. This review initially addresses the development of zeolite and zeolite-based MMM for the CO2/CH4 separation. The highest performance in terms of CO2 permeance and CO2/CH4 selectivity was achieved using zeolite and zeolite-based MMM, which exhibited CO2 permeance in the range of 2.0 × 10- 7-7.0 × 10- 6 mol m- 2 s- 1 Pa- 1 with CO2/CH4 selectivity ranging from 3 to 300. Current trends directed toward improving CO2/CH4 selectivity via modification methods including post-treatment, ion-exchanged, amino silane-grafted, and ionic liquid encapsulated of zeolite-based MMM. Those modification methods improved the defect-free and interfacial adhesions between zeolite particulates and polymer matrices and subsequently enhanced the CO2/CH4 selectivity. The modifications via ionic liquid and silane methods more influenced the CO2/CH4 selectivity with 90 and 660, respectively. This review also focuses on the possible applications of zeolite-based MMM, which include the purification and treatment of water as well as biomedical applications. Lastly, future advances and opportunities for gas separation applications are also briefly discussed. This review aims to share knowledge regarding zeolite-based MMM and inspire new industrial applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silanes
  18. Daood U, Gopinath D, Pichika MR, Mak KK, Seow LL
    Molecules, 2021 Apr 12;26(8).
    PMID: 33921378 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26082214
    To determine whether quaternary ammonium (k21) binds to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein via computational molecular docking simulations, the crystal structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain complexed with ACE-2 (PDB ID: 6LZG) was downloaded from RCSB PD and prepared using Schrodinger 2019-4. The entry of SARS-CoV-2 inside humans is through lung tissues with a pH of 7.38-7.42. A two-dimensional structure of k-21 was drawn using the 2D-sketcher of Maestro 12.2 and trimmed of C18 alkyl chains from all four arms with the assumption that the core moiety k-21 was without C18. The immunogenic potential of k21/QA was conducted using the C-ImmSim server for a position-specific scoring matrix analyzing the human host immune system response. Therapeutic probability was shown using prediction models with negative and positive control drugs. Negative scores show that the binding of a quaternary ammonium compound with the spike protein's binding site is favorable. The drug molecule has a large Root Mean Square Deviation fluctuation due to the less complex geometry of the drug molecule, which is suggestive of a profound impact on the regular geometry of a viral protein. There is high concentration of Immunoglobulin M/Immunoglobulin G, which is concomitant of virus reduction. The proposed drug formulation based on quaternary ammonium to characterize affinity to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein using simulation and computational immunological methods has shown promising findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silanes/metabolism; Silanes/chemistry
  19. Daood U, Parolia A, Matinlinna J, Yiu C, Ahmed HMA, Fawzy A
    Dent Mater, 2020 12;36(12):e386-e402.
    PMID: 33010944 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2020.09.008
    OBJECTIVES: Evaluate a new modified quaternary ammonium silane irrigant solution for its antimicrobial, cytotoxic and mechanical properties of dentine substrate.

    METHODS: Root canal preparation was performed using stainless steel K-files™ and F4 size protaper with irrigation protocols of 6% NaOCl + 2% CHX; 3.5% QIS; 2% QIS and sterile saline. Biofilms were prepared using E. faecalis adjusted and allowed to grow for 3 days, treated with irrigants, and allowed to grow for 7 days. AFM was performed and surface free energy calculated. MC3T3 cells were infected with endo irrigant treated E. faecalis biofilms. Raman spectroscopy of biofilms were performed after bacterial re-growth on root dentine and exposed to different irrigation protocols and collagen fibers analysed collagen fibers using TEM. Antimicrobial potency against E. faecalis biofilms and cytoxicity against 3T3 NIH cells were also. Resin penetration and MitoTracker green were also evaluated for sealer penetration and mitochondrial viability. Data were analysed using One-way ANOVA, principal component analysis and post-hoc Fisher's least-significant difference.

    RESULTS: Elastic moduli were maintained amongst control (5.5 ± 0.9) and 3.5% QIS (4.4 ± 1.1) specimens with surface free energy higher in QIS specimens. MC3T3 cells showed reduced viability in 6%NaOCl+2%CHX specimens compared to QIS specimens. DNA/purine were expressed in increased intensities in control and 6% NaOCl + 2% CHX specimens with bands around 480-490 cm-1 reduced in QIS specimens. 3.5% QIS specimens showed intact collagen fibrillar network and predominantly dead bacterial cells in confocal microscopy. 3.5% QIS irrigant formed a thin crust-type surface layer with cytoplasmic extensions of 3T3NIH spread over root dentine. Experiments confirmed MitoTracker accumulation in 3.5% treated cells.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Novel QIS root canal irrigant achieved optimum antimicrobial protection inside the root canals facilitating a toxic effect against the Enterococcus faecalis biofilm. Root dentine substrates exhibited optimum mechanical properties and there was viability of fibroblastic mitochondria.

    Matched MeSH terms: Silanes
  20. Chew TL, Ding SH, Oh PC, Ahmad AL, Ho CD
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Oct 09;12(10).
    PMID: 33050226 DOI: 10.3390/polym12102312
    The development of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) for effective gas separation has been gaining popularity in recent years. The current study aimed at the fabrication of MMMs incorporated with various loadings (0-4 wt%) of functionalized KIT-6 (NH2KIT-6) [KIT: Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology] for enhanced gas permeation and separation performance. NH2KIT-6 was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. The fabricated membranes were subjected to FESEM and FTIR analyses. The effect of NH2KIT-6 loading on the CO2 permeability and ideal CO2/CH4 selectivity of the fabricated membranes were investigated in gas permeation and separation studies. The successfulness of (3-Aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) functionalization on KIT-6 was confirmed by FTIR analysis. As observed from FESEM images, MMMs with no voids in the matrix were successfully fabricated at a low NH2KIT-6 loading of 0 to 2 wt%. The CO2 permeability and ideal CO2/CH4 selectivity increased when NH2KIT-6 loading was increased from 0 to 2 wt%. However, a further increase in NH2KIT-6 loading beyond 2 wt% led to a drop in ideal CO2/CH4 selectivity. In the current study, a significant increase of about 47% in ideal CO2/CH4 selectivity was achieved by incorporating optimum 2 wt% NH2KIT-6 into the MMMs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silanes
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